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# Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned

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10 Oct 2006, 15:37
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Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 63
Page: 141
Difficulty:

Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
(C) The decisions made by middle- and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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23 Nov 2010, 12:44
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Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning. The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
(C) The decisions made by middle-and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle-or lower-level managers

Conclusion: intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning
Premise : top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers
Premise:decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making.

I want to know about the consistency of the argument given above.
and any good method to find the assumptions as i am not able to think about assumptions taken by author by own so i generally read the options after reading stimulus and stem which some times confuses me.

Pls tell me any good book so that i can learn to make assumptions.

I read Power Score CR bible for solving CR questions.

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Re: Consistency of the argument [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2010, 13:39
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The best way to think about assumptions are as a missing link between what's presented. Think of it as a broken link in a chain of equations if you're good at Quant.

I've broken down the premise and the conclusion for you. The conclusion is also highlighted. An evidence is hard, indisputable fact. And the conclusion is arguable and is an expression of opinion.

Conclusion: Intuition is more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.
Premise: Top managers used intuition significantly more than middle and low level managers.

What's the bridge? If you think about it logically, they are connecting the effectiveness in decision making to the hierarchy of being a top manager. Or in other words, one possible assumption is that effectiveness has something to do with being a top manager. Now if you look at the answer choices.

GMATD11 wrote:
Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that[highlight]intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning[/highlight]. The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?
(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions. Out of Scope and Extreme Language. We don't care about this.
(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions. This SEEMS like it could be a right answer. But go back to your conclusion. Does this really prove anything about why this might lead us to believe this process is more effective? No. Incorrect
(C) The decisions made by middle-and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning. Again, this seems like it's relevant but if you think about the crux of this answer choice, it doesn't prove anything.
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions. This is not an assumption; this is already stated in the passage as a premise.
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle-or lower-level managers This was exactly what we were looking for from our prephrase and hence is the right answer

Conclusion: intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning
Premise : top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers
Premise:decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making.

I want to know about the consistency of the argument given above.
and any good method to find the assumptions as i am not able to think about assumptions taken by author by own so i generally read the options after reading stimulus and stem which some times confuses me.

Pls tell me any good book so that i can learn to make assumptions.

I read Power Score CR bible for solving CR questions.

I hope this helps. Powerscore CR is an excellent resource for CR and I don't think you need anything else, really. If you are looking for a concise form of that, you can check out the link in my signature. But I think the thing with assumption questions is approaching the question looking for what is being said, what the missing part is and what would make sense there.

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Re: Consistency of the argument [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2010, 14:00
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Hey GMATD11,

I love assumption questions, so thanks for bringing this up. One technique that I think is particularly helpful in these questions is what we call the Assumption Negation Technique. In it, you take the opposite of each answer choice (negating either the primary verb in the sentence, or any particular/universal modifiers that surround that verb...like All--->Not All and Some--->None). Because the correct answer is something on which the argument DEPENDS, the correct answer, when negated, will invalidate the argument.

So for this example:

(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is NOT inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
(B) Top managers DO NOT have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
(C) The decisions made by middle-and lower-level managers can NOT be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
(D) Top managers DO NOT use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
(E) Top managers are NOT more effective at decision-making than middle-or lower-level managers

If you go back to your premises/conclusion, we're trying to say that:

Because top managers use more intuitive reasoning than methodical reasoning, it's a more effective way to make decisions. Let's look at the negations to see which impact that conclusion:

Choice E exposes that gap between the premise and the conclusion - if E were not true, as our negation shows, then it would show that the people who use intuitive reasoning more often are no more effective - and maybe even LESS effective - than others, so we have no basis for drawing the conclusion. E is shown to be necessary because without it the argument is completely invalid.

Even if you don't go to the trouble of negating all of the answer choices, the thought process is still helpful - if an assumption is REQUIRED, we should ask "what if it weren't true?" to then consider whether we need it or not. Without the correct answer, the argument doesn't hold true.
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08 Feb 2013, 23:58
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Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle-or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning. The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

The author states that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning simply because Top Managers use it more than middle or low-level manager. If you are skeptical, you ought to ask: Top Managers are not necessarily better decision makers than those other managers. So, what sayest thou? Haha! That's the assumption.

(A) there is no claim for any method or approach being inappropriate... Out...
(B) if this is the assumption that top use a possible combo of intuitive and the other approach, then why claim that intuition is better.. hence, this is not the assumption
(C) whether it is rendered easier with one approach over the other... is irrelevant to which is effective... out...
(D) we still need to find out what is with top managers that the author concludes that their approach is more effective... how often they use it is irrelevant...

