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Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writ

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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writ  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jun 2014, 08:17
mikemcgarry wrote:
voodoochild wrote:
Mike,Can you please explain me why Answer choice e) in Question #80 (OG12) is incorrect?

Quote:
80. The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were
(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men
(B) more likely to own real estate
(C) generally more economically independent
(D) more independent in conducting their private lives
(E) less likely to work as school superintendents

This is a very tricky question, because in the passage, the comparison goes one way, but in this question, the comparison goes in the opposite direction. In the passage, we get that, compared to eighteenth-century American women, nineteenth-century American women:
* gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, [but] they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere.
* lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men
* gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example.

All of those are in the form --- starting from the eighteenth-century American women, how were things different for the nineteenth-century American women?

Then, the question turns things around ---- starting from the nineteenth-century American women, how were things different for the eighteenth-century American women? Everything quoted here has to be reversed --- "more" becomes "less", "gain" becomes "loss", and vice versa. What's extremely tricky about this question is: you have to take the opposite of everything stated in black and white.

Now, with all this in mind, look at (E).
The passage tells us, nineteenth-century American women less likely to work as school superintendents than were eighteenth-century American women. This means that eighteenth-century American women were more likely to work as school superintendents than were nineteenth-century American women. (E) is incorrect.

By contrast, look at (C)
The passage tells us, nineteenth-century American women "lost [autonomy] in many aspects of the economic sphere", so the nineteenth-century American women had less autonomy, less independence, than did the eighteenth-century American women. This means, the eighteenth-century American women were "generally more economically independent" than were the nineteenth-century American women. (C) is correct.

Does all this make sense? Please let me know if anyone reading this has any further questions.

Mike :-)


Hi Mike

Not clear on why D is not the correct option in line with your thought process. Could you please help me on that ?
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New post 30 Jun 2014, 10:55
himanshujovi wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
80. The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were
(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men
(B) more likely to own real estate
(C) generally more economically independent
(D) more independent in conducting their private lives
(E) less likely to work as school superintendents

Hi Mike

Not clear on why D is not the correct option in line with your thought process. Could you please help me on that ?

Dear himanshujovi,
I'm happy to help. :-)

Here's what the passage says: "Lebsock, meanwhile, attempts not only to write the history of women in one southern community, but also to redirect two decades of historiographical debate as to whether women gained or lost status in the nineteenth century as compared with the eighteenth century. .... She examines several different aspects of women’s status, helping to refine and resolve the issues. She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere."
So, in going from the 18th century to the 19th century, "women gained autonomy ... in the private sphere," so 19th cent. women had more autonomy, more independence, in the private sphere than did the 18th cent. women.

Now, the tricky thing about the question is that the comparison is historically backwards --- "compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women" were more what? Well, the 19th century women had more personal autonomy, so the 18th century women must have had less personal autonomy. Thus, (C) is the exact opposite of what the passage says.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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New post 13 Jul 2015, 16:40
Can someone explain 79? could not relate to any answer and ultimately gone wrong.
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New post 16 Oct 2016, 11:41
mikemcgarry wrote:
komalkansal wrote:
hey please some one explain ans for q77 im confused between d and e

Dear komalkansal,
I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's the question again (which is RC #70 in the OG13)
77. The author of the passage mentions the supervision of schools primarily in order to
(A) remind readers of the role education played in the cultural changes of the nineteenth century in the United States
(B) suggest an area in which nineteenth-century American women were relatively free to exercise power
(C) provide an example of an occupation for which accurate data about women’s participation are difficult to obtain
(D) speculate about which occupations were considered suitable for United States women of the nineteenth century
(E) illustrate how the answers to questions about women’s status depend on particular contexts


Here's the context in which that detail is mentioned ....
More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men. Yet women also gained power in comparison with their previous status, ...

Think about what is happening right there in the passage. We get the HUGE signpost "More importantly ...", which means the author is about to say something he or she considers extremely important. That should be like a giant flashing neon sign in the passage. The author of the passage says that "[Lesbock] shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference." In other words, the answer to questions such as "were women better off in the 18th century or the 19th century?" are not crystal clear because they depend on where we look: looking at different indicators of social status and power will give us different answers to such questions. The author of the passage makes this extremely important point, and then cites two examples --- the supervision of schools example, which shows women losing power in the 19th century, and then the real estate example, which shows women gaining power in the 19th century. How powerful were women in the 19th century? It depends on where we look.

That's precisely why (E) is a much much better answer. The author cited the supervision of schools example to support his or her contention, the statement in bold above, and choice (E) restates the statement in bold. It restates something we absolutely know the author of the passage considered extremely important.

