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QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels

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QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2017, 16:58
2
6
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

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  35% (medium)

Question Stats:

66% (01:05) correct 34% (01:09) wrong based on 708 sessions

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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 188: Critical Reasoning


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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?

(A) High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity does.

(B) Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.

(C) People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.

(D) Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.

(E) Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.

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Re: QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2017, 17:20
Went with D

low levels of immune-system-- lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity.
Conclusion -- the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

So, the author have to take into consideration option D before he makes this a conclusion.

D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease
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Re: QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2017, 21:23
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D It is.

This is a defender removing the existence of weakeners.
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Re: QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2017, 22:19
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?
Premise:
Cause: good immune system Effect: good Mental illness
Assumption:
The effect is not the cause [Reverse is not true]

D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.
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Re: QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2017, 23:34
DPANJA wrote:
Why not B?

Sent from my SM-J210F using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

Premise mentions physical diseases only in last sentence : " The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against as well as against physical disease."
= Immune systems protects against physical diseases
= Immune systems protects against mental illness

B: X is similar to Y in its effects on body systems.
Does the premise mention how physical diseases affect immune system or can you infer this from the premise?
I don't think so. Then how can you say X is similar to Y in the way Y affects the body systems(e.g immune system), when the premise does NOT address how Y affects the body systems at the first place?
In B, X is referring to Y in its behavior, whereas Y's behavior itself is not discussed at all.

Hope you got the bottom line.
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Re: QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Feb 2018, 13:35
TaN1213 wrote:
DPANJA wrote:
Why not B?

Sent from my SM-J210F using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

Premise mentions physical diseases only in last sentence : " The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against as well as against physical disease."
= Immune systems protects against physical diseases
= Immune systems protects against mental illness

B: X is similar to Y in its effects on body systems.
Does the premise mention how physical diseases affect immune system or can you infer this from the premise?
I don't think so. Then how can you say X is similar to Y in the way Y affects the body systems(e.g immune system), when the premise does NOT address how Y affects the body systems at the first place?
In B, X is referring to Y in its behavior, whereas Y's behavior itself is not discussed at all.

Hope you got the bottom line.


It's a technical/geometrical question, look at the Vienna diagrams applied to this question.
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Re: QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Feb 2018, 01:47
Option D , right choice .

Immune system -----> ( affects) Mental health

Choice D states , mental health / Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.

Effect not happening before cause , hence right assumption .
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Re: QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2018, 08:31
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I received a private communication about this problem.

There's an unusual twist in the stated conclusion here that's definitely worth noticing.
This is the stated conclusion:
The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

AT FIRST this conclusion may seem to have two parts:
• The immune system protects against mental illness.
• The immune system protects against physical disease.

A look over the argument, though, reveals that there are NO premises related to physical disease. Therefore, the ACTUAL conclusion SUPPORTED by this argument is
"the immune system protects against mental illness".


The second part — about physical disease — is just a piece of universal everyday knowledge. It is NOT supported by the argument, and so, therefore, it is NOT part of the argument's conclusion.

I haven't seen too many concluding statements structured like this — but it's worth noting that they exist, both on GMAT CR and in real life.
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Re: QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2018, 08:35
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RonPurewal wrote:
I haven't seen too many concluding statements structured like this — but it's worth noting that they exist, both on GMAT CR and in real life.


As an example of the latter ("in real life")—

Imagine that a website or magazine carries a recipe for a vegetable dish, describing the dish as "delicious as well as nutritious!"

This statement won't be the conclusion of an argument — i.e., it's VERY unlikely that any premises would be given to support these statements; like other statements of opinion, they would just be declared — but its two parts work like those of the sentence discussed here:
• "Delicious" is the ACTUAL POINT of the sentence;
• "Nutritious" is just something most people already accept and believe about vegetable dishes in general (and is mentioned, presumably, because readers might find it surprising that a "nutritious" dish could also be "delicious!").
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Re: QOTD: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2018, 12:11
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The researcher's conclusion is that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

This conclusion is based on the following experimental data: people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity.

So the people with lower levels of immune-system activity tend to score lower on mental health tests. Does that mean that the immune system protects against mental illness? Do lower levels of immune-system activity mean less protection against mental illness? In other words, do lower levels of immune-system activity cause a higher degree of mental illness (because of a lower degree of protection)? We need to find an assumption on which this argument depends:

Quote:
A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity does.

What if high immune-system activity protects against mental illness just as well as normal immune-system activity? In that case, we could still conclude that the immune systems protects against mental illness. All that matters is whether LOW immune-system activity offers LESS protection against mental illness than normal/high activity. This assumption is not necessary, so eliminate (A).

Quote:
B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.

It doesn't matter whether the EFFECTS of mental illness on body systems are similar to those of physical disease. All that matters is whether the immune system protects against mental illness. Choice (B) is not necessary and can be eliminated.

Quote:
C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.

Protection against mental illness does not necessarily mean 100% prevention of mental illness. For example, seat belts help protect people in car accidents, but obviously seat belts do not eliminate the possibility of injury in car accidents. If the researcher's argument is valid, then we would expect people with high immune-system activity to have a greater degree of protection against mental illness than people with lower immune-system activity. But that does not mean that people with high immune-system activity CANNOT develop mental illness. Eliminate choice (C).

Quote:
D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.

The researcher sees that low levels of immune-system activity correspond to low scores on mental health tests. The researcher thus concludes that the lower levels of immune-system activity must have reduced the amount of protection against mental illness, making those people more susceptible to mental illness. But what if it's the other way around? What if those people had normal immune systems and developed mental illnesses that decreased their immune-system activity? This would break the researcher's logic, so choice (D) is a required assumption. Hang on to this one.

Quote:
E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.

We are not concerned with the treatment of mental illness. We need to determine whether the immune system protects against mental illness. Choice (E) is irrelevant and can be eliminated.

Choice (D) is the best answer.
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