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Re: Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dram [#permalink]
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dkverma wrote:
Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds.


A. offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

C. offer more dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship than any yet discovered between dinosaurs and birds

D. have offered the most dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered

E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds


This is the structure of option (A):
... New fossils offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered ...
This is correct.

B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

New fossils offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered ...
This is incorrect. It should be more dramatic that what had previously been discovered. "Yet been discovered" includes "new fossils" too but the comparison cannot be between one element and the whole group. It must be between one element and the rest of the group.

C. offer more dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship than any yet discovered between dinosaurs and birds

New fossils offer more dramatic evidence ... than any yet discovered ...
Again, "any yet discovered" includes "new fossils".

D. have offered the most dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered

Same problem as in (C). Also, "that have yet been discovered" seems to modify birds.

E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

New fossils have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered ...
"Any that has yet been discovered" includes "new fossils" too.

Answer (A)
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Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds.

(A) offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds
(B) offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds
(C) offer more dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship than any yet discovered between dinosaurs and birds
(D) have offered the most dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered
(E) have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

I found that by looking at the meaning and construction of the sentence you can eliminate choices quite easily.

In A, "evidence yet discovered" looks awkward, but doesn't seem incorrect. The key is to look at where "yet discovered" is in the other choices.

A - "yet discovered" refers directly to the "evidence" that the fossils offer. Correct.
B - "yet been discovered" ambiguously refers to "what" and seems to be referring to evidence other than the unearthed fossils. Additionally, "more" adds an unnecessary comparison and complicates the meaning of the sentence. Incorrect.
C - "yet discovered" refers to "the close evolutionary relationship". Incorrect.
D - "yet been discovered" refers to "dinosaurs and birds" (because the sentence uses "have"). Incorrect.
E - "yet been discovered" ambiguously refers to "any" evidence other than the fossils mentioned. Additionally, "more" is used in the same way as in choice B. Also, "have offered" is not grammatically incorrect, but it is unnecessary because it offers no additional information between a past event and the present. Both "offer" and "have offered" mean the same thing in the context of this sentence. Simplicity wins. Incorrect.
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Re: Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dram [#permalink]
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dkverma wrote:
Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds.

A. offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds
B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds
C. offer more dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship than any yet discovered between dinosaurs and birds
D. have offered the most dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered
E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds


One of the splits in the ans choices is "most" and "more"..
Most : Can be used to show comparison between more than 2 entities
More : can be used to show comparison between exactly 2 entities....

Here we are comparing evidence discovered in China with evidences that are discovered till that date...
So, the comparison is between more than 2 entities ...
Hence, "Most" is required ..
So option B, C and E are out..
Now, in option D : "dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered" changes the meaning by shifting the location of the modifier "yet been discovered" ..

Hence Option A is correct
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Re: Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dram [#permalink]
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farzana87 wrote:
daagh wrote:


D. have offered the most dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship
between dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered

- Dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered – fossils have been discovered and not dinosaurs and birds- wrong modification


Hi daagh
Shouldn't the modifier "that have yet been discovered" modify the close evolutionary relationship instead of "fossils"?


Actually in option A (the correct option) "yet been discovered" refers to "evidence", neither to "fossils", nor to "close evolutionary relationship".
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Re: Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dram [#permalink]
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i. The first split is MOST(A, D) vs MORE (B, C, E)
To use MORE, the comparison needs to be between two things, and, in this case, the two things can be "Evidence offered by fossils of feathered dinosaurs unearthed in China" (let's call this "Chinese Evidence" hereinafter), on the one hand, and any evidence other than Chinese Evidence, on the other. Let's see the answer choices.

B: offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered...
what has yet been discovered does not exclude Chinese Evidence. Therefore, B is incorrect. Chinese Evidence can't be more dramatic than itself. The two things being compared must be mutually exclusive.

C: offer more dramatic evidence...than any yet discovered...
→Same as B. any yet discovered does not exclude Chinese Evidence. Thus, incorrect.

