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# United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co

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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 12:53
United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe computer servers to the newly developed flash-memory processors (FMPs) instead of purchasing new models of its existing technology, in order to significantly reduce its maintenance costs. FMP computers have simpler, more reliable processors, and their average operational span is substantially longer.

Which of the following would be most useful in assessing whether the bank management’s decision will reduce the company’s maintenance costs?

First lets see option C, D & E

(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.
we are not looking for old technology. Irrelevant.

(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
Next year? That doesnt say anything about maintenance cost. Incorrect.

(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.
other banks? not related to maintenance cost. Incorrect.

A & B are a bit confusing. We have to answer yes and no the qs and it should weaken or strengthen the conclusion. If it has no effect then its incorrect option.

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.
Yes: Low maintenance cost. strengthening
No: Same operational span. Given in the passage, one of the reason why new technology has low maintenance cost. So it will weaken the conclusion.

(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.
Yes: Energy efficient. Less expense on electricity.
No: Same energy utilization. Same maintenance. Not weakening.

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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 13:19
United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe computer servers to the newly developed flash-memory processors (FMPs) instead of purchasing new models of its existing technology, in order to significantly reduce its maintenance costs. FMP computers have simpler, more reliable processors, and their average operational span is substantially longer.

Analysis of the argument:

The stimulus talks about replacing the processors in the mainframe computer servers with FMPs. The management assumes doing so will reduce its maintenance costs. The reason given for the above assumption is that FMP computers have simpler, more reliable processors and longer average operational span.

Main point to note here is that, the evidence given is about FMP computers which use some reliable processors and have longer operational span. But the question is, does the FMP processors, which is what the management is going to use in their mainframe computers, do those processors have a longer operational span.

FMP processors are different from FMP computers using some other processors. Hence the correct answer should be A.

Which of the following would be most useful in assessing whether the bank management’s decision will reduce the company’s maintenance costs?

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.
(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors. Energy efficiency of FMP computers is irrelavant to the argument in question
(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well. Irrelevant and out of scope
(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities. Again, buying more mainframe servers does not help to assess whether company's maintenance costs will reduce.
(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems. Irrelevant and out of scope.
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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 14:02
It is a strengthening question, asked that whether and what can be reason behind thinking that FMP should replace the old technology.

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.: It is same as given in last line, so rule out as too simple, treat it as catch.
(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors. : Yes this could be, as if they will be highly efficient, so its good decision by management and will support them.
(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well. : Not a concern to us, incorrect
(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities. : Question is talking about purchasing FMP's
(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems. : out of context, Incorrect

So we are left with only B option
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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 14:33
United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe computer servers to the newly developed flash-memory processors (FMPs) instead of purchasing new models of its existing technology, in order to significantly reduce its maintenance costs. FMP computers have simpler, more reliable processors, and their average operational span is substantially longer.

Which of the following would be most useful in assessing whether the bank management’s decision will reduce the company’s maintenance costs?

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology. - already stated in the passage
(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors. - correct
(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well. - this information is not useful, because this information is not related to maintenance costs
(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities. - the intentions of management are not related to maintenance costs
(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems. - other banks deeds are not related to maintenance costs of our bank
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Updated on: 17 Jul 2019, 18:45
(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.
Correct answer. Unless the answer to this question were yes rather than no, the switch to FMP processors would not help to significantly reduce the company’s maintenance costs. So it is essential to know the answer to this question to determine whether switching to FMP processors would help.

(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.
This question is out of scope. The argument only concerns on reducing the company’s maintenance costs, not other costs, i.e. energy cost.

(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.
The existence of servers that are based on the older technology doesn't have any bearing on the question of whether switching from the older technology to FMP technology would help reduce the company's maintenance costs.

(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
Increasing the number of mainframe servers next year would probably increase the company's maintenance costs, but it would do so regardless of whether the company uses the existing technology or the FMP technology.

(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.
The information about other banks' recent computing system upgrade doesn't have any bearing on the question of whether switching from the older technology to FMP technology would help reduce the company's maintenance costs.

Originally posted by chondro48 on 17 Jul 2019, 17:12.
Last edited by chondro48 on 17 Jul 2019, 18:45, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 17:19
Deconstructing the argument-

Management decided to upgrade existing servers instead of purchasing new models for saving costs.They believe upgraded servers are more reliable and have longer(compared to what?) average operational span.
Management seems to had made some assumptions while taking this decision like cost of upgrading to new server is lower than purchasing new models, operational span of upgraded server is better than or similar to old servers/new models,etc.

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.
This is one of our guess too. Let's keep this.

(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.
Energy saving wasn't a factor for the management while taking the decision. Out of scope.

(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.
It doesn't matter. Apart from saving costs, management also considered simplicity,reliability and life span of the servers.

(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
Again, it doesn't matter. Distraction.

(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.
Out of scope. Nothing has been mentioned about other banks.

Hence option A
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17 Jul 2019, 17:21
conclusion ; United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe computer servers to the newly developed flash-memory processors (FMPs) instead of purchasing new models of its existing technology, in order to significantly reduce its maintenance costs
this is evaluate argument type question ;
IMO D; would be correct option
Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
yes the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities this weakens the conclusion
no the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities this strengthens the conclusion

United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe computer servers to the newly developed flash-memory processors (FMPs) instead of purchasing new models of its existing technology, in order to significantly reduce its maintenance costs. FMP computers have simpler, more reliable processors, and their average operational span is substantially longer.

Which of the following would be most useful in assessing whether the bank management’s decision will reduce the company’s maintenance costs?

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.
(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.
(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.
(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.
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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 18:46
United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe computer servers to the newly developed flash-memory processors (FMPs) instead of purchasing new models of its existing technology, in order to significantly reduce its maintenance costs. FMP computers have simpler, more reliable processors, and their average operational span is substantially longer.

Which of the following would be most useful in assessing whether the bank management’s decision will reduce the company’s maintenance costs?

Given : UI management want to upgrade its M computers to FMPS instead of new models of existing tech. to reduce maintenance cost .
FPM is simpler ,reliable, operates for longer span

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.- Incorrect
Its already given in the argument that operational span is substantially longer for FPM