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# Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form

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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2013, 13:04
3
skamal7 wrote:
vercules,
Can you please explain why the use of although is wrong in this sentence...

Hi skamal7,

Putting into simple words, you use "although" when you are stating facts that happened or happening. "even when" is usually used when you want to express a hypothetical condition or a habit.

I go to school although it is raining.-->

Incorrect, "I go to school" expresses a habit, where as "although" is expressing a fact, i.e. "it is raining". The question under discussion presents the quality of graphite/ diamond. This is a general truth and in its use of although in (D) the sentence incorrectly means that this one time "heat and pressure are removed" and diamond remains in its current state. However, this does not expresses a general quality properly. The sentence's actual meaning is that diamond will retain its state while and even after removing heat and pressure. The removal of heat and pressure has not happened, it may or may not happen thus it is hypothetical. The use of "even if" would also be correct in this case.

I am going to school, although it is raining. -->

Correct, two facts are being expressed "going to school" and "it is raining".

I go to school even when it is raining. -->

Better, the sentence means that "I will go to school whether it rains or not" is it raining right not? may be or may not be (hypothetical).

I go to school even when it rains. -->

Best, now the sentence expresses a habit, using simple present verbs "go" and "rains".

Hope this helps,

Vercules
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2014, 07:03
Hi E-Gmat,

Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form of pure carbon, changes into the substance commonly referred to as diamond and remaining this way whether or not the heat and pressure are removed.

(A) remaining this way whether or not-out
(B) remaining like that even as-out
(C) remaining as such whether or not-out
(D) remains in this way although
(E) remains thus even when

Im able to eliminate Choices A,B,&C as and is the parallel marker First Verb is "Changes" and Second should be "Remains"
But not able to eliminate Choice D & E. Please explain ?

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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2014, 11:37
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Hi Nitin,

As the above poster has pointed out "although" is unnecessarily bringing in a contrast. There is no contrast in the intended meaning of the sentence. The sentence wants to say that even when certain conditions are changed, the diamond doesn't change. So, no contrast is required here.

I hope this helps!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2015, 20:30
1
Two reasons for option E over D :

- D introduces unnecessary contrast by using Although. (Although changes the intended meaning of the sentence)

- In D (X, although Y) - the subject of X & Y are not related.
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2015, 09:06
- In D (X, although Y) - the subject of X & Y are not related.

Can you explain this further. It is not clear to me.
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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21 Sep 2015, 22:14
X, Although Y

- Although introduces "Contrast".

Typical structure of "although" - depedent clause marker - Although X,Y

2 things:

1. X & Y needs to be parallel

2. The subject of X and the subject of Y needs to be related. (Since we are starting a sentence in X with "although" , we need to complete the sentence by referring to a related subject in Y)

Hope it helps!
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2017, 10:58
I am not sure why E is correct?Can somebody explain this?
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2017, 04:47
1
Gomze wrote:
I am not sure why E is correct?Can somebody explain this?

Options A, B and C can be eliminated on the same ground:
The use of conjunction "and" calls for another verb (to be parallel with "changes"): "changes and remains" is the correct parallel structure. Therefore options A, B and C can be eliminated because they use present participle "remaining", which cannot be parallel to the verb "changes".

Between options D and E, E is better due to concision (using one word "thus" instead of three "in this way" to indicate the same meaning).
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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24 Feb 2017, 07:49
Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form of pure carbon, changes into the substance commonly referred to as diamond and remaining this way whether or not the heat and pressure are removed.

Issues: Parallelism | Meaning

Analysis:
1. In this sentence, we need to make sure that we maintain parallelism between verbs i.e. between "changes" and "remains" ("remaining" in original sentence)

(A) remaining this way whether or not
- not parallel

(B) remaining like that even as
- not parallel

(C) remaining as such whether or not
- not parallel

(D) remains in this way although
- "in this way" is ambiguous
- "although" is used for demonstrating contract and distorts the meaning here

(E) remains thus even when

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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2017, 23:18
Hi Can anyone explain why D is wrong and E is correct
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2017, 05:08
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Logically speaking, 'this way' can be said only in face-to-face conversations colloquially when you can show someone something pointing with your index or fore- finger.
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2017, 02:25
az780 wrote:
Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form of pure carbon, changes into the substance commonly referred to as diamond and remaining this way whether or not the heat and pressure are removed.

(A) remaining this way whether or not
(B) remaining like that even as
(C) remaining as such whether or not
(D) remains in this way although
(E) remains thus even when

Source: OG verbal review 2: Q45.

Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form of pure carbon, changes into the substance commonly referred to as diamond and remaining this way whether or not the heat and pressure are removed.

PRESENCE OF "and" and that too just before the underlined part (is a gift from the Lords of GMAT ) -- shows a MARKER for parallelism.

(A) remaining this way whether or not
Parallelism issue + whether or not is redundant. INCORRECT.

(B) remaining like that even as (USAGE OF EVEN AFTER WOULD HAVE BEEN CORRECT)
Parallelism issue. INCORRECT.

(C) remaining as such whether or not
Parallelism issue + whether or not is redundant. INCORRECT.

(D) remains in this way although
usage of ALTHOUGH is wrong here! Although is used to show a contrast but here a contrast is not intended. Therefore, incorrect.

(E) remains thus even when
Here, the usage of remains in this way and remains thus is almost equivalent. CORRECT.
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2017, 06:39
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"changes into the substance commonly referred to as diamond and remaining this way"

The one takeaway from this question is that whenever one sees the construction " and +verbing", it should flash a red signal that that it is a precursor to a potential parallelism error. Immediately look for a similar participle construction on the left of 'and', very often it has been seen that there is a verbed clause rather than a present participle. We can remove a good chunk of faulty choices, as the at least three choices that we can dump in one stone in this given case.
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Re: QOTD: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable  [#permalink]

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15 Feb 2018, 00:18
1
In D, "although" is not correct as suggested above. I am not sure "this way" is acceptable as it is vague usage.
In E, "thus" can be replaced with "so" and vice versa.

I had a car, thus, I drove.
I had a car, so I drove. (No change in meaning)

Thus, (So,) E is much better choice than D.
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Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 12 May 2020, 06:45
[quote="az780"]Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form of pure carbon, changes into the substance commonly referred to as diamond and remaining this way whether or not the heat and pressure are removed.

(A) remaining this way whether or not
(B) remaining like that even as
(C) remaining as such whether or not
(D) remains in this way although
(E) remains thus even when

look at choice D and E.

after some link verbs, we need to present some characteristics of the subject to make the sentence complete.this characteristics is compulsory. without this characteristics , the sentence is incomplete and ungrammatical. the phrase showing characteristic after state verb is called SUBJECT COMPLEMENT.
we can not say" she remain"
we have to say "she remain strong".

the verb of this kind is state verb, but not action verb. state verb shows the state or condition of the subject.

she remain thus=she remain in this state.

"in this way " is used with action dynamic verb but not with state verb. "in this way" dose not show a state and, so, can not go with state verb such as "remain". "in this way" show a manner of action , and so, is used with action verb.

I kick the ball in this way. this is correct because "kick" is action verb. I can not say " I am in this way". I have to say " I am in this state" , or " I am happy".
after state verb, we need to show a state, which is presented by adjective or preposition phrase or any syntactic group showing state.
"in this way" can not show the state but show the manner of action presented by action verb.

we have to understand state verb and subject complement to realize that after state verb we need to show a state, to realize that "in this way" is wrong.

this explanation is long , but , it, I think, is the good way to realize why a phrase such as "in this way" is not fit semantically in a sentence.

"although ..." in choice D also shows a state. state is a condition which exist indefinitely. this is wrong in this context. we dont want indefinite condition/state. we need to show a definite period presented by when-clause.

state verb is topic tested in this problem.

woa, I see that gmat is testing us the grammar at master level because grammar at master level is necessary to understand exact meaning

Originally posted by thangvietnam on 05 Nov 2018, 09:19.
Last edited by thangvietnam on 12 May 2020, 06:45, edited 1 time in total.
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Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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05 Nov 2018, 21:13
nitishkr wrote:
In D, "although" is not correct as suggested above. I am not sure "this way" is acceptable as it is vague usage.
In E, "thus" can be replaced with "so" and vice versa.

I had a car, thus, I drove.
I had a car, so I drove. (No change in meaning)

Thus, (So,) E is much better choice than D.

Hi nitishkr

In this particular question, the word "thus" in choice E does not perform the role of "therefore/so". It actually is another way to say "in this way/as described before". Please check out the second meaning in the list at this link https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dicti ... glish/thus to understand the usage of "thus" in this fashion.

Also, your example sentence (referred to below) is not correct as "thus" cannot join two independent clauses - I know you wanted to equate the meaning of "thus" with "so", but the two are not interchangeable, grammatically speaking. You need a FANBOY conjunction to do so:

I had a car, thus, I drove.