The author of this passage is not at all interested in speculating about occupations of women in the 19th century. The author of this passage is concerned with comparing the relative strengths of two books by different sets of authors, and the "more importantly" statement is a HUGE statement about something that one author did very well. Choice (D) plays on the confusion some readers have been the concerns of the author of this passage vs. the concerns of the authors discussed in the passage.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)



Hi mikemcgarry,

Could you please tell why option B is incorrect in this question. I read through your reasoning for the correct option E but still could not reject option B. Would appreciate your help.
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writ  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2017, 03:24
Hi Gmatninja, Gmatninja2.
I believe majority of passage covers Lebsock's work in detail
however I was not able to understand whether the middle portion of
passage refers to 18th or 19th century? Furthermore, how can delivering babies
be a job which can be taken up by men.
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writ  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2017, 19:07
adkikani wrote:
Hi Gmatninja, Gmatninja2.
I believe majority of passage covers Lebsock's work in detail
however I was not able to understand whether the middle portion of
passage refers to 18th or 19th century? Furthermore, how can delivering babies
be a job which can be taken up by men.

Regarding the second question, "delivering" a baby is not the same as "giving birth" to a baby. For example, if a doctor (often an OB-GYN, or "obstetrician-gynecologist", in the US) is present to assist with the birth, that doctor is said to "deliver" the baby, while the mother, of course, is the one who "gives birth" to the child.

The middle portion deals with the "historiographical debate as to whether women gained or lost status in the nineteenth century as compared with the eighteenth century." Because this portion is comparing women's status in the nineteenth century to their status in the eighteenth century, this section actually deals with BOTH centuries.

For example, consider the following excerpt: "while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere." This means that during the eighteenth century women had MORE autonomy in many aspects of the economic sphere than they would later have in the nineteenth century. Similarly, women owned a higher proportion of real estate in the nineteenth century than they did in the eighteenth century.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writ  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2017, 19:37
HI mikemcgarry, GMATNinja

According to the passage, Lebsock’s work differs from Buel and Buel’s work in that Lebsock’s work
(A) uses a large number of primary sources
(B) ignores issues of women’s legal status
(C) refuses to take a position on women’s status in the eighteenth century
(D) addresses larger historiographical issues
(E) fails to provide sufficient material to support its claims

OA is D why not E?
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New post 06 Dec 2017, 17:48
NandishSS wrote:
HI mikemcgarry, GMATNinja

According to the passage, Lebsock’s work differs from Buel and Buel’s work in that Lebsock’s work
(A) uses a large number of primary sources
(B) ignores issues of women’s legal status
(C) refuses to take a position on women’s status in the eighteenth century
(D) addresses larger historiographical issues
(E) fails to provide sufficient material to support its claims

OA is D why not E?

Dear NandishSS,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

The passage clearly says: "Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish (1736–1818) makes little effort to place her story in the context of recent historiography on women. Lebsock, meanwhile, attempts not only to write the history of women in one southern community, but also to redirect two decades of historiographical debate . . . " Thus, Lebsock is dealing with the modern historiographical debate, whereas Buel and Buel seemed to avoid that entirely. This is a big difference, and (D) summarizes this.

The passage also says, "Buel and Buel’s biography provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the eighteenth century" --therefore, Buel and Buel provided at least some material to support their claim. Was it "sufficient" material to support their claim? That's unclear, but certainly the author makes no claim one way or the other on this point. (E) is not supported.

Always remember that a person was writing this passage, and this person had opinions. The GMAT is always interested in those opinions. Right at the beginning, the author sets up this strong P vs. Q contrast between the two works. Furthermore, the language "makes little effort" is about as strong and emphatic as academic writing gets! The author is clearly showing an opinion here, and that's what the question is getting at.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writ  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2018, 17:02
P1 - two theories around a topic given. then compared for different aspect.
---------------------------------

76. The primary purpose of the passage is to - first go i fee none are options, lets drill to best answer.
(A) examine two sides of a historiographical debate --- true two sides are there. and both are examining some facts.but that is not the whole picture.
(B) call into question an author’s approach to a historiographical debate --- two authors are there.
(C) examine one author’s approach to a historiographical debate --- again two authors are there.
(D) discuss two authors’ works in relationship to a historiographical debate ---- yes two authors and their work.
(E) explain the prevalent perspective on a historiographical debate ---- only talking about 2nd half of the p1.

Out of A and D actually both are not covering full para graphs. but when we look for big picture we can easily eliminate A. D is best possible answer.
--------------------------------

77. The author of the passage mentions the supervision of schools primarily in order to
Pre-thinking - "These certain jobs were taken over by men." E is best answer on these lines.

(E) illustrate how the answers to questions about women’s status depend on particular contexts ---
-------------------------------

78. With which of the following characterizations of Lebsock’s contribution to the controversy concerning women’s status in the nineteenth-century United States would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?
lines to look for - she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects,
(B) Lebsock has demonstrated the importance of frame of reference in answering questions about women’s status.
--------------------------------

79. According to the passage, Lebsock’s work differs from Buel and Buel’s work in that Lebsock’s work
(D) addresses larger historiographical issues
--------------------------------

80. The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were
prethinking - Lebsock's view, about eighteenth-century American women in comparison to nineteenth-century American women
Lines to look for - women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere. More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men. Yet women also gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example
(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men
(B) more likely to own real estate
(C) generally more economically independent - they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere in nineteenth-century - this means that they were more economically independent in eighteenth-century.
(D) more independent in conducting their private lives
(E) less likely to work as school superintendents
--------------------------------

