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# Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt

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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2018, 02:15
1
9:34 mins, all correct ...need to have patience and read very diligently...make a short summary of all the paras ...then work options from wrong to right...accordting to the passage questions will be direct copy paste from para...and for inference questions, answers are always twisted so they wont be direct from paras...so go with 'wrong to right' strategy for inference questions...
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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13 Feb 2018, 11:49
Can anybody explain why answer C in Q2 is wrong?
"In addition to causing the familiar ocean tides, both the sun and the moon raise tides in the solid body of the earth."

C) tides occur in solid ground as well as in oceans

Thanks
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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23 Feb 2018, 08:18
3
1. The passage most strongly suggests that its author would
agree with which of the following statements about clocks?

A) Before 1921 no one had designed a clock that used
electricity to aid in its timekeeping functions
Info not stated in the passage.

B) Atomic clocks depend on the operation of
mechanisms that were invented by William Shortt
and ﬁrst used in the Shortt clock.
Info not stated in the passage.

C) No type of clock that keeps time more stably and
accurately than a Shortt clock relies fundamentally on
the operation of a pendulum.

Correct. The relevant part of th passage is:

The ultimate pendulum clock, indeed the ultimate
mechanical clock of any kind, was invented by a British
engineer, William Shortt.

D) Subtle changes in the earth's rotation slightly reduce
the accuracy of all clocks used in observatories after
1921.
Info not stated in the passage.

E) At least some mechanical clocks that do not have
pendulums are almost identical to Shortt clocks in
their mode of operation.
Info not stated in the passage.

2. According to the passage, the use of Shortt clocks
led to the discovery that

The relevant part of the passage is:

“The ﬁrst indications of seasonal variations in
the earth's rotation were gleaned by the use of Shortt
clocks.”

A)optical sensing equipment can be used effectively in
time-keeping systems

Info not stated in the passage and not in the relevant part

B) atomic clocks can be used in place of pendulum
clocks in observatories

Info not stated in the passage and not in the relevant part

C) tides occur in solid ground as well as in oceans
Info not in the relevant part

D) the earth's rotation varies from one time of year to another

Correct. Words equivalent to relevant part in the passage
Seasonal variations = varies from one time of year to another

E) pendulums can be synchronized with one another electronically
Info not in the relevant part

3. The passage most strongly suggests that the study described in the third paragraph would not have been possible in the absence of

Relevant part of the passage is:

“After replacing the electromechanical linkage with modern optical sensing

equipment, he measured the Shortt clock's rate against
the observatory's atomic clocks for a month. He found
that it was stable to 200 microseconds a day over this
period, equivalent to two to three parts in a billion.”

A) accurate regarding the times at which high and low ocean tides occurred at various locations during 1984
Info not stated in the passage or the relevant part

B) comparative data regarding the use of Shortt clocks in observatories between 1921 and 1932
Info not stated in the passage or the relevant part

C) a non-Shortt clock that was known to keep time extremely precisely and reliably
Correct.

“he measured the Shortt clock's rate against
the observatory's atomic clocks for a month. He found
that it was stable to 200 microseconds a day over this
period, equivalent to two to three parts in a billion.”

Strongly suggests that an extremely precise non-shortt clock is needed

D) an Innovative electric-power source that was not available in the 1920s and 1930s
Info not stated in the passage or the relevant part

E) optical data-transmission devices to communicate between the U.S. Naval Observatory and other research facilities

“between the U.S. Naval Observatory and other research facilities” not stated in the relevant part.

4. The passage most strongly suggests that which of the
following is true of the chamber in which a Shortt clock's
primary pendulum was housed?

The relevant part is the first para:

“The primary pendulum swung freely in a vacuum chamber.
Its only job was to synchronize the swing of the
secondary pendulum, which was housed in a
neighboring cabinet and drove the time-indicating
mechanism. Every 30 seconds the secondary pendulum
sent an electrical signal to give a nudge to the primary
pendulum. In return, via an elaborate electromechanical
linkage, the primary pendulum ensured that the
secondary pendulum never got out of step.”

A) It contained elaborate mechanisms that were
attached to, and moved by, the pendulum.
Question is inference and so not directly stated

“via an elaborate electromechanical
linkage, the primary pendulum ensured that the”
“via” does not suggest any attachment to or their movement due to the pendulum.

B) It was ﬁrmly sealed during normal operation of the
clock.

