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# Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an

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Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2007, 12:45
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988. Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an era when the city had transformed from a collection of suburban neighborhoods to the second-largest city in the United States.
(A) an era when the city had transformed
(B) an era during which the city was transformed
(C) an era that transformed it
(D) during which era the city transformed
(E) during which the city was transformed
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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31 Jul 2007, 13:50
Initially went for C, but stopped at B
To be clear, answer choices are modifying a period, or "era" in this instance, between 1973 and 1993. As such, "during" can not modify "period" and, therefore D & E are out!

beckee529 wrote:
988. Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an era when the city had transformed from a collection of suburban neighborhoods to the second-largest city in the United States.
(A) an era when the city had transformed - "when" is not the right modifier for "era"; no need for past perfect
(B) an era during which the city was transformed My choice!
(C) an era that transformed it - "era" cannot transform
(D) during which era the city transformed
(E) during which the city was transformed
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09 Aug 2007, 11:53
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(A) an era when the city had transformed
(B) an era during which the city was transformed
(C) an era that transformed it
(D) during which era the city transformed <-- during which era is awkward, besides that I do not know any other reason for eliminating this
(E) during which the city was transformed <-- again, sounds awkward, we need to mention era

this was a tough one but B it is. OA is B as well (This is 1000 SC # 988)
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09 Aug 2007, 21:42
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E

E is shorter than B and conveys the same meaning. Always pick the shorter answers.

988. Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an era when the city had transformed from a collection of suburban neighborhoods to the second-largest city in the United States.

(A) an era when the city had transformed - had is used to specify that something occured before something else, which is no needed here.
(B) an era during which the city was transformed - Why introduce 'an era'? No need. E says the same thing but more elegantly. Wrong.
(C) an era that transformed it - The era did not transform the city, it was transformed DURING that time.
(D) during which era the city transformed - Era is misplaced. Awkward.
(E) during which the city was transformed - Ding Ding. Correct.
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22 Aug 2007, 10:03
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during modifies a time period.

the answer is B because "an era ...." clause is an appositive.

which is tested two ways on the GMAT.
1. nonessential clause set off by a comma.
2. replacement of "that." "which"needs a preposition because the use of "which" in this case. Which is a relative pronoun and must have a referent. "An era" is the referent.

Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an era during which the city was transformed from a collection of suburban neighborhoods to the second-largest city in the United States.

beckee529 wrote:
988. Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an era when the city had transformed from a collection of suburban neighborhoods to the second-largest city in the United States.
(A) an era when the city had transformed
(B) an era during which the city was transformed
(C) an era that transformed it
(D) during which era the city transformed
(E) during which the city was transformed
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Re: Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2013, 04:31
Not getting the correct explanation how to cancel E.
B. an era during which the city was transformed
E. during which the city was transformed

I believe during which can properly refer back to from 1973 to 1993. am i wrong here.
Can someone post some tips one usage of during which.
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Re: Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2013, 06:06
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Hi Sujit,

As I read the question the issue is that in answer E the 'during which' is unclear B is a far clearer way of expressing the sentence.

By adding in the words 'an era' it makes it totally unambigious what 'during which' refers to.

James
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Re: Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2013, 07:29
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Hello Friends,

A) had transformed is not required here. Also an era when is awkward. An era during which transformation taken place is better than an era when the transformation taken place.

B) This choice converts the whole second clause into a modifier that modifies the period from 1973 to 1993. avoids all unnecessary tense shifts. Correct Choice.

C) the era itself didn't transform the city. Passive voice is required since the subject is unknown. City was transformed from x to y.

D) correct structure is subject - compliment. This choice is structured as (complement(subject)complement)

E) no clear referrent for which. It is doubtful whether which can modify prepositional phrase from 1973 to 1993.
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Re: Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 13:33
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Hi,
Received a PM to respond to this one.

This question is a good example of the correct usage of Noun + Noun modifier.

In the correct answer choice B, “an era during which…” the noun + noun modifier correctly modifies the preceding entity, the time span of “1973 to 1993”.

In choice E, “during which...” fails to precisely connect with this time span because "which" must refer to a particular noun entity. In this choice, "which" can refer to just "1993" also or can refer to "1973 to 1993" as well. Hence, there is an ambiguity in the modification of "which".

In the answer choice B, there is no ambiguity with "an era" because it covers the entire span from "1973 to 1993".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an [#permalink]

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21 Feb 2013, 01:54
ramanujanu wrote:
I have a question on the choice C. 'An era that transformed it'. Does'nt 'an era' in itself properly refer to the timespan, do we have to have 'dutring which' ? is this not redundent? , Also does 'it' not refer to the Los Angeles ? Is there an ambiguity here ?

Quote:
Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an era when the city had
transformed from a collection of suburban neighborhoods to the second-largest city in
the United States.
A. an era when the city had transformed.
B. An era during which the city was transformed.
C. An era that transformed it.
D. During which era the city transformed.
E. During which the city was transformed.

Hi ramanujanu,

Lets consider (C)

C. An era that transformed it.

Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an era that transformed it from a collection of suburban neighborhoods to the second-largest city in the United States.

Quote:
Does'nt 'an era' in itself properly refer to the timespan, do we have to have 'dutring which' ? is this not redundent?

