Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned

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10 Oct 2006, 14:37
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Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 63
Page: 141
Difficulty:

Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
(C) The decisions made by middle- and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Ms. Big Fat Panda
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Re: Consistency of the argument [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2010, 12:39
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The best way to think about assumptions are as a missing link between what's presented. Think of it as a broken link in a chain of equations if you're good at Quant.

I've broken down the premise and the conclusion for you. The conclusion is also highlighted. An evidence is hard, indisputable fact. And the conclusion is arguable and is an expression of opinion.

Conclusion: Intuition is more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.
Premise: Top managers used intuition significantly more than middle and low level managers.

What's the bridge? If you think about it logically, they are connecting the effectiveness in decision making to the hierarchy of being a top manager. Or in other words, one possible assumption is that effectiveness has something to do with being a top manager. Now if you look at the answer choices.

GMATD11 wrote:
Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that[highlight]intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning[/highlight]. The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions. Out of Scope and Extreme Language. We don't care about this.
(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions. This SEEMS like it could be a right answer. But go back to your conclusion. Does this really prove anything about why this might lead us to believe this process is more effective? No. Incorrect
(C) The decisions made by middle-and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning. Again, this seems like it's relevant but if you think about the crux of this answer choice, it doesn't prove anything.
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions. This is not an assumption; this is already stated in the passage as a premise.
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle-or lower-level managers This was exactly what we were looking for from our prephrase and hence is the right answer

Conclusion: intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning
Premise : top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers
Premise:decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making.

I want to know about the consistency of the argument given above.
and any good method to find the assumptions as i am not able to think about assumptions taken by author by own so i generally read the options after reading stimulus and stem which some times confuses me.

Pls tell me any good book so that i can learn to make assumptions.

I read Power Score CR bible for solving CR questions.

I hope this helps. Powerscore CR is an excellent resource for CR and I don't think you need anything else, really. If you are looking for a concise form of that, you can check out the link in my signature. But I think the thing with assumption questions is approaching the question looking for what is being said, what the missing part is and what would make sense there.
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23 Nov 2010, 11:44
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Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning. The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
(C) The decisions made by middle-and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle-or lower-level managers

Conclusion: intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning
Premise : top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers
Premise:decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making.

I want to know about the consistency of the argument given above.
and any good method to find the assumptions as i am not able to think about assumptions taken by author by own so i generally read the options after reading stimulus and stem which some times confuses me.

Pls tell me any good book so that i can learn to make assumptions.

I read Power Score CR bible for solving CR questions.

_________________

The proof of understanding is the ability to explain it.

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Re: Consistency of the argument [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2010, 13:00
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Hey GMATD11,

I love assumption questions, so thanks for bringing this up. One technique that I think is particularly helpful in these questions is what we call the Assumption Negation Technique. In it, you take the opposite of each answer choice (negating either the primary verb in the sentence, or any particular/universal modifiers that surround that verb...like All--->Not All and Some--->None). Because the correct answer is something on which the argument DEPENDS, the correct answer, when negated, will invalidate the argument.

So for this example:

(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is NOT inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
(B) Top managers DO NOT have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
(C) The decisions made by middle-and lower-level managers can NOT be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
(D) Top managers DO NOT use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
(E) Top managers are NOT more effective at decision-making than middle-or lower-level managers

If you go back to your premises/conclusion, we're trying to say that:

Because top managers use more intuitive reasoning than methodical reasoning, it's a more effective way to make decisions. Let's look at the negations to see which impact that conclusion:

Choice E exposes that gap between the premise and the conclusion - if E were not true, as our negation shows, then it would show that the people who use intuitive reasoning more often are no more effective - and maybe even LESS effective - than others, so we have no basis for drawing the conclusion. E is shown to be necessary because without it the argument is completely invalid.

Even if you don't go to the trouble of negating all of the answer choices, the thought process is still helpful - if an assumption is REQUIRED, we should ask "what if it weren't true?" to then consider whether we need it or not. Without the correct answer, the argument doesn't hold true.
_________________