Correct. The relevant part is:

“The primary pendulum swung freely in a vacuum chamber.”
Equivalent meaning : vacuum chamber and strongly sealed

C) It was at least partly transparent so as to allow for
certain types of visual data output.

Info not in the relevant part

D) It housed both the primary pendulum and another
pendulum.

Wrong Info

E) It contained a transmitter that was activated at
irregular intervals to send a signal to the secondary
pendulum.

Info not in the relevant part
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2018, 13:26
Hi jennpt,

Question 3. The passage most strongly suggests that the study
described in the third paragraph would not have been possible in the absence of

A) accurate information regarding the times at which
high and low ocean tides occurred at various locations during 1984

B) comparative data regarding the use of Shortt clocks in observatories between 1921 and 1932

C) a non-Shortt clock that was known to keep time extremely precisely and reliably

D) an Innovative electric-power source that was not available in the 1920s and 1930s

E) optical data-transmission devices to communicate between the U.S. Naval Observatory and other
research facilities

Can you please explain why A is wrong? in the exam, I was stuck between A and C. I did not pick C because I though it was too obvious. I could not find enough grounds to eliminate A. In parg 3, it says he clock was
responding to the slight tidal distortion of the earth due
to the gravitational pull of the moon and the sun.

how would they have found this out without accurate times at which
high and low ocean tides occurred? or is it because it says "various locations" when the passage did not mention anything about those locations?
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2018, 11:13
3
Hi oasis90

Aha - that feeling you got that C was too obvious? Ding ding ding, we have a winner.
On CR and RC inferences, I would not assume that things somehow must be more complicated. Choose the answer you can prove based on the evidence given in the passage. And if it sounds like it repeats something you already know from the passage, perfect.

And the problem with A is exactly what you suspected: "various locations." We need info about the tides, but not about the different tide times in various locations. That goes too far.
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2018, 14:05
jennpt wrote:
Hi oasis90

Aha - that feeling you got that C was too obvious? Ding ding ding, we have a winner.
On CR and RC inferences, I would not assume that things somehow must be more complicated. Choose the answer you can prove based on the evidence given in the passage. And if it sounds like it repeats something you already know from the passage, perfect.

And the problem with A is exactly what you suspected: "various locations." We need info about the tides, but not about the different tide times in various locations. That goes too far.

Understood. Many thanks and Kudos
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2018, 07:29
Hi jennpt, can you help with the first question?

I got this in my GMAT prep test today. I was trying to find 4 incorrect options. I eliminated C because it looked too extreme. When I got to E, I realized that I had eliminated 4 options, so the answer must be E.
Any tips on how I can avoid such mistakes?
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2018, 05:17
3
Hi sandman13

#1 is a pretty tough inference question. But we get our evidence for C from the very first sentence:

Quote:
The ultimate pendulum clock, indeed the ultimate mechanical clock of any kind, was invented by a British engineer, William Shortt.

Sometimes it can be tempting to fly through the first sentence or two as you're thinking "what's this passage REALLY about?" But there can be important info in that very first sentence - here it's the word ultimate. As the passage goes on, we can understand that ultimate must mean it's the very best of its kind. Here, best of its kind seems to mean stable and accurate. When researchers want to measure how good the Shortt clocks are, they have to compare them to atomic clocks.

You're right that C is extreme. Keep in mind that you CAN choose an extreme answer if the passage itself gives you extreme evidence. Here "ultimate" is our extreme evidence, so you can justify C.

Things to take away: 1) Read carefully starting with the very first sentence. 2) Always be sensitive to extreme language in the passage (best, worst, first, last, etc) because it could help you justify an extreme answer later.

Does this help? Let us know.

Best, Jenn
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2018, 21:54
P1: Focus words: “ultimate pendulum clock”, “ultimate mechanical clock”, “2 pendulums”, “Primary pendulum in vacuum chamber”, “secondary..electric signal”, “electromechanical linkage”.

P2: Better timekeeping, very little loss/gain of time, indicators of seasonal variations in earth’s rotation.

P3: Boucheron carried a study of Shortt Clock found in US Naval Obs. Comparision study with atomic clock of the same observatory done after replacing electromechanical linkage with optical sensing equipment. The clock responded to tidal distortion. (influencer: gravitational pull)

P4: Detail on tides on the solid body of earth, and how the value of “g” changes and period swing of pendulum affected. Loss/Gain measured.