D: have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered...
→Same as B. any that has yet been discovered does not exclude Chinese Evidence. Thus, incorrect.

ii. Now, the game is between A and D.
D: "have yet been discovered" modifies wrong nouns, dinosaurs and birds. Thus, incorrect.

iii. A is the last standing winner.
"the most dramatic evidence yet discovered" may not be the perfect sentence to mean "the most dramatic evidence that has been discovered until now" but the best one out of the five choice.
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Re: Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dram [#permalink]
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Aviral1995 wrote:
VeritasKarishma wrote:
dkverma wrote:
Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds.


A. offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

C. offer more dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship than any yet discovered between dinosaurs and birds

D. have offered the most dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered

E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds


This is the structure of option (A):
... New fossils offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered ...
This is correct.

B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

New fossils offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered ...
This is incorrect. It should be more dramatic that what had previously been discovered. "Yet been discovered" includes "new fossils" too but the comparison cannot be between one element and the whole group. It must be between one element and the rest of the group.

C. offer more dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship than any yet discovered between dinosaurs and birds

New fossils offer more dramatic evidence ... than any yet discovered ...
Again, "any yet discovered" includes "new fossils".

D. have offered the most dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered

Same problem as in (C). Also, "that have yet been discovered" seems to modify birds.

E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

New fossils have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered ...
"Any that has yet been discovered" includes "new fossils" too.

Answer (A)


VeritasKarishma thank you for the explanation. I have a question- Does the tense here make sense offer vs have offered. Does offer says fossil generally offer the most dramatic evidence. Hoe can we see the meaning of A which has offer vs meaning in D and E which has "have offered".
How do we know which tense is appropriate here.
Please explain?


Simple present is used to show instantaneous present too, not just habitual activities.

New research suggests that ...
New fossils offer ...
I suggest you to ...

'have offered' isn't wrong either. It shows that the new fossils were tested and the results were found. They offered the most dramatic evidence and they still offer the most dramatic evidence.
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Re: Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dram [#permalink]
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Abhishekrao12 wrote:
Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds.


B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

Explanation : New fossils offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered ...
This is incorrect. It should be more dramatic that what had previously been discovered. "Yet been discovered" includes "new fossils" too but the
comparison cannot be between one element and the whole group. It must be between one element and the rest of the group.

Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer evidence more dramatic than what (fossils that) had yet been discovered (offer).
I have written the missing words which are implied within the brackets.
Is this the correct way of reading this sentence ? If it is not , can you please correct me ?



E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

Explanation : New fossils have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered ...
"Any that has yet been discovered" includes "new fossils" too.

1) Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs have offered more dramatic evidence than any (fossil) that has yet been discovered (have)
I have written the missing words which are implied within the brackets.
Is this the correct way of reading this sentence ? If it is not , can you please correct me ?

2) Don't you think that the word fossil (singular) should actually be fossils (plural). Because in ellipsis you can only replace the missing word by something that is
already present in the sentence ?
Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs have offered more dramatic evidence than any (fossils) that have yet been discovered.

VeritasKarishma :Kindly help me out with this!


Comparison is between new evidence and all previous evidence.

New fossils offer evidence.
This "evidence" is more dramatic than any previous "evidence".
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If you use more, then you must also say ' any other'also to exclude the item from the all the other items. Since we want to say it is the most dramatic, it is an absolute term and hence 'the most' is the appropriate use.
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GMAT0010 wrote:
Hi,
I'm confused with the meaning of the term "yet to be discovered" . Does this mean that in A, the fossils provide evidence about a relationship that needs the right evidence to strengthen the statement?
Curious :D


the modifier ' yet discovered' is modifying the term evidence here.

A : Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds.

fossils of feathered dinosaurs - noun. Unearthed in China - modifying this noun.

offer - verb.

object - the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds where

the most dramatic is the adjective describing the evidence.
of the close relationship between dinosaurs and birds is the prepositional phrase modifying the word 'evidence'.
yet discovered is modifying the word ' evidence'.
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Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds.

A. offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds
B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds -->should be most dramatic
C. offer more dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship than any yet discovered between dinosaurs and birds --> what ???
D. have offered the most dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered --> they still offer
E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds --> they still offer
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Rickooreo wrote:
egmat GMATNinja EMPOWERgmatVerbal KarishmaB RonTargetTestPrep

Can you please share your approach. I started as fossils offers / have offered dramatic evidence.
Now, this evidence was discovered in the past, however, the effect of it being dramatic continues in the present and hence I eliminated A, B and C.

This rationale was used for solving the below question -
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.


(E) Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.


The tense to use in a particular sentence will depend on its context. Two different tenses could be acceptable too in a certain situation.
For example, 'the new fossils show that ...' is fine. It uses simple present. It is similar to 'the book talks about ...' etc.
Use of 'the new fossils have shown that ...' is also correct, if the author were talking in a context in which archaeologists unearthed the fossils and then examined them and found this. Then if the author were giving a report on what they found, she would say, 'fossils have offered this evidence...' and that would be correct.
Sometimes, from one sentence, it is hard to say what the context is so multiple interpretations are possible. Then we cannot eliminate options based on tenses.

The other question you mentioned "Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing," needs present perfect only. We cannot use past tense here because the process of 'appearing' is a continuous one. Different species do keep appearing on Earth. Hence, we must say "the species that have appeared ..." The "appearing" is done for these species.

When we say "of the 500 mn different species that appeared on Earth," we are implying that the species appeared at some time in the past and now they don't. We know that is not correct.

Consider another example:
5 actors have auditioned for this role ... (means auditions are still on but 5 people are done with theirs... others could be auditioning too)
5 actors auditioned for this role ... (means auditions are over and 5 people auditioned)

Since new species appearing on Earth is an ongoing process, we cannot use simple past.
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Can anyone explain what is the difference in between the tense used in options A, B , and C and the tense used in options D, and E.

Offer and Have Offered is that a split.

Please help.
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anewbeginning wrote:
Can anyone explain what is the difference in between the tense used in options A, B , and C and the tense used in options D, and E.

Offer and Have Offered is that a split.

Please help.

I dont think have offered or offer is correct split. There are many other issues with the wrong options.
Check these links for your reasoning.
https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... 13762.html

For the tenses as you asked A B and C use simple present tense and D and E use present perfect. As per GMAT rules we should keep it simple so simple tenses are preferred, means if something could be said in simple tenses, it is preferred.
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B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

Is it redundant to say 'has yet been', since the present perfect 'has been' implies continuous up to the present time, and 'yet discovered' implies discovered up to date?
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Will2020 wrote:
VeritasKarishma wrote:
Abhishekrao12 wrote:
Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds.


B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

Explanation : New fossils offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered ...
This is incorrect. It should be more dramatic that what had previously been discovered. "Yet been discovered" includes "new fossils" too but the
comparison cannot be between one element and the whole group. It must be between one element and the rest of the group.

Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer evidence more dramatic than what (fossils that) had yet been discovered (offer).
I have written the missing words which are implied within the brackets.
Is this the correct way of reading this sentence ? If it is not , can you please correct me ?



E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

Explanation : New fossils have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered ...
"Any that has yet been discovered" includes "new fossils" too.

1) Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs have offered more dramatic evidence than any (fossil) that has yet been discovered (have)
I have written the missing words which are implied within the brackets.
Is this the correct way of reading this sentence ? If it is not , can you please correct me ?

2) Don't you think that the word fossil (singular) should actually be fossils (plural). Because in ellipsis you can only replace the missing word by something that is
already present in the sentence ?
Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs have offered more dramatic evidence than any (fossils) that have yet been discovered.

VeritasKarishma :Kindly help me out with this!


Comparison is between new evidence and all previous evidence.

New fossils offer evidence.
This "evidence" is more dramatic than any previous "evidence".