(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle-or lower-level managers

If top managers are worse decision makers (just to exaggerate) then the conclusion is not valid. hence, E needs to be assumed
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14 May 2015, 10:17
Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers. If the top managers were not more effective in decision making, there'd be no advantage to using intuition.
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08 Jul 2015, 23:16
michaelyb wrote:
If anyone could help me understand how B is wrong...
If top managers don´t have the option to choose between the 2, the conclusion that B is more effective than A falls apart as one can argue that the only reason top managers chose B is because they were forced to and not because it was a more effective way... I don´t get this one...

B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.

The conclusion is that intuition is better for decision making and the premise is that more top managers use intuition. Top managers could be rotten decision makers and still use intuition, so we have to assume that they are good decision makers if we are using their status as proof that intuition works better. B doesn't work because it only says they have a choice. Whether or not they choose to use intuition doesn't speak for how effective they are at decision making in the end. That is, they can choose intuitive reasoning or be forced to use it and still not be effective decision makers.
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07 Jul 2016, 09:11
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Expert's post
Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.

Conclusion : This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.

If we understand the bold part. Top Managers than Middle or Lower Managers -> "Effective". This is the conclusion and the argument is negating the established view with "However".
What is the assumption ? -> Something that should connect "Top Managers" to "Effective" Decision Making and if not, the whole conclusion falls apart.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
That is out of scope as we are not discussing about what is appropriate

(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
If they use both, how can I conclude that "Intuitive based reasoning " is effective

(C) The decisions made by middle- and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
Cannot be the assumption as we are not connecting Top Managers at all

(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions
We are not talking about the majority of the decisions

(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers. -> Correct
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06 Aug 2016, 05:01
michaelyb wrote:
OptimusPrepJanielle wrote:
michaelyb wrote:
If anyone could help me understand how B is wrong...
If top managers don´t have the option to choose between the 2, the conclusion that B is more effective than A falls apart as one can argue that the only reason top managers chose B is because they were forced to and not because it was a more effective way... I don´t get this one...

B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.

The conclusion is that intuition is better for decision making and the premise is that more top managers use intuition. Top managers could be rotten decision makers and still use intuition, so we have to assume that they are good decision makers if we are using their status as proof that intuition works better. B doesn't work because it only says they have a choice. Whether or not they choose to use intuition doesn't speak for how effective they are at decision making in the end. That is, they can choose intuitive reasoning or be forced to use it and still not be effective decision makers.

Janielle, thank you but still, don´t we actually need both assumptions?
I agree with your reasoning, but the author actually needs both assumptions to arrive at the conclutions: 1 - they are better decision makers and 2 - they don´t use intuition because they have no other option.

Michaelyb,

Imagine that top managers are only able to use intuition (i.e. they do not have the ability to use methodical reasoning).

If we assume that despite top managers do not have this ability, they are more effective at decision making than middle or low managers, we can conclude that intuition is more effective than methodical reasoning because it is the method used by those who are more effective at decision-making.

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13 Mar 2017, 05:39
ayushi wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: 63
Page: 141
Difficulty:

Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
(C) The decisions made by middle- and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers.

OFFICIAL SOLUTION

Situation
Intuition, used significantly more by top managers than by middle- or lower-level managers, is found to be more effective than step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.

Reasoning
What assumption does the argument make? The study shows that top managers use intuition more in decision making than the other managers do. The conclusion is then drawn that intuition is more effective. But the stated premises on their own provide inadequate support for the conclusion, so it is reasonable to think that the argument must be based on an unstated assumption, such as the assumption that top managers, when employing intuitive decision making, make more effective decisions than middle- and lower-level managers. Without some such assumption, the argument fails.

A   While the argument is consistent with this idea, the inappropriateness of step-by-step reasoning is not assumed.
B   Top managers’ ability to switch decision methods does not help to show that one method is better than the other.
C   The effectiveness of decision-making methods, not the ease with which the methods are applied, is the subject of the argument.
D   The argument would not necessarily fail if something incompatible with this statement were assumed—for example, if it were assumed that top managers use intuition only in half of their decisions. Thus this statement does not have to be assumed. Moreover, even if this statement were to be added as an assumption to the stated premises, the support for the conclusion would still be inadequate unless some additional assumption were made.
E   Correct. This is the best choice for the missing assumption. Without some such assumption, the argument would fail.
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13 Jul 2017, 05:10
Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.

Assumption: Because top-level managers make decision by intuition and author concludes that intuition is a better way, means their decision would have been right.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
Goes against the conclusion.

(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
Managers having the ability does not mean that the decision will be right.