81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
lines to look for - provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the eighteenth century
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writ  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2018, 10:00
nitya34 wrote:
Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writing the history of United States women. Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish (1736–1818) makes little effort to place her story in the context of recent historiography on women. Lebsock, meanwhile, attempts not only to write the history of women in one southern community, but also to redirect two decades of historiographical debate as to whether women gained or lost status in the nineteenth century as compared with the eighteenth century. Although both books offer the reader the opportunity to assess this controversy regarding women’s status, only Lebsock’s deals with it directly. She examines several different aspects of women’s status, helping to refine and resolve the issues. She concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere. More importantly, she shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men. Yet women also gained power in comparison with their previous status, owning a higher proportion of real estate, for example. In contrast, Buel and Buel’s biography provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the eighteenth century but does not give the reader much guidance in analyzing the controversy over women’s status.
76. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) examine two sides of a historiographical debate
(B) call into question an author’s approach to a historiographical debate
(C) examine one author’s approach to a historiographical debate
(D) discuss two authors’ works in relationship to a historiographical debate
(E) explain the prevalent perspective on a historiographical debate



77. The author of the passage mentions the supervision of schools primarily in order to
(A) remind readers of the role education played in the cultural changes of the nineteenth century in the United States
(B) suggest an area in which nineteenth-century American women were relatively free to exercise power
(C) provide an example of an occupation for which accurate data about women’s participation are difficult to obtain
(D) speculate about which occupations were considered suitable for United States women of the nineteenth century
(E) illustrate how the answers to questions about women’s status depend on particular contexts



78. With which of the following characterizations of Lebsock’s contribution to the controversy concerning women’s status in the nineteenth-century United States would the author of the passage be most likely to agree?
(A) Lebsock has studied women from a formerly neglected region and time period.
(B) Lebsock has demonstrated the importance of frame of reference in answering questions about women’s status.
(C) Lebsock has addressed the controversy by using women’s current status as a frame of reference.
(D) Lebsock has analyzed statistics about occupations and property that were previously ignored.
(E) Lebsock has applied recent historiographical methods to the biography of a nineteenthcentury woman.



79. According to the passage, Lebsock’s work differs from Buel and Buel’s work in that Lebsock’s work
(A) uses a large number of primary sources
(B) ignores issues of women’s legal status
(C) refuses to take a position on women’s status in the eighteenth century
(D) addresses larger historiographical issues
(E) fails to provide suffi cient material to support its claims



80. The passage suggests that Lebsock believes that compared to nineteenth-century American women, eighteenth-century American women were
(A) in many respects less powerful in relation to men
(B) more likely to own real estate
(C) generally more economically independent
(D) more independent in conducting their private lives
(E) less likely to work as school superintendents



81. The passage suggests that Buel and Buel’s biography of Mary Fish provides evidence for which of the following views of women’s history?
(A) Women have lost power in relation to men since the colonial era.
(B) Women of the colonial era were not as likely to be concerned with their status as were women in the nineteenth century.
(C) The colonial era was not as favorable for women as some historians have believed.
(D) Women had more economic autonomy in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.
(E) Women’s occupations were generally more respected in the colonial era than in the nineteenth century.





RC00109-01
RC00109-02
RC00109-03
RC00109-04
RC00109-05
RC00109-06


76. D
discuss two authors’ works in relationship to a historiographical debate.
Buel and Buel Vs. Lebsock

77. E
More importantly, she [Lebsock]shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men.

78. B
she [Lebsock] shows that the debate itself depends on frame of reference: in many respects, women lost power in relation to men, for example, as certain jobs (delivering babies, supervising schools) were taken over by men

79. D
Lebsock, meanwhile, attempts not only to write the history of women in one southern community, but also to redirect two decades of historiographical debate...

80. C
Lebsock concludes that while women gained autonomy in some areas, especially in the private sphere, they lost it in many aspects of the economic sphere...

81. C
Buel and Buel’s biography provides ample raw material for questioning the myth, fostered by some historians, of a colonial golden age in the eighteenth century but does not give the reader much guidance in analyzing the controversy over women’s status.
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writ  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2019, 21:05
This is a very difficult RC passage! Got only 3/6. Although some of the members clearly explained why each answer is correct, the reasoning behind each question is very subtle and given the average of 2 minutes per question + reading the passage, the time pressure gets the best of us and hampers our ability to logically comprehend.
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New post 15 Jul 2019, 00:58
79. According to the passage, Lebsock’s work differs from Buel and Buel’s work in that Lebsock’s work
(A) uses a large number of primary sources
(B) ignores issues of women’s legal status
(C) refuses to take a position on women’s status in the eighteenth century
(D) addresses larger historiographical issues
(E) fails to provide suffi cient material to support its claims

Please help me with q79. Why is (E) incorrect?
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Re: Two works published in 1984 demonstrate contrasting approaches to writ   [#permalink] 15 Jul 2019, 00:58

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