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# Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan,

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Magoosh GMAT Instructor
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Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, [#permalink]

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02 May 2013, 12:24
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Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, known to oppose evolution on religious grounds, became the star witness for the prosecution in the Scopes Trials.
(A) known to oppose evolution on religious grounds
(B) known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds
(C) known for his religiously based opposition with evolution
(D) a person who, it is known, religiously opposed evolution
(E) who, it is known, opposed evolution on religious grounds

On the GMAT, how do you talk about something that someone thinks or knows? For a full discussion of these idioms, as well as a solution to this question, see this blog:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idiom ... d-knowing/

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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03 May 2013, 11:35
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HumptyDumpty wrote:
anish123ster wrote:
(A) known to oppose evolution on religious grounds...Correct
(B) known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds..means he is an opponent of evolution..Incorrect

Isn't he an opponent of evolution? Isn't it what follows from A)?

Dear HumptyDumpty,
I don't know that this is what anish123ster is getting at, but the phrase "known to oppose evolution on religious grounds" contains a potential ambiguity --- is Bryan's opposition on religious grounds? or is his opposition known to the rest of us on religious grounds? ---- In other words, the adverbial phrase "on religious grounds" could modify either of the verbs, and this ambiguity is potentially problematic.

daagh wrote:
What is the critical difference between - known to oppose evolution - and opponent of evolution? known to oppose may be slightly better because it shorter; But are they both difference otherwise?

They are quite similar --- the only major difference is that the phrase "an opponent of evolution" does not explicitly include the idea of the rest of us knowing about it. It's quite possible for a public figure to be an opponent of something without the general public knowing about his opposition. If we want to include the idea of everyone else knowing about it, the phrase becomes: "known to be an opponent of evolution" ---- that's awkward, clunky, floppy, and indirect --- the phrase "known to oppose evolution" is much more sleek and direct. As a general rule, if there's a split between the noun form (e.g. "opposition") and the verb form ("oppose") of the same word, using the verb form will generally lead to a more concise, more powerful, and more active sentence.
Here's a video lesson in which I discuss this latter idea:
http://gmat.magoosh.com/lessons/917-ver ... e-language

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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02 May 2013, 14:27
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(A) known to oppose evolution on religious grounds...Correct
(B) known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds..means he is an opponent of evolution..Incorrect
(C) known for his religiously based opposition with evolution..opposition with evolution..incorrect
(D) a person who, it is known, religiously opposed evolution..clearly wrong..sentence fragment
(E) who, it is known, opposed evolution on religious grounds...who, it is known..incorrect use..
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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06 May 2013, 13:12
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HumptyDumpty wrote:
Why then is the ambiguous AC the right AC? Does B: "known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds" NOT contain the same ambiguity? If it does, is B out because it is wordier than A, but anyway both A and B are ambiguous?

Dear HumptyDumpty,
The phrase "on religious grounds" is an adverbial phrase, a phrase that most naturally modifies a verb or verb form. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... d-clauses/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... d-clauses/
In (A), the OA, the adverbial phrase modifies the closest verb form, the infinitive "to oppose". Very clear.
In (B), grammatically, the adverbial phrase should modify the verb form, the participle "known". Logically, that doesn't work. People say someone is "an opponent on such-and-such grounds", and I suppose we could say in that instance the prepositional is acting as an adjectival phrase, but I would call that construction suspect. It's not as clean, not a clear. Combine this with the active form "to oppose" vs. the static & wordy "an opponent of", and (B) is clearly wrong.
Does this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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02 May 2013, 22:52
anish123ster wrote:

(A) known to oppose evolution on religious grounds...Correct
(B) known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds..means he is an opponent of evolution..Incorrect

Isn't he an opponent of evolution? Isn't it what follows from A)?
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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03 May 2013, 00:17
What is the critical difference between - known to oppose evolution - and opponent of evolution? known to oppose may be slightly better because it shorter; But are they both differenced otherwise?
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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04 May 2013, 04:10
mikemcgarry wrote:
HumptyDumpty wrote:
anish123ster wrote:
(A) known to oppose evolution on religious grounds...Correct
(B) known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds..means he is an opponent of evolution..Incorrect

Isn't he an opponent of evolution? Isn't it what follows from A)?

Dear HumptyDumpty,
I don't know that this is what anish123ster is getting at, but the phrase "known to oppose evolution on religious grounds" contains a potential ambiguity --- is Bryan's opposition on religious grounds? or is his opposition known to the rest of us on religious grounds? ---- In other words, the adverbial phrase "on religious grounds" could modify either of the verbs, and this ambiguity is potentially problematic.