1. The passage most strongly suggests that its author would
agree with which of the following statements about clocks?

A) Before 1921 no one had designed a clock that used electricity to aid in its timekeeping functions. ( There is definitely mention of electric signals being used but we cannot infer that none before 1921 used this)

B) Atomic clocks depend on the operation of mechanisms that were invented by William Shortt and ﬁrst used in the Shortt clock. (No detail about this from passage. Cannot infer for certain.)

C) No type of clock that keeps time more stably and accurately than a Shortt clock relies fundamentally on the operation of a pendulum. (Look at 3rd paragraph, the experimented clock which Boucheron studied was better in stability. The electromechanical linkage via which the primary pendulum ensured that the secondary never got out of step was replaced with modern optical sensing equipment. And this gave better stability.)

D) Subtle changes in the earth's rotation slightly reduce the accuracy of all clocks used in observatories after 1921. (Incorrect. Straight reject option.)

E) At least some mechanical clocks that do not have pendulums are almost identical to Shortt clocks in their mode of operation. (Nothing to back up this from the passage)

2. According to the passage, the use of Shortt clocks
led to the discovery that

A) optical sensing equipment can be used effectively in time-keeping systems

B) atomic clocks can be used in place of pendulum clocks in observatories

C) tides occur in the solid ground as well as in oceans

D) the earth's rotation varies from one time of year to another, (CLEARLY.Note the last line of second para “The first indications of ‘seasonal variation’ of earth’s rotation....”

E) pendulums can be synchronized with one another electronically

3. The passage most strongly suggests that the study described in the third paragraph would not have been possible in the absence of

A) accurate information regarding the times at which high and low ocean tides occurred at various locations during 1984. (This wasn’t of prime importance)

B) comparative data regarding the use of Shortt clocks in observatories between 1921 and 1932 (Incorrect: Experiment was done in 1984. )

C) a non-Shortt clock that was known to keep time extremely precisely and reliably (Correct : The experimental clock is being talked about. We realised the accuracy to be even better after comparing this with the observatory’s clock.)

D) an Innovative electric-power source that was not available in the 1920s and 1930s. (Flawed)

E) optical data-transmission devices to communicate between the U.S. Naval Observatory and other research facilities. (Flawed)

4. The passage most strongly suggests that which of the following is true of the chamber in which a Shortt clock's primary pendulum was housed?

A) It contained elaborate mechanisms that were attached to and moved by, the pendulum. (Incorrect. What elaborate mechanism? And how far this indicates anything about the chamber in primary pendulum? Think again.)

B) It was ﬁrmly sealed during normal operation of the clock. (Correct : This can be inferred from the fact that it was kept in a vacuum chamber.)

C) It was at least partly transparent so as to allow for certain types of visual data output. (Don’t know. No information in the passage about it being transparent)

D) It housed both the primary pendulum and another pendulum. (Flawed)

E) It contained a transmitter that was activated at irregular intervals to send a signal to the secondary pendulum.

Do give a kudos if you find it helpful.

Thank you, and have a great day ahead.
Happy Learning!
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2018, 22:24
I don't understand. Can you please elaborate which question you want an explanation to?
naveenraja1994 wrote:
answers to this question??

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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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22 Jul 2018, 22:25
Waiting to resolve the the same query as below.
niteshreddys89 wrote:
Could someone shine light on question number 2? How can it be D. IMO C is directly implied in the passage.

The only statement that I could find related to option D was the following,
Quote:
Since the acceleration due
to gravity depends on distance from the center of the
earth, this slight tidal movement affects the period of
swing of a pendulum.

and that implies it is the rotation that helped discover something about the clock and not the other way around.

Thanks in advance!

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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2018, 09:13
abhinav770 wrote:
Waiting to resolve the the same query as below.
niteshreddys89 wrote:
Could someone shine light on question number 2? How can it be D. IMO C is directly implied in the passage.

The only statement that I could find related to option D was the following,
Quote:
Since the acceleration due
to gravity depends on distance from the center of the
earth, this slight tidal movement affects the period of
swing of a pendulum.

and that implies it is the rotation that helped discover something about the clock and not the other way around.

Thanks in advance!

Hello,

please see below for explanation:

This is an According to the passage question, so there shouldnt be much analysis here.

The only piece of information you need here is this The ﬁrst indications of seasonal variations in the earth's rotation were gleaned by the use of Shortt clocks.