(C) The decisions made by middle- and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
How easily or how difficult does not answers us on the effectiveness of the decision.

(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
Does not address the effectiveness of the decision.

(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers.
That is why author concludes top managers decision.

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20 Aug 2017, 05:37
Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
(C) The decisions made by middle- and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers.[/quote]

Hi mikemcgarry,
I swithced answer choice B from choice E.

When I read this prompt especially the sentence,
Top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower- level managers.

Using intuition more does not necessarily indicate more effectively, except top managers compared different methods.
then
I asked myself why top managers used intuition? why they did not use other methods? if they can choose both, but they chose intuition at the end, then it can indicate "intuition" is more effective.

So I picked up B eventually.

I have no idea why B is incorrect.

Zoe

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21 Aug 2017, 13:53
zoezhuyan wrote:
Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned step-by-step has been considered preferable to intuitive decision-making. However, a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers. This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning.

The conclusion above is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Methodical, step-by-step reasoning is inappropriate for making many real-life management decisions.
(B) Top managers have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions.
(C) The decisions made by middle- and lower-level managers can be made as easily by using methodical reasoning as by using intuitive reasoning.
(D) Top managers use intuitive reasoning in making the majority of their decisions.
(E) Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers.

Hi mikemcgarry,
I swithced answer choice B from choice E.

When I read this prompt especially the sentence,
Top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower- level managers.
Using intuition more does not necessarily indicate more effectively, except top managers compared different methods.
then
I asked myself why top managers used intuition? why they did not use other methods? if they can choose both, but they chose intuition at the end, then it can indicate "intuition" is more effective.

So I picked up B eventually.

I have no idea why B is incorrect.

Zoe

Dear zoezhuyan,

My friend, it's good to hear from you. How have you been? I'm happy to respond.

We want an assumption of the argument.

Choice (B) is funny. It's almost undeniably true, but it's not really an assumption. You may be familiar with the Negation Test for Assumptions.

Suppose we negate (B). Suppose, quite unrealistically, most top managers do NOT have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions. Suppose, for what genetic difference, most of these people can only reason intuitively. The argument could still work under these conditions. The top managers are still using intuition most of the time, and these people would stay at the top only if their decisions were successful. Thus, regardless of whether they have any choice in it, they are still demonstrating the success of this approach.

Thus, we can negate (B) and the argument still works. This means that (B) is not an assumption.

Meanwhile, (E) definitely is an assumption. In that same linked blog, I discuss something I informally call the "bridge approach" to finding an assumption. In this argument, we get the premise: "a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers." Then there's a huge leap to the conclusion, "This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning." What bridges that gap? The only way that top managers using intuition would be seen as more effective is if the top managers are more effective. This is exactly what (E) says:
Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers.
That's the assumption.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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21 Aug 2017, 20:03
mikemcgarry wrote:
My friend, it's good to hear from you. How have you been? I'm happy to respond.

We want an assumption of the argument.

Choice (B) is funny. It's almost undeniably true, but it's not really an assumption. You may be familiar with the Negation Test for Assumptions.

Suppose we negate (B). Suppose, quite unrealistically, most top managers do NOT have the ability to use either intuitive reasoning or methodical, step-by-step reasoning in making decisions. Suppose, for what genetic difference, most of these people can only reason intuitively. The argument could still work under these conditions. The top managers are still using intuition most of the time, and these people would stay at the top only if their decisions were successful. Thus, regardless of whether they have any choice in it, they are still demonstrating the success of this approach.

Thus, we can negate (B) and the argument still works. This means that (B) is not an assumption.

Meanwhile, (E) definitely is an assumption. In that same linked blog, I discuss something I informally call the "bridge approach" to finding an assumption. In this argument, we get the premise: "a recent study found that top managers used intuition significantly more than did most middle- or lower-level managers." Then there's a huge leap to the conclusion, "This confirms the alternative view that intuition is actually more effective than careful, methodical reasoning." What bridges that gap? The only way that top managers using intuition would be seen as more effective is if the top managers are more effective. This is exactly what (E) says:
Top managers are more effective at decision-making than middle- or lower-level managers.
That's the assumption.

Does all this make sense?
Mike

thanks so much mikemcgarry

I am back to GMAT preparation.

I think I need to improve negative skill,
because I do not master at Negative skill, so I always avoided to use it on assumption questions, that's bad.

have a nice day
>_~

Zoe

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23 Aug 2017, 00:35
I was confused between A and E. Although E is a correct choice, Option A delivers the message that step-by-step reasoning is not assumed.
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Re: Traditionally, decision-making by managers that is reasoned   [#permalink] 23 Aug 2017, 00:35
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