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Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti

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Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2018, 05:30
MagooshExpert wrote:
Hi zoezhuyan,

Wow, this is a tricky one! It's super easy to get caught up in the complex wording here, so let's break this down in a simple way. Here's what the argument is saying: Ticks pick up the bacterium by feeding on infected whitefooted mice. However, ticks can also feed on other animals. So if the population of those other animals is increased, ticks will feed on a lower percentage of infected mice, and therefore will pick up bacteria at a lower rate -- i.e., fewer ticks will acquire the bacterium. The deer ticks that are already infected will stay infected, but this argument is talking about newly infected ticks -- the ticks that will become infected in the future. The "infection" is an ongoing action; each day, larvae are feeding on mice, and some of them are becoming infected.

Let's say there are 10 ticks, and each one feeds on one animal each day. If there are 100 whitefooted mice around, and basically no other animals that the ticks like to feed on, the ticks will all be feeding on the whitefooted mice, and so could all pick up the bacterium. But now, let's say we add in 900 other animals that the ticks also can feed on. Each tick, then, only has a 1 in 10 chance of feeding on a mouse which might be infected. So we would instead assume that only one out of the ten ticks might pick up the bacterium (on a given day).

Now of course, this argument rests on a number of assumptions, which are what we need to identify in order to answer this question. One assumption, for example, is that the tick population will stay unchanged (e.g. 10 ticks). If instead, with all this extra food around, the tick population starts to grow proportionally, the argument will break down. If the population grows to 100 ticks, there will be just as many ticks acquiring the bacterium as before (10).

This assumption is exactly what's being addressed in (B). It says:

(B) Whether the size of the deer tick population is currently limited by the availability of animals for the tick's larval stage to feed on.

So if we know whether there are already more than enough animals for the ticks to feed on, we will be able to predict whether the tick population will start growing if new animals are introduced. That will help us evaluate the argument.

Several of the other answer choices are tempting, but don't address a direct assumption that the argument rests on, and that's the key to these types of questions :-)

I hope that helps! :-)
-Carolyn


MagooshExpert
Thanks Carolyn

Appreciate your awesome explanation

Easier than other explanation for me to understand.

And I did realize it's far away to finish my GMAT journey.

Regarding this question,
I did not completely get what the meaning of "number" in conclusion, merely interpreting that number is integer value, like one, two, three,
I totally did not get that it sates a possibility that ticks will become infected.

is the misunderstanding hard to improve in few months for an non-native?

I know assumption is important key for CR questions, especially essential assumption,
so far, I am not good at assumption, sometime, I even have no idea before diving into answer choices,

I am keen to improve interpretation and assumption
any advice ?


Thanks again

Have a nice day
>_~
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2018, 22:56
zoezhuyan wrote:
MagooshExpert
Thanks Carolyn

Appreciate your awesome explanation

Easier than other explanation for me to understand.

And I did realize it's far away to finish my GMAT journey.

Regarding this question,
I did not completely get what the meaning of "number" in conclusion, merely interpreting that number is integer value, like one, two, three,
I totally did not get that it sates a possibility that ticks will become infected.

is the misunderstanding hard to improve in few months for an non-native?

I know assumption is important key for CR questions, especially essential assumption,
so far, I am not good at assumption, sometime, I even have no idea before diving into answer choices,

I am keen to improve interpretation and assumption
any advice ?


Thanks again

Have a nice day
>_~


Hi zoezhuyan,

Interpreting phrases like this is definitely tricky. I think the key here is the word "acquiring":

the number of ticks acquiring the bacterium would likely decline.

The tense of "acquiring" implies a continuous action, which tells us that this is a process that is ongoing (and will continue into the future). If it instead said "had acquired", then that would imply that the ticks had already acquired the bacterium, and that's something that just happened in the past, not the future.

Misunderstanding complex questions and statements like this is definitely a very common problem, especially for non-native speakers. But don't worry, there are definitely ways you can improve! :-) Please see these articles for lots of our tips and suggestions:


I hope some of that is helpful! :-)
-Carolyn
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2018, 05:24
zoezhuyan wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Source : GMATPrep Default Exam Pack

Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ticks. Generally deer ticks pick up the bacterium while in the larval stage from feeding on infected whitefooted mice. However, certain other species on which the larvae feed do not harbor the bacterium. Therefore, if the population of these other species were increased, the number of ticks acquiring the bacterium would likely decline.