IC1 = I had a car.
IC2 = I drove.

Hope the above explanation and reference help!

Cheers!

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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2019, 09:22
I thought (D) was an attractive answer; however, it is wrong for one major reason.

It's important to first point out that "in this way" and "thus" mean pretty much exactly the same thing. Both Cambridge and Oxford define "thus" as meaning "in this way".

The primary difference is in the split between "although" and "even when". "although" is pretty close, but it means that the heat and pressure are currently removed. In other words, this directly contradicts the first part of the sentence that mentions "under high pressure and intense heat". "under high pressure and intense heat" is in the present tense because of the verb "changes", and "although the heat and pressure are removed" is also in the present tense. "although" would be correct if the sentence had instead been written like this:
Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form of pure carbon, has changed into the substance commonly referred to as diamond and has remained in this way although the heat and pressure are removed.
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2019, 04:04
Waht would be the time marker to be associated with "when" in choice E? Is it the word "remains"?
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2019, 22:26
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(A) remaining this way whether or not

For starters, the parallelism doesn’t make any sense. The parallelism trigger “and” is followed by “remaining”, and there’s no “-ing” modifier that could possibly be parallel to “remaining.”

Also, “whether or not” is apparently considered redundant on the GMAT. “Whether” is enough, and the “or not” is just a waste of words.

For whatever it’s worth, I’m also not crazy about the phrase “in this way.” But I’ll say more about that at the end of the explanation.

In any case, the parallelism alone is enough to eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) remaining like that even as

(B) has the same parallelism problem as (A). See above for more on that issue.

Plus, the phrase “like that” is a little bit suspect here. I think “that” is trying to act as a singular pronoun (more on “that” in this article and in this video), and it presumably refers to “diamond.” So we have: “graphite… (remains) like a diamond even as the heat and pressure are removed.” Nope, the graphite IS a diamond – it’s not “like a diamond” or “like diamond.”

So (B) is gone.

Quote:
(C) remaining as such whether or not

(C) has the same two problems as (A): the parallelism is wrong, and “whether or not” isn’t really the GMAT’s favorite phrase. See the explanation for (A) for more on these issues.

I’m not sure that the phrase “as such” is completely wrong, for whatever it’s worth. I think it’s awkward and clunky and a little bit antiquated, but I wouldn’t eliminate (C) based solely on that phrase. Fortunately, we have plenty of completely concrete reasons to get rid of (C).

And now things get nasty.

Quote:
(D) remains in this way although
(E) remains thus even when

The parallelism is fine now! We have “graphite… changes into… diamond and remains…” That’s cool.

So what’s the difference between (D) and (E)? There are only two things, and both are pretty subtle.

First, “in this way” in (D) is pretty goofy. I guess the phrase “this way” is trying to refer to the fact that the substance is now a diamond? I can’t be certain that it’s WRONG, but it’s awfully weird to say “graphite remains in this way” when we’re trying to say “graphite remains a diamond.” How is being a diamond “a way”? That doesn’t make much sense. In (E), “thus” sounds pretentious, but it can reasonably refer back to “as a diamond.”

The other problem is a little bit clearer. The underlined portion in (D) ends with “although”, which basically means “despite the fact that” – so (D) is saying that the substance remains a diamond “despite the fact that the heat and pressure are removed.” (E) says that the substance remains a diamond “even when the heat and pressure are removed.”

That might seem like a really tiny difference, but (E) makes more sense. The point is that the substance remains a diamond even after the heat and pressure are removed – after all, you wouldn’t wear a hot, pressurized diamond in a ring, right? There’s no reason to emphasize the idea that it remains a diamond despite being removed from the heat.

So it’s probably a little bit unsatisfying, but (E) is our answer.

I think there is a slight meaning difference in D and E. "Although" implies that the heat and pressure are definitely removed, but that is not what the original sentence meant. E solves the parallelism while retaining the original meaning of the sentence: the graphite remains a diamond whether the heat and pressure are removed (or not).
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Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form  [#permalink]

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11 May 2020, 00:08
A) remaining this way whether or not
Not parallel to changes
(B) remaining like that even as
No Parallelism and like
(C) remaining as such whether or no
No parallelism
(D) remains in this way although
in this wayalthough is the issue
(E) remains thus even when
Correct
Re: Under high pressure and intense heat, graphite, the most stable form   [#permalink] 11 May 2020, 00:08

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