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# Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus

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Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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22 May 2006, 21:29
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Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discussions of the nature of ethnicity. The first emphasizes the primordial and unchanging character of ethnicity. In this view, people have an essential need for belonging that is satisfied by membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture. A different conception of ethnicity de-emphasizes the cultural component and defines ethnic groups as interest groups. In this view, ethnicity serves as a way of mobilizing a certain population behind issues relating to its economic position. While both of these definitions are useful, neither fully captures the dynamic and changing aspects of ethnicity in the United States. Rather, ethnicity is more satisfactorily conceived of as a process in which preexisting communal bonds and common cultural attributes are adapted for instrumental purposes according to changing real-life situations. One example of this process is the rise of participation by Native American people in the broader United States political system since the Civil Rights movement of the 1960' s. Besides leading Native Americans to participate more actively in politics (the number of Native American legislative officeholders more than doubled), this movement also evoked increased interest in tribal history and traditional culture. Cultural and instrumental components of ethnicity are not mutually exclusive, but rather reinforce one another.

The Civil Rights movement also brought changes in the uses to which ethnicity was put by Mexican American people. In the 1960's, Mexican Americans formed community-based political groups that emphasized ancestral heritage as a way of mobilizing constituents. Such emerging issues as immigration and voting rights gave Mexican American advocacy groups the means by which to promote ethnic solidarity. Like European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States, late twentieth-century Mexican American leaders combined ethnic with contemporary civic symbols. In 1968 Henry Censors, then mayor of San Antonio, Texas, cited Mexican leader Benito Juarez as a model for Mexican Americans in their fight for contemporary civil rights. And every year, Mexican Americans celebrate Cinco de Mayo as fervently as many Irish American people embrace St. Patrick's Day (both are major holidays in the countries of origin), with both holidays having been reinvented in the context of the United States and linked to ideals, symbols, and heroes of the United States.
1. Which of the following best states the main idea of the passage?
(A) In their definitions of the nature of ethnicity, sociologists have underestimated the power of the primordial human need to belong.
(B) Ethnicity is best defined as a dynamic process that combines cultural components with shared political and economic interests.
(C) In the United States in the twentieth century, ethnic groups have begun to organize in order to further their political and economic interests.
(D) Ethnicity in the United States has been significantly changed by the Civil Rights movement.
(E) The two definitions of ethnicity that have dominated sociologists discussions are incompatible and should be replaced by an entirely new approach.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

Which is the following statements about the first two definitions of ethnicity discussed in the first paragraph is supported by the passage?
A.One is supported primarily by sociologists, and the other is favored by members of ethnic groups.
B.One emphasizes the political aspects of ethnicity, and the other focuses on the economic aspects.
C.One is the result of analysis of United States populations, and the other is the result of analysis of European populations.
D.One focuses more on the ancestral components of ethnicity than does the other.
E.One focuses more on immigrant groups than does the other.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

3. The author of the passage refers to Native American people in the second paragraph in order to provide an example of
(A) the ability of membership in groups based on shared ancestry and culture to satisfy an essential human need
(B) how ethnic feelings have both motivated and been strengthened by political activity
(C) how the Civil Rights movement can help promote solidarity among United States ethnic groups
(D) how participation in the political system has helped to improve a group's economic situation
(E) the benefits gained from renewed study of ethnic history and culture

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

4. The passage supports which of the following statements about the Mexican American community?
(A) In the 1960's the Mexican American community began to incorporate the customs of another ethnic group in the United States into the observation of its own ethnic holidays.
(B) In the 1960's Mexican American community groups promoted ethnic solidarity primarily in order to effect economic change.
(C) In the 1960's leaders of the Mexican American community concentrated their efforts on promoting a renaissance of ethnic history and culture.
(D) In the 1960's members of the Mexican American community were becoming increasingly concerned about the issue of voting rights.
(E) In the 1960's the Mexican American community had greater success in mobilizing constituents than did other ethnic groups in the United States.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

5. Which of the following types of ethnic cultural expression is discussed in the passage?
(A) The retelling of traditional narratives
(B) The wearing of traditional clothing
(C) The playing of traditional music
(D) The celebration of traditional holidays
(E) The preparation of traditional cuisine

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

6. Information in the passage supports which of the following statements about many European ethnic groups in the nineteenth-century United States?
(A) They emphasized economic interests as a way of mobilizing constituents behind certain issues.
(B) They conceived of their own ethnicity as being primordial in nature.
(C) They created cultural traditions that fused United States symbols with those of their countries of origin.
(D) They de-emphasized the cultural components of their communities in favor of political interests.
(E) They organized formal community groups designed to promote a renaissance of ethnic history and culture.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