Which of the following would be most useful to ascertain in evaluating the argument?

(A) Whether populations of the other species on which deer tick larvae feed are found only in the areas also inhabited by white-footed mice.

(B) Whether the size of the deer tick population is currently limited by the availability of animals for the tick's larval stage to feed on.

(C) Whether the infected deer tick population could be controlled by increasing the number of animals that prey on white-footed mice.

(D) Whether deer ticks that were not infected as larvae can become infected as adults by feeding on deer on which infected deer ticks have fed.

(E) Whether the other species on which deer tick larvae feed harbor any other bacteria that ticks transmit to humans.


Dear mikemcgarry, MagooshExpert, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja
Thanks in advance for reading my post,

Although reading for several hours, I am still confused a lot,


(A) Whether populations of the other species on which deer tick larvae feed are found only in the areas also inhabited by white-footed mice.

I picked up this one.
here is my reasoning:
I did not neglect "ONLY", but i don't think ONLY will be a solid reason to eliminate
If the certain species live in the same place as the mice live, implying there are food without bacterium for larvae, except mice. so maybe there are other factors that larvae feed mice rather than lack of certain species.
if the certain species are found other place where mice don't live, then introducing uninfected species will provide the food for larvae, making the conclusion more likely.

That's why i picked it up.

BTW, the opposite of "ONLY" is "NOT ONLY", if species live in place A, the opposite is the spices live in any place except place A , right?

(D) Whether deer ticks that were not infected as larvae can become infected as adults by feeding on deer on which infected deer ticks have fed.


This one, many explanations say it is irrelevant.
seems i did not get why irrelevant, although i did not choose it.

If the deer ticks will become to carry bacterium even though they were uninfected at larvae stage, then, introducing certain species does not work.
If the deer ticks will not become to carry bacterium even though they were uninfected at larvae stage, then, introducing certain species would expand the food source for larvae, it helps the conclusion.

Genuinely
Thanks again in advance.

Have a nice day

>_~


Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, @sayantanc2,@VeritasPrepKarishma,

I reviewed this question today,
I can understand the previous explanation why B is correct,
But I still have no idea my reasoning of A and D is incorrect, i picked up A and confused by D, that means i have bugs in my reasoning, i genuinely want to find out the bugs.
Would you please help point out?

Thanks tons
Have a nice day
>_~
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2018, 16:20
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, @sayantanc2,@VeritasPrepKarishma,

I reviewed this question today,
I can understand the previous explanation why B is correct,
But I still have no idea my reasoning of A and D is incorrect, i picked up A and confused by D, that means i have bugs in my reasoning, i genuinely want to find out the bugs.
Would you please help point out?

Thanks tons
Have a nice day
>_~

Hi zoezhuyan,

It looks like others have previously explained why the other answer choices are incorrect. Could you explain a little bit more about what (in those explanations) you're still having trouble understanding, and explain your thought process for these answer choices a bit more? Then we can try and identify those bugs :-)

-Carolyn
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Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2018, 00:57
MagooshExpert wrote:
Hi zoezhuyan,

It looks like others have previously explained why the other answer choices are incorrect. Could you explain a little bit more about what (in those explanations) you're still having trouble understanding, and explain your thought process for these answer choices a bit more? Then we can try and identify those bugs :-)

-Carolyn


Hi MagooshExpert, yes, others have previously explained why other answer choices are incorrect,
When i reviewed this question, i am lost in my own reasoning , and i have no idea what's bugs in my rasoning, i geniunely need your help fingue out the bugs.

as per choice (A) Whether populations of the other species on which deer tick larvae feed are found only in the areas also inhabited by white-footed mice.

I picked up this one.
here is my reasoning:
I did not neglect "ONLY", but i don't think ONLY will be a solid reason to eliminate
If the certain species live in the same place as the mice live, implying there are food without bacterium for larvae, except mice. so maybe there are other factors that larvae feed mice rather than lack of certain species.
if the certain species are found other place where mice don't live, then introducing uninfected species will provide the food for larvae, making the conclusion more likely.

That's why i picked it up earlier.