Hi VeritasKarishma! About your post just before this one, regarding the split OFFER vs HAVE OFFERED (I couldn't post there - 3 quotes within each other rule). Considering from a meaning stand point, a switch from the construction "fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer" to the construction "fossils of feathered dinosaurs have offered" changes the meaning. "Offer" suggests that "the offering" will continue to be true. "Have offered" indicates only that it was once true. It makes it sound like "the fossils offered evidence", but maybe not anymore. If you take a look at Q 894 from OG 2020, (B) has the same issue: "Australian embryologists have found evidence that has suggested". What are you thoughts about this issue? DmitryFarber what is your take on split "offer" VS "have offered" regarding meaning? Tks! :)


As stated in the comment you are quoting, neither is wrong.

A offers evidence ... - means that if anyone tests A, they will see that it offers this evidence

A has offered evidence ... - means scientists tested A and found this evidence (if someone else does it, they will find it too). It implies an action was taken and this was found.

Present perfect shows recency - an action done recently with implications for now.
Whether you use simple present or present perfect, depends on what you want to say.
Neither is wrong in this case.

In the other OG question that you are talking about, 'have found' is not underlined. It says 'embryologists have found evidence' so it implies they tested and found this.
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imSKR wrote:
Please suggest VeritasKarishma ma'm AndrewN sir

Can i reject B on basis of placement of more?

Quote:
Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds.

B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds


Dramatic: adjective
What has yet been discovered: Noun

Offer evidence more <adjective> than <noun>- WRONG

If, offer more evidence than what xx
More <noun> than <noun> - NOT WRONG

Hello, imSKR. The placement of the comparative more dramatic in reference to evidence is indeed incorrect. More dramatic evidence would be appropriate instead. I would not create a rule, though, about which parts of speech cannot be combined in a shell of a sentence. Consider the comparative sentence, Soap A gets a car cleaner than what comes off the factory production line. I would not immediately discard the sentence, even if I would look for other ways to express the vital meaning.

Thank you for thinking to ask me about this one. Good luck with your studies.

- Andrew
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Kimberly77 wrote:
KarishmaB wrote:
dkverma wrote:
Unearthed in China, fossils of feathered dinosaurs offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds.


A. offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

C. offer more dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship than any yet discovered between dinosaurs and birds

D. have offered the most dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered

E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds


This is the structure of option (A):
... New fossils offer the most dramatic evidence yet discovered ...
This is correct.

B. offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

New fossils offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered ...
This is incorrect. It should be more dramatic that what had previously been discovered. "Yet been discovered" includes "new fossils" too but the comparison cannot be between one element and the whole group. It must be between one element and the rest of the group.

C. offer more dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship than any yet discovered between dinosaurs and birds

New fossils offer more dramatic evidence ... than any yet discovered ...
Again, "any yet discovered" includes "new fossils".

D. have offered the most dramatic evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds that have yet been discovered

Same problem as in (C). Also, "that have yet been discovered" seems to modify birds.

E. have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered of the close evolutionary relationship between dinosaurs and birds

New fossils have offered more dramatic evidence than any that has yet been discovered ...
"Any that has yet been discovered" includes "new fossils" too.

Answer (A)


Thanks KarishmaB for great explanation.
To clarify, not quite sure we can't compare old fossils to new fossils here? Are't they similar elements?

Also you mentioned comparison cannot be between one element and the whole group. It must be between one element and the rest of the group.
Isn't both are comparing one to many here (the whole group/ the rest of the group ?

Not sure what did I miss?
Could you help clarify?
Thanks :please:


Consider this:

Kimberly is taller than all my friends.
This makes sense if Kimberly is not my friend. I have a friend group of 3 - A, B and C say. Kimberly is taller than all three of them.

But what if my friend group has 4 people - Kimberly, A, B and C?
Can I say "Kimberly is taller than all my friends"? No. I must say, "Kimberly is taller than all my other friends."
or "Kimberly is tallest of all my friends."

Similarly, I cannot say, "Fossils A offer evidence more dramatic than what has yet been discovered" because fossils A are a part of the evidence that has yet been discovered. Fossils A have been discovered already.

Comparing a person with a group is not a problem as long as the person doesn't belong to the same group.
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