Question 2. According to the passage, the use of Shortt clocks
led to the discovery that

A) optical sensing equipment can be used effectively in
time-keeping systems Trap to get you lost in the details

B) atomic clocks can be used in place of pendulum
clocks in observatoriesTrap to get you lost in the details

C) tides occur in solid ground as well as in oceans This is indeed stated like you pointed out. However, the trap here is that it has nothing to do with what Shortt Clocks helped in discovering. Shortt Clocks did not help to discover that tides occur in solid ground and in the oceans. It helped discover indications of seasonal variations in the earth's rotation. The passage then continues to explain how tides in ocean and solid are related to that (which we don't really need to know and its only meant to confuse us.

D) the earth's rotation varies from one time of year to another. This is what I talked about above. It's a rephrase of The ﬁrst indications of seasonal variations in the earth's rotation were gleaned by the use of Shortt clocks..[/color]

E) pendulums can be synchronized with one another electronically It's clear that this has nothing to do with anything
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2018, 00:40
7:30 min to solve passage with 2/4 correct.
can anyone share official Explanation and explain 2 & 3 question.
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2018, 08:41
Hello GMATNinja

Can you please help in solving Q1 and Q4.

Thanks!
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2018, 10:23
gmat1393 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja

Can you please help in solving Q1 and Q4.

Thanks!

There's been some great discussion of both of these questions in this thread.

Is there something specific that previous explanations by jennpt Alok322, saurabh3, arvind910619, and Dabu3790 have not addressed? If so, please let us know.
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2018, 06:32
GMATNinja could you please take up the first question? I rejected C cause it seemed too extreme to me.
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Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2018, 07:25
arvind910619 wrote:
Question 4. The passage most strongly suggests that which of the
following is true of the chamber in which a Shortt clock's
primary pendulum was housed?

A) It contained elaborate mechanisms that were
attached to, and moved by, the pendulum.

B) It was ﬁrmly sealed during normal operation of the
clock.

C) It was at least partly transparent so as to allow for
certain types of visual data output.

D) It housed both the primary pendulum and another
pendulum.

E) It contained a transmitter that was activated at
irregular intervals to send a signal to the secondary
pendulum.

The primary pendulum did not contain electro mechanical linkage rather ti was connected by electro mechanical linkage to secondary pendulum.

The
primary pendulum swung freely in a vacuum chamber.
Its only job was to synchronize the swing of the
secondary pendulum, which was housed in a
neighboring cabinet and drove the time-indicating
mechanism. Every 30 seconds the secondary pendulum
sent an electrical signal to give a nudge to the primary
pendulum. In return, via an elaborate electromechanical
linkage, the primary pendulum ensured that the
secondary pendulum never got out of step.

we can also read this ...but how to find the answer from this ...
we can also copy paste this
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2018, 08:26
Hi GMATNinja, for Q1, would D have been correct if instead of:

Subtle changes in the earth's rotation slightly reduce the accuracy of all clocks used in observatories after 1921.

It would have been:

Subtle changes in the earth's rotation slightly reduce the accuracy of all mechanical clocks used in observatories after 1921.
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2019, 01:00
1
Hello...

Let me try to help you with the first question.

1. The passage most strongly suggests that its author would agree with which of the following statements about clocks?

A) Before 1921 no one had designed a clock that used electricity to aid in its timekeeping functions.

B) Atomic clocks depend on the operation of mechanisms that were invented by William Shortt and ﬁrst used in the Shortt clock.

C) No type of clock that keeps time more stably and accurately than a Shortt clock relies fundamentally on the operation of a pendulum.

D) Subtle changes in the earth's rotation slightly reduce the accuracy of all clocks used in observatories after 1921.

E) At least some mechanical clocks that do not have pendulums are almost identical to Shortt clocks in their mode of operation.

Let us talk about Options C and D.

C - This option would have been extreme if the phrase "than a Shortt Clock" was not present. If that was the case, then it would have talked about all the clocks. However, the phrase "than a Shortt Clock" links it to the passage.

D - The addition of the word "mechanical" to Option D would not make any difference. It still talks about all mechanical clocks - The passage doesn't give information on this.

Hope that resolves the doubt.

All the best,

Thanks,

Saikiran Dudyala
Byju's GMAT Verbal Expert.
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Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt  [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2019, 06:41
Can someone explain the answer to question 2? I searched the passage but couldn't seem to find anything that would imply the correct answer choice. What am I doing wrong? Thank you!
Re: Ultimate pendulum Clock - William Shortt   [#permalink] 03 Jan 2019, 06:41

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