BTW, the opposite of "ONLY" is "NOT ONLY", if species live in place A, the opposite is the spices live in any place except place A , right?

as per (D) Whether deer ticks that were not infected as larvae can become infected as adults by feeding on deer on which infected deer ticks have fed.


This one, many explanations say it is irrelevant.
seems i did not get why irrelevant, although i did not choose it.

If the deer ticks will become to carry bacterium even though they were uninfected at larvae stage, then, introducing certain species does not work.
If the deer ticks will not become to carry bacterium even though they were uninfected at larvae stage, then, introducing certain species would expand the food source for larvae, it helps the conclusion.

mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn,sayantanc2, VeritasPrepKarishma

Appreciate your clarification.

Thanks in advance
Have a nice day

>_~
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti [#permalink]

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New post 12 Apr 2018, 15:07
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi MagooshExpert, yes, others have previously explained why other answer choices are incorrect,
When i reviewed this question, i am lost in my own reasoning , and i have no idea what's bugs in my rasoning, i geniunely need your help fingue out the bugs.

as per choice (A) Whether populations of the other species on which deer tick larvae feed are found only in the areas also inhabited by white-footed mice.

I picked up this one.
here is my reasoning:
I did not neglect "ONLY", but i don't think ONLY will be a solid reason to eliminate
If the certain species live in the same place as the mice live, implying there are food without bacterium for larvae, except mice. so maybe there are other factors that larvae feed mice rather than lack of certain species.
if the certain species are found other place where mice don't live, then introducing uninfected species will provide the food for larvae, making the conclusion more likely.

That's why i picked it up earlier.

BTW, the opposite of "ONLY" is "NOT ONLY", if species live in place A, the opposite is the spices live in any place except place A , right?

as per (D) Whether deer ticks that were not infected as larvae can become infected as adults by feeding on deer on which infected deer ticks have fed.


This one, many explanations say it is irrelevant.
seems i did not get why irrelevant, although i did not choose it.

If the deer ticks will become to carry bacterium even though they were uninfected at larvae stage, then, introducing certain species does not work.
If the deer ticks will not become to carry bacterium even though they were uninfected at larvae stage, then, introducing certain species would expand the food source for larvae, it helps the conclusion.

mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn,sayantanc2, VeritasPrepKarishma

Appreciate your clarification.

Thanks in advance
Have a nice day

>_~

Hi zoezhuyan,

Thanks so much for the details! That's really helpful :-)

Let's look at A first. First of all, the opposite of ONLY is NOT ONLY, but it looks like you may be confusing what that means. If we have this statement:

That species lives only in place A

The opposite of that statement is:

That species does not only live in place A

That means that the species could be found BOTH in place A AND outside place A. So negating the statement just means that there is no longer a restriction on where the species lives, so it still could live in place A. That's why choice A doesn't work here -- knowing whether the other species are only in the areas with the mice or not doesn't help us evaluate the argument. If those other species are not only in the areas with mice, that doesn't mean they are NOT in those areas, just that they are not ONLY in those areas, which is very different. Knowing that information doesn't help determine the effect on the tick population.

For option D, knowing whether the ticks can be infected as adults doesn't actually affect the argument. If the ticks can be infected as adults, then introducing the other species that don't carry the bacterium will still result in a decrease in infected ticks. That's because there will now be fewer animals that carry the bacterium, so whether the ticks encounter them as larvae or as adults, there are fewer that will carry the bacterium, and therefore the number infected would decline. The stage when the ticks actually get the bacterium doesn't matter.

Does that help clear things up? If not, let me know! :-)
-Carolyn
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti [#permalink]

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New post 13 Apr 2018, 03:22
MagooshExpert wrote:
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi MagooshExpert, yes, others have previously explained why other answer choices are incorrect,
When i reviewed this question, i am lost in my own reasoning , and i have no idea what's bugs in my rasoning, i geniunely need your help fingue out the bugs.

as per choice (A) Whether populations of the other species on which deer tick larvae feed are found only in the areas also inhabited by white-footed mice.

I picked up this one.
here is my reasoning:
I did not neglect "ONLY", but i don't think ONLY will be a solid reason to eliminate
If the certain species live in the same place as the mice live, implying there are food without bacterium for larvae, except mice. so maybe there are other factors that larvae feed mice rather than lack of certain species.
if the certain species are found other place where mice don't live, then introducing uninfected species will provide the food for larvae, making the conclusion more likely.

