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# Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the

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Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2006, 22:21
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Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthen the arguerment?

A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkon, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.

B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.

C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.

D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.

E) It is very diffucult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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27 Nov 2006, 14:40
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Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if, true, most strengthen the arguerment?

A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkon, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.-- Irrelevant, not emmer

B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.
Weakens argument as it could be domesticated anywhere witin reason

C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.--Nutrition is Irrelevant to argument of where it was cultivated

D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.- Note thisstrengthens as it indicates the wheat was already gorwing there and nothing changed so it could easily be domesticated there.

E) It is very diffucult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia. - this does not relate to the argument. It is bringing in another type of grain. We already know we are discussing emmer

D- thanks good CR.

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20 Sep 2010, 08:13
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I agree with all the above posters so won't go too much into detail breaking down the answer choices, but for FQ-- the argument is laid out this way:

Cult. EW traces found all over Europe/Asia
Wild EW found only in narrow strip of Asia (note the shift here from traces of PAST EW to what is CURRENTLY found growing--this is a huge jump to make)
Oldest EW traces in same strip
Therefore, EW first cult in same strip

FQ, the reason why D strengthens the argument is that it controls for a condition that could vary dramatically. What if wild emmer wheat is only found now in that narrow strip because 10 years ago a volcano erupted there and wild emmer wheat really likes to grow in volcanic ash? (That's a silly and extreme example, but I hope it illustrates my point). If the climate has been the same ever since wild wheat became domesticated, then it's less likely that the wild emmer wheat--which we only have evidence of in the *present moment*--came here later. It's like the control condition in a scientific experiment---control as much as you can so you can isolate the variable you're looking closely at.

If you didn't have a "gut" reaction like MC did, you can still use the scope of the argument, as mads did, to quickly eliminate A, B, and C. Choice D makes the conditions around the argument more precise, choice E makes the conditions muddier (and therefore weakens).
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20 Aug 2010, 07:27
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(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.
>> Not relevant. We are considering only emmer wheat.
(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.
>>This is not related to the origins ot emmer wheat
(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.
>> Not related.
(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.
>> Yes, This stengthens the argument.
(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.
>> This weakens the argument.
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20 Aug 2010, 01:50
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Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archaeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.
(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.
(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.
(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.
(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.

Can some body evaluate the level of such a question?

Many thanks
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18 Apr 2011, 07:33
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used POE & zeroed in "D"
See explanation next to the options
windofchange wrote:
Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archaeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia. Out of scope einkon's evaluation can't help to find the place where domestication of emmer was done first.
(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains. If it was easy to domesticate the emmer wheat then the probability of it being domesticated in "narrow strip" would be same as it being domesticated anywhere else
(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated. Nutritious??...out of scope
(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.
(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia. If this is true then it will weaken the argument!!

Thanks

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26 Nov 2006, 22:51
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Swagatalakshmi wrote:
Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if, true, most strengthen the arguerment?

A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkon, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.

B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.

B says, wild wheat could be easily domesticated. That means no need of major changes in temparature, land etc. If that is the case, is it not possible that domestication happened in narrow strip?

C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.

D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.

E) It is very diffucult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.

If you can't explain your answer, we have nothing to learn from you ....

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26 Nov 2006, 23:26
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Not sure how to explain, but by POE, i got D.
This is a tough CR.
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20 Aug 2010, 07:38
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mehdiov wrote:
Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archaeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.
(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.
(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.
(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.
(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.

Can some body evaluate the level of such a question?

Many thanks

A good way to handle this question is to think of problems with the argument as you read. My initial thought was "climate change would defeat the argument". Since there was a choice about climate change, and all other choices seemed irrelevant, I went with D.
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18 Nov 2010, 07:05
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Swagatalakshmi wrote:
Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if, true, most strengthen the arguerment?

A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkon, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.

B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.

C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.

D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.

E) It is very diffucult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.

If you can't explain your answer, we have nothing to learn from you ....

We have two kinds of wheat mentioned in the premises above:
1. wild emmer wheat
2. cultivated emmer wheat
---> Conclusion: wild wheat was cultivated first in the strip (the scope to follow)
(A): irrelevant as the premise is talking about "emmer wheat" not "another wild wheat, einkon"
(B): irrelevant as the fact that wild emmer wheat easily yield like traditionally domestic wheat does not prove anything that wild emmer wheat was first domesticated in the place. (B) might also weaken the argument by saying that this kind of wheat is very easy to cultivated so it can be done in anywhere not only. What if the very strong storm wind the wild wheat seat to further area and was cultivated in the place rather than the strip (just my imagination but hope you can understand my point)
(C) irrelevant as "the most nutrious of all the varieties of grain" wont affect the conclusion above.
(D): might be correct because it related to the unchanged conditions where emmer wheat "since before the development of agriculture." We can assure this answer by negate the answer by saying that "climatic conditions have not changed very little". If so, there's alot of negative effects which can affect the cultivation of the wheat
(E): weaken the argument as it possibly misunderstood emmer wheat with other kinds of wheat --> how we can assure that the emmer wheat was first cultivated there if we even hardly distinguise wheat?? By saying addtiontionally "without genetic testing" also wont work here as it makes irrelevant to support when and where the wheat was domesticated.