7. The passage suggests that in 1968 Henry Cisneros most likely believed that
(A) many Mexican Americans would respond positively to the example of Benito Juárez
(B) many Mexican Americans were insufficiently educated in Mexican history
(C) the fight for civil rights in the United States had many strong parallels in both Mexican and Irish history
(D) the quickest way of organizing community-based groups was to emulate the tactics of Benito Juárez
(E) Mexican Americans should emulate the strategies of Native American political leaders

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #6 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #7 OA

Last edited by bb on 15 Jan 2017, 14:05, edited 2 times in total.
OA missing
If you have any questions
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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22 May 2006, 22:06
Q1) B, as pointed by lines 10-15
Q2) B, as pointed by lines 24-26
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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12 Feb 2013, 21:11
Q1: When I was answering this I was not convinced with B because it used "best defined as", the tone of the passage seems to just say "more satisfactorily". However, by process of elimination B is better than the other choices.

(A) The author believes the opposite. This definition dominates together with the "interest definition" and then the author suggests a better definition to the two dominant thought. So this is not the main point.

(B) This is the definition introduced by the author. However, I am not sold with this because it says "best". But let's keep this for now.

(C) This definition, like in A, is dominant but not the a good definition for the author. Thus, not the main point.

(D) Civil Rights are just used to make illustration of the definition of Ethnicity for the author. Not the main point.

(E) Now this is almost correct except for "incompatibility of two definitions" the author even suggests that this two can reinforce one another. False based on the passage.

Q2) The author of the passage refers to Native American
people in the second paragraph in order to provide an
example of

(A) The second paragraph is an example of the authors definition wherein "culture and ancestry" is used for emerging issues and used also to induce solidarity. An essential human need is different from emerging issues such as voting. That is definitely not essential human need. False.

(B)
"how ethnic feelings have both motivated and been
strengthened by political activity"
At first I did not get this as the correct answer until you read it again since I'm not a native English speaker. Ethnic feelings motivated political activity and have been strengthened. If you will read the second paragraph again, it says there Mexican Americans used Ethnic feelings to induce solidarity at the same time help mobilize constituents (motivate political activity). This is the answer.

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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2014, 10:59
Bumping for review and further discussion*.

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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2014, 08:17
From the internet i found that below could be the second question with answer as
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

Which is the following statements about the first two definitions of ethnicity discussed in the first paragraph is supported by the passage?
A.One is supported primarily by sociologists, and the other is favored by members of ethnic groups.
B.One emphasizes the political aspects of ethnicity, and the other focuses on the economic aspects.
C.One is the result of analysis of United States populations, and the other is the result of analysis of European populations.
D.One focuses more on the ancestral components of ethnicity than does the other.
E.One focuses more on immigrant groups than does the other.
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2014, 10:33
questions 2 and 3 are the same but the spoilers list different answers to them?!
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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31 May 2014, 02:29
I got a bit confused with Q 2 and Q3 since they were the same questions with different answers, maybe this is because either one of those answers are ok?
Otherwise got all but 4 right, with which I again fell for the "this is too simple" trap :p
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2014, 12:36
Last Question -> 7....

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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2015, 08:37
ronr34 wrote:
Last Question -> 7....

7. The passage suggests that in 1968 Henry Cisneros most likely believed that
(A) many Mexican Americans would respond positively to the example of Benito Juárez
(B) many Mexican Americans were insufficiently educated in Mexican history
(C) the fight for civil rights in the United States had many strong parallels in both Mexican and Irish history
(D) the quickest way of organizing community-based groups was to emulate the tactics of Benito Juárez
(E) Mexican Americans should emulate the strategies of Native American political leaders

Clearly A and C are the only contenders. between A and C

Refer these lines in passage - ' In 1968 Henry Censors, then mayor of San Antonio, Texas, cited Mexican leader Benito Juarez as a model for Mexican Americans in their fight for contemporary civil rights.'

C - Could be correct answer, if there was any mention in above lines regarding Irish ppl/leaders/history etc.

So A is the possible answer by POE.
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2015, 01:31
can someone provide explanation for the answers and also discuss difficulty level of the questions?
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2016, 20:33
passage 5'10-total 12'

Vocabulary
primordial, =original, primitive

B
B
B (2=3)
C x D v
D
C
A
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2016, 04:15
took long time , 4 right 2 wrong

B A D D D A
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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2017, 11:18
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Post locked. The discussion is here

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Re: Two divergent definitions have dominated sociologists discus   [#permalink] 15 Jan 2017, 11:18
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