That's why i picked it up earlier.

BTW, the opposite of "ONLY" is "NOT ONLY", if species live in place A, the opposite is the spices live in any place except place A , right?

as per (D) Whether deer ticks that were not infected as larvae can become infected as adults by feeding on deer on which infected deer ticks have fed.


This one, many explanations say it is irrelevant.
seems i did not get why irrelevant, although i did not choose it.

If the deer ticks will become to carry bacterium even though they were uninfected at larvae stage, then, introducing certain species does not work.
If the deer ticks will not become to carry bacterium even though they were uninfected at larvae stage, then, introducing certain species would expand the food source for larvae, it helps the conclusion.

mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn,sayantanc2, VeritasPrepKarishma

Appreciate your clarification.

Thanks in advance
Have a nice day

>_~

Hi zoezhuyan,

Thanks so much for the details! That's really helpful :-)

Let's look at A first. First of all, the opposite of ONLY is NOT ONLY, but it looks like you may be confusing what that means. If we have this statement:

That species lives only in place A

The opposite of that statement is:

That species does not only live in place A

That means that the species could be found BOTH in place A AND outside place A. So negating the statement just means that there is no longer a restriction on where the species lives, so it still could live in place A. That's why choice A doesn't work here -- knowing whether the other species are only in the areas with the mice or not doesn't help us evaluate the argument. If those other species are not only in the areas with mice, that doesn't mean they are NOT in those areas, just that they are not ONLY in those areas, which is very different. Knowing that information doesn't help determine the effect on the tick population.

For option D, knowing whether the ticks can be infected as adults doesn't actually affect the argument. If the ticks can be infected as adults, then introducing the other species that don't carry the bacterium will still result in a decrease in infected ticks. That's because there will now be fewer animals that carry the bacterium, so whether the ticks encounter them as larvae or as adults, there are fewer that will carry the bacterium, and therefore the number infected would decline. The stage when the ticks actually get the bacterium doesn't matter.

Does that help clear things up? If not, let me know! :-)
-Carolyn


Thanks so much Carolyn, MagooshExpert
MagooshExpert wrote:
That species does not only live in place A

That means that the species could be found BOTH in place A AND outside place A

I got it, great helpful.

AS per D,
I understand your explanation, I have a further question,
the number will decrease in short term after introducing the other species that don't carry the bacterium,
but in long term,if it is true those deer ticks that were not infected as larvae can become infected as adults, then the number will increase,
Does it mean introducing does not work ultimately?

Please help.

Thanks in advance.

Have a nice day
>_~
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti [#permalink]

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New post 16 Apr 2018, 10:53
zoezhuyan wrote:
zoezhuyan wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Source : GMATPrep Default Exam Pack

Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ticks. Generally deer ticks pick up the bacterium while in the larval stage from feeding on infected whitefooted mice. However, certain other species on which the larvae feed do not harbor the bacterium. Therefore, if the population of these other species were increased, the number of ticks acquiring the bacterium would likely decline.

Which of the following would be most useful to ascertain in evaluating the argument?

(A) Whether populations of the other species on which deer tick larvae feed are found only in the areas also inhabited by white-footed mice.

(B) Whether the size of the deer tick population is currently limited by the availability of animals for the tick's larval stage to feed on.

(C) Whether the infected deer tick population could be controlled by increasing the number of animals that prey on white-footed mice.

(D) Whether deer ticks that were not infected as larvae can become infected as adults by feeding on deer on which infected deer ticks have fed.

(E) Whether the other species on which deer tick larvae feed harbor any other bacteria that ticks transmit to humans.


Dear mikemcgarry, MagooshExpert, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja
Thanks in advance for reading my post,

Although reading for several hours, I am still confused a lot,


(A) Whether populations of the other species on which deer tick larvae feed are found only in the areas also inhabited by white-footed mice.

I picked up this one.
here is my reasoning:
I did not neglect "ONLY", but i don't think ONLY will be a solid reason to eliminate
If the certain species live in the same place as the mice live, implying there are food without bacterium for larvae, except mice. so maybe there are other factors that larvae feed mice rather than lack of certain species.
if the certain species are found other place where mice don't live, then introducing uninfected species will provide the food for larvae, making the conclusion more likely.