Brian

Save $100 on live Veritas Prep GMAT Courses and Admissions Consulting Enroll now. Pay later. Take advantage of Veritas Prep's flexible payment plan options. Veritas Prep Reviews Senior Manager Joined: 13 Aug 2012 Posts: 464 Concentration: Marketing, Finance GMAT 1: Q V0 GPA: 3.23 Followers: 26 Kudos [?]: 443 [1] , given: 11 Re: Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned [#permalink] ### Show Tags 08 Feb 2013, 22:58 1 This post received KUDOS Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning. The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions? The author states that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning simply because Top Managers use it more than middle or low-level manager. If you are skeptical, you ought to ask: Top Managers are not necessarily better decision makers than those other managers. So, what sayest thou? Haha! That's the assumption. (A) there is no claim for any method or approach being inappropriate... Out... (B) if this is the assumption that top use a possible combo of intuitive and the other approach, then why claim that intuition is better.. hence, this is not the assumption (C) whether it is rendered easier with one approach over the other... is irrelevant to which is effective... out... (D) we still need to find out what is with top managers that the author concludes that their approach is more effective... how often they use it is irrelevant... (E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle-or lower-level managers If top managers are worse decision makers (just to exaggerate) then the conclusion is not valid. hence, E needs to be assumed _________________ Impossible is nothing to God. Intern Joined: 15 Nov 2015 Posts: 48 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 4 [1] , given: 1 Re: Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned [#permalink] ### Show Tags 14 Apr 2016, 22:42 1 This post received KUDOS Conclusion: Intuition is more effective than careful decision making. Premise: Top manager used intuition more than did middle or lower-level managers. Assumption: Top managers are more effective than middle-managers Senior Manager Joined: 20 Aug 2015 Posts: 398 Location: India GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V44 Followers: 26 Kudos [?]: 221 [1] , given: 10 Re: Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned [#permalink] ### Show Tags 07 Jul 2016, 08:11 1 This post received KUDOS Expert's post Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning. Conclusion : This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning. If we understand the bold part. Top Managers than Middle or Lower Managers -> "Effective". This is the conclusion and the argument is negating the established view with "However". What is the assumption ? -> Something that should connect "Top Managers" to "Effective" Decision Making and if not, the whole conclusion falls apart. The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions? (A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions. That is out of scope as we are not discussing about what is appropriate (B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions. If they use both, how can I conclude that "Intuitive based reasoning " is effective (C) The decisions made by middle- and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning. Cannot be the assumption as we are not connecting Top Managers at all (D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions We are not talking about the majority of the decisions (E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers. -> Correct _________________ Reach out to us at bondwithus@gmatify.com SVP Joined: 05 Jul 2006 Posts: 1744 Followers: 6 Kudos [?]: 327 [0], given: 49 ### Show Tags 10 Oct 2006, 14:42 i BELIEVE IT IS E Manager Joined: 31 Aug 2006 Posts: 213 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 2 [0], given: 0 ### Show Tags 10 Oct 2006, 14:46 (A) can be a conclusion but not assumption. (D) is already stated hence cannot be an assumption. (B) and (C) is irrelevant (E) it has to be. Director Joined: 23 Jun 2005 Posts: 847 GMAT 1: 740 Q48 V42 Followers: 5 Kudos [?]: 70 [0], given: 1 ### Show Tags 10 Oct 2006, 18:40 E. Top managers make more intuitive decisions. So, intuition is more effective Assumption: Top managers make more effective decisions. VP Joined: 21 Aug 2006 Posts: 1025 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 31 [0], given: 0 ### Show Tags 10 Oct 2006, 18:58 one more E folks. We can say intuitive decision making superior, only when top managers are doing better job at decision making. _________________ The path is long, but self-surrender makes it short; the way is difficult, but perfect trust makes it easy. Director Joined: 17 Jul 2006 Posts: 714 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 12 [0], given: 0 ### Show Tags 11 Oct 2006, 13:07 I am for E. VP Joined: 25 Jun 2006 Posts: 1172 Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 150 [0], given: 0 ### Show Tags 11 Oct 2006, 19:33 E 2 VP Joined: 21 Mar 2006 Posts: 1134 Location: Bangalore Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 40 [0], given: 0 ### Show Tags 11 Oct 2006, 19:51 Straight E. Director Joined: 18 Jul 2006 Posts: 528 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 57 [0], given: 0 ### Show Tags 11 Oct 2006, 22:08 One more E. Senior Manager Joined: 05 Jun 2005 Posts: 454 Followers: 1 Kudos [?]: 42 [0], given: 0 ### Show Tags 12 Oct 2006, 02:23 Straight from OG. This one is E, for the above reasons GMAT Club Legend Joined: 01 Oct 2013 Posts: 10633 Followers: 941 Kudos [?]: 207 [0], given: 0 Re: Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned [#permalink] ### Show Tags 26 Apr 2014, 16:26 Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email. GMAT Club Legend Joined: 01 Oct 2013 Posts: 10633 Followers: 941 Kudos [?]: 207 [0], given: 0 Re: Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned [#permalink] ### Show Tags 05 May 2015, 01:15 Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email. Optimus Prep Instructor Joined: 06 Nov 2014 Posts: 1787 Followers: 54 Kudos [?]: 403 [0], given: 21 Re: Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned [#permalink] ### Show Tags 14 May 2015, 09:17 Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning. The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions? (E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers. If the top managers were not more effective in decision making, there'd be no advantage to using intuition. _________________ # Janielle Williams Customer Support Special Offer:$80-100/hr. Online Private Tutoring
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08 Jul 2015, 12:39
If anyone could help me understand how B is wrong...
If top managers don´t have the option to choose between the 2, the conclusion that B is more effective than A falls apart as one can argue that the only reason top managers chose B is because they were forced to and not because it was a more effective way... I don´t get this one...
Re: Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned   [#permalink] 08 Jul 2015, 12:39

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