I just brief some of my thoughts. Hope it can help and please correct me if i've made mistake somewhere.
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18 Apr 2011, 02:07
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Argument: Traces of cultivated emmer wheat found in Europe and Asia.
Wild form of emmer wheat found growing in southwest Asia.
Emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.

Doesn't strengthen.

(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.

Doesn't strengthen.

(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.

Doesn't strengthen

(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.

Stregthens the argument which says Emmer wheat was domesticated in that strip becuase climatic changes have been minimal from the time duration of Wild Emmer wheat to a domesticated cultivated Emmer wheat.

(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.

Doesn't strengthen
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18 Apr 2011, 12:55
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Excellent question! After 2 min of thinking I selected D simply because it is the only question that does not weaken the argument! I still cannot understand how D actually strenghten the argument, but it does not matter: D is vague answer, but all the other answers are just WRONG.
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18 Apr 2011, 13:04
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Agree with Vorskl D is the best answer here. It does not weaken the answer and instead says that the climatic conditions did not change. So we are ruling out a possibility that could weaken the passage, in other words we are more tilted toward strenthening the passage by choosing this answer. Hence, correct answer.
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18 Apr 2011, 22:24
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windofchange wrote:
Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archaeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

---- Argument is strong.Hence defender answer choice will suffice the conclusion.
---- Conclusion intends that the emmer wheat was domesticated in the 'strip'.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia. --- Out of scope.
(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains. -- Intention suggests that Wild Emmer can be domesticated.But it dosen't match with the conclusion. A possible SHELL GAME answer. Hence, POE.

(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated. -- Out of scope.

(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture. -- Meaning that the conditions have helped Wild Emmer domestication. Hold it.
(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia. -- Opposite answer. POE.

Thanks

Hence IMO D.

thank you.
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19 Apr 2011, 08:22
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Windofchange,

Let me try this one again

The conclusion of this passage is - it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.We are not concerned with the growth of einkorn or the areas that it covers
(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.this statement talks about the process of domestication, this is irrelevant to our discussion of location of the wheat grown
(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.Again, nutrition is irrelevant.
(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.This option rules out the possibility that climatic conditions could cause any change in the strip. This implies that one event/possibility that could possibly weaken the conclusion is actually being removed here . Hence, strengthens the conclusion of the passage.This is the best answer.
(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.This one talks only about wild wheat testing. Not really tied to conclusion.
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19 Apr 2011, 08:30
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heygirl wrote:
Windofchange,

Let me try this one again

The conclusion of this passage is - it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

(A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkorn, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.We are not concerned with the growth of einkorn or the areas that it covers
(B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.this statement talks about the process of domestication, this is irrelevant to our discussion of location of the wheat grown
(C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.Again, nutrition is irrelevant.
(D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.This option rules out the possibility that climatic conditions could cause any change in the strip. This implies that one event/possibility that could possibly weaken the conclusion is actually being removed here . Hence, strengthens the conclusion of the passage.This is the best answer.
(E) It is very difficult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.This one talks only about wild wheat testing. Not really tied to conclusion.

Heygirl,
well played ! I couldn't agree more!
+1
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27 Nov 2006, 00:57
Swagatalakshmi wrote:
Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if, true, most strengthen the arguerment?

A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkon, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.

B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.

C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.

D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.

E) It is very diffucult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.

If you can't explain your answer, we have nothing to learn from you ....

I will go for D....If climatic conditions changes in that narrow strip then it is possible that emmer wheat can not be domesticated...So by assuming D we strengthen conclusion.
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27 Nov 2006, 03:53
Narrowed down to B and D.

I will go with D â€¦
Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip â€¦. Its not due to any climatic changes in between, as climatic conditions have changed very little â€¦So emmer wheat has been culitivated from long time
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27 Nov 2006, 12:21
I'm also for D.

IMHO, B weakens the argument.
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27 Nov 2006, 16:09
Swagatalakshmi wrote:
Traces of cultivated emmer wheat have been found among the earliest agricultural remains of many archeological sites in Europe and Asia. The only place where the wild form of emmer wheat has been found growing is a relatively narrow strip of southwest Asia. Since the oldest remains of cultivated emmer wheat yet found are from village sites in the same narrow strip, it is clear that emmer wheat was first domesticated somewhere in that strip.

Which of the following, if, true, most strengthen the arguerment?

A) The present-day distribution of another wild wheat, einkon, which was also domesticated early in the development of agriculture, covers a much larger area of southwest Asia.

B) Modern experiments show that wild emmer wheat can easily be domesticated so as to yield nearly as well as traditionally domestic strains.

C) At the time when emmer wheat was first cultivated, it was the most nutritious of all the varieties of grain that were then cultivated.

D) In the region containing the strip where wild emmer wheat has been found, climatic conditions have changed very little since before the development of agriculture.

E) It is very diffucult, without genetic testing, to differentiate the wild form of emmer wheat from a closely related wild wheat that also grows in southwest Asia.

If you can't explain your answer, we have nothing to learn from you ....

D
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