That's why i picked it up.

BTW, the opposite of "ONLY" is "NOT ONLY", if species live in place A, the opposite is the spices live in any place except place A , right?

(D) Whether deer ticks that were not infected as larvae can become infected as adults by feeding on deer on which infected deer ticks have fed.


This one, many explanations say it is irrelevant.
seems i did not get why irrelevant, although i did not choose it.

If the deer ticks will become to carry bacterium even though they were uninfected at larvae stage, then, introducing certain species does not work.
If the deer ticks will not become to carry bacterium even though they were uninfected at larvae stage, then, introducing certain species would expand the food source for larvae, it helps the conclusion.

Genuinely
Thanks again in advance.

Have a nice day

>_~


Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn, @sayantanc2,@VeritasPrepKarishma,

I reviewed this question today,
I can understand the previous explanation why B is correct,
But I still have no idea my reasoning of A and D is incorrect, i picked up A and confused by D, that means i have bugs in my reasoning, i genuinely want to find out the bugs.
Would you please help point out?

Thanks tons
Have a nice day
>_~

It looks like MagooshExpert Carolyn has already done a fantastic job explaining this one, but I'll add my two cents...

Quote:
(A) Whether populations of the other species on which deer tick larvae feed are found only in the areas also inhabited by white-footed mice.

Notice the word "if" in the conclusion: "...if the population of these other species were increased." The conclusion involves a hypothetical situation. It doesn't matter where those other species are currently found. Assuming we can increase the populations of those other species, will the number of ticks acquiring the bacterium decline? (A) has no bearing on the argument and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(D) Whether deer ticks that were not infected as larvae can become infected as adults by feeding on deer on which infected deer ticks have fed.

We are told that, "Generally deer ticks pick up the bacterium while in the larval stage from feeding on infected whitefooted mice." Sure, it might be possible for deer ticks to become infected as adults. And increasing the populations of the "certain other species on which the larvae feed" will not help reduce this type of infection.

But deer ticks GENERALLY pick up the bacterium while in the larval stage. So if we can substantially reduce the number of ticks that pick up the bacterium in the larval stage, then that should surely reduce the number of infected ticks. The fact that it is still POSSIBLE for ticks to become infected doesn't matter. We aren't trying to ERADICATE the disease. We are simply trying to reduce the number of infected ticks. That is why (D) is irrelevant.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2018, 05:22
GMATNinja wrote:
It looks like MagooshExpert Carolyn has already done a fantastic job explaining this one, but I'll add my two cents...

Quote:
(A) Whether populations of the other species on which deer tick larvae feed are found only in the areas also inhabited by white-footed mice.

Notice the word "if" in the conclusion: "...if the population of these other species were increased." The conclusion involves a hypothetical situation. It doesn't matter where those other species are currently found. Assuming we can increase the populations of those other species, will the number of ticks acquiring the bacterium decline? (A) has no bearing on the argument and can be eliminated.


Hi, GMATNinja
Wow~~ Great point
I did negelect it
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(D) Whether deer ticks that were not infected as larvae can become infected as adults by feeding on deer on which infected deer ticks have fed.

We are told that, "Generally deer ticks pick up the bacterium while in the larval stage from feeding on infected whitefooted mice." Sure, it might be possible for deer ticks to become infected as adults. And increasing the populations of the "certain other species on which the larvae feed" will not help reduce this type of infection.

But deer ticks GENERALLY pick up the bacterium while in the larval stage. So if we can substantially reduce the number of ticks that pick up the bacterium in the larval stage, then that should surely reduce the number of infected ticks. The fact that it is still POSSIBLE for ticks to become infected doesn't matter. We aren't trying to ERADICATE the disease. We are simply trying to reduce the number of infected ticks. That is why (D) is irrelevant.

I hope that helps!

I think i know where i made a mistake, maybe D will affect the effect of the plan if D is true, leading the effect not as perfect as expect, but the plan still can work.

Thanks very much.
Have a nice day
>_~
Re: Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium transmitted to humans by deer ti   [#permalink] 17 Apr 2018, 05:22

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