Yes "an era" in itself is a time span. But, when we say "an era that transformed transformed it", it means that "the era" transformed the city; this is not what the sentence intends to say. It is intended in the sentence that the city was transformed in this era and not by this era. "during which" in B is not redundant because it makes it clear that during this time span (an era) the city got transformed.

Quote:
Also does 'it' not refer to the Los Angeles ? Is there an ambiguity here ?

"it" may refer to "Los Angeles" . If you want to refer to "Los Angeles", the use of "the city" or "Los Anglees" would be better. This answer choice is incorrect because it does not express the intended meaning.

Hope it helps,

Vercules
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Re: Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an [#permalink]

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21 Feb 2013, 09:46
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Quote:
Quote:
Also does 'it' not refer to the Los Angeles ? Is there an ambiguity here ?

Yes there is an ambiguity here, "it" dose not refer to "Los Angeles" as "Los Angeles" is the object of a prepositional phrase.

Please note that my comment below does not pertain to the Tom Bradley question. It is specific to the comment above.

Pronoun can refer to noun that resides in prepositional phrase.
There is no grammar rule that prohibits the pronoun from referring to the noun inside the prepositional phrase. Please please please do not follow such baseless rules. The only thing that governs the reference of pronoun is that there should not be any ambiguity in terms of what the pronoun refers to. You should not be scratching your head thinking whether the pronoun refers to noun 1 or noun 2 or noun 3. Here are a few correct official sentences. Pay close attention to the highlighted pronoun and antecedents:

In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined.

The plot of The Bostonians centers on the rivalry that develops between Olive Chancellor, an active feminist, and Basil Ransom, her charming and cynical cousin, when they find themselves drawn to the same radiant young woman whose talent for public speaking has won her an ardent following.

It was only after Katharine Graham became publisher of The Washington Post in 1963 that it moved into the first rank of American newspapers, and it was under her command that the paper won high praise for its unrelenting reporting of the Watergate scandal.

Hope this helps clarify the misconception.

Thanks,

Payal
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Re: Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2013, 03:31
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B is the best choice - (Appositive) -- Emphasis is on the ERA, when Y was Mayor.

A - incorrect - Cannot be past and past-perfect at the same time - "the city has transformed"

C - incorrect - use of it - ambiguous

D, E - incorrect - use of "during" is wrong in D and E because there is no antecedent for "during which" .

We need 'an era' as an appositive otherwise the clauses at the end would modify the year instead of the period

Source:
http://gmatsentencecorrection.blogspot. ... 7-988.html
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30 Jun 2015, 06:18
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sannidhya wrote:
Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an era when the city had transformed
from a collection of suburban neighborhoods to the second-largest city in the United States.

A. an era when the city had transformed
B. an era during which the city was transformed
C. an era that transformed it
D. during which era the city transformed
E. during which the city was transformed

Point 1: 1993 is a year, not an era- Eliminate D, E

Point 2: the wording in D is also strange, 'during which era' does not make sense

Point 3: 'era' did not transform the city! Eliminate C

Point 4: Past perfect tense is not needed, keep it simple! Eliminate A

Point 5: usage of when as a modifier of era in A, in the context of this question, is a bot suspicious for me
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30 Jun 2015, 06:36
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apolo wrote:
sannidhya wrote:
Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an era when the city had transformed
from a collection of suburban neighborhoods to the second-largest city in the United States.

A. an era when the city had transformed
B. an era during which the city was transformed
C. an era that transformed it
D. during which era the city transformed
E. during which the city was transformed

[color=#0000ff]Point 1: 1993 is a year, not an era- Eliminate D, E[/color]
from 1973 to 1993 is an era...
Point 2: the wording in D is also strange, 'during which era' does not make sense

Point 3: 'era' did not transform the city! Eliminate C

Point 4: Past perfect tense is not needed, keep it simple! Eliminate A

Point 5: usage of when as a modifier of era in A, in the context of this question, is a bot suspicious for me
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Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2015, 06:47
chetan2u wrote:
apolo wrote:
sannidhya wrote:
Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an era when the city had transformed
from a collection of suburban neighborhoods to the second-largest city in the United States.

A. an era when the city had transformed
B. an era during which the city was transformed
C. an era that transformed it
D. during which era the city transformed
E. during which the city was transformed

[color=#0000ff]Point 1: 1993 is a year, not an era- Eliminate D, E[/color]
from 1973 to 1993 is an era...
Point 2: the wording in D is also strange, 'during which era' does not make sense

Point 3: 'era' did not transform the city! Eliminate C

Point 4: Past perfect tense is not needed, keep it simple! Eliminate A

Point 5: usage of when as a modifier of era in A, in the context of this question, is a bot suspicious for me

Good Question!

But 'which' is a noun modifier; it normally modifies the noun (or in special cases, the noun phrase) before it.

What can which modify in E? Either '1997' (this does not make sense, because city was not transformed during only 1997) or another noun phrase before it. Unfortunately 'from 1973 to 1997' is not a noun (or noun phrase); therefore, 'which' cannot be used to modify it. Instead, we can use an absolute phrase as in B
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Re: Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2017, 19:46
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Tom Bradley was mayor of Los Angeles from 1973 to 1993, an   [#permalink] 07 Apr 2017, 19:46
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