Why then is the ambiguous AC the right AC? Does B: "known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds" NOT contain the same ambiguity? If it does, is B out because it is wordier than A, but anyway both A and B are ambiguous?
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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04 May 2013, 19:55
IMO "an opponent of evolution" is wordy and hence incorrect for GMAT.

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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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06 May 2013, 13:19
mikemcgarry wrote:
HumptyDumpty wrote:
Why then is the ambiguous AC the right AC? Does B: "known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds" NOT contain the same ambiguity? If it does, is B out because it is wordier than A, but anyway both A and B are ambiguous?

Dear HumptyDumpty,
The phrase "on religious grounds" is an adverbial phrase, a phrase that most naturally modifies a verb or verb form. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... d-clauses/
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... d-clauses/
In (A), the OA, the adverbial phrase modifies the closest verb form, the infinitive "to oppose". Very clear.
In (B), grammatically, the adverbial phrase should modify the verb form, the participle "known". Logically, that doesn't work. People say someone is "an opponent on such-and-such grounds", and I suppose we could say in that instance the prepositional is acting as an adjectival phrase, but I would call that construction suspect. It's not as clean, not a clear. Combine this with the active form "to oppose" vs. the static & wordy "an opponent of", and (B) is clearly wrong.
Does this make sense?
Mike

Yup! Thanks for the links too !
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2014, 10:13
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Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2015, 09:55
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Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, known to oppose evolution on religious grounds, became the star witness for the prosecution in the Scopes Trials.

(A) known to oppose evolution on religious grounds

(B) known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds

(C) known for his religiously based opposition with evolution

(D) a person who, it is known, religiously opposed evolution

(E) who, it is known, opposed evolution on religious grounds
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2015, 20:26
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2015, 21:27
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A. Known to is the wrong idiom. It is either Known as X or Known for something.
B. Don't see any problem.( 'Known as X' is correctly used)
C. Religiously based opposition with evolution is not right
D. Religiously opposed changes the meaning. He did not religiously oppose but opposed on religious ground.
E. Don't see any problem either. ('Known for something' correctly used).

Between B and E. I would go for B as B conveys the same info without using the unnecessary relative clause 'who..'.

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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2015, 01:59
tuanquang269 wrote:
Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, known to oppose evolution on religious grounds, became the star witness for the prosecution in the Scopes Trials.

(A) known to oppose evolution on religious grounds

(B) known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds

(C) known for his religiously based opposition with evolution

(D) a person who, it is known, religiously opposed evolution

(E) who, it is known, opposed evolution on religious grounds

B is wordy , compared to A.
C , the meaning is unclear. "opposition with"should be "opposition to"
D, and E are wordy.

A is best.

I see that B, D, E are wordy. and wordiness is the only reason for elimination of those choice, a situation not happening on gmat land. normally gmat test us : logic, unclearness and redundance. seldom gmat test us only wordiness.
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2015, 03:19
tuanquang269 wrote:
Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan, known to oppose evolution on religious grounds, became the star witness for the prosecution in the Scopes Trials.

(A) known to oppose evolution on religious grounds

(B) known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds

(C) known for his religiously based opposition with evolution

(D) a person who, it is known, religiously opposed evolution

(E) who, it is known, opposed evolution on religious grounds

A as it clearly conveys the meaning of the sentence
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2016, 04:52
A .

my reason to discard " B " is that we use known as for names such as - He is known as the rock or He is known as XYZ .

C - religiously is incorrectly modifying opposition
D and E says opposed which implies he doesnt oppose any more now and plus they are wordy ;
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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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21 Feb 2017, 04:44
be known to be/do something

If something or someone is known to be or do something, people know that it is true or happens, or that someone is or does something:

A daily intake of 20 mg of vitamin C is known to be sufficient in most cases to ward off scurvy.

known to oppose evolution on religious grounds Correct answer

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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2017, 05:26
I think official answer is wrong

(A) known to oppose evolution on religious grounds
"known to"-- unidiomatic
(B) known as an opponent of evolution on religious grounds
known as-- clearly modifies William Jennings Bryan, Also known as is idiomatic
(C) known for his religiously based opposition with evolution
"Impproper use of adverb, also chnages the meaning"
(D) a person who, it is known, religiously opposed evolution
"it"-- wrong usage of it
(E) who, it is known, opposed evolution on religious grounds
"it"-- wrong usage of it

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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2017, 19:37
Can someone please explain why B is incorrect ?

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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2017, 22:00
Some people in the posts above, have mentioned that B is wordy, when compared to A.

But I am also not totally convinced on this. What does OE say?

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Re: Two-time Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan   [#permalink] 08 Mar 2017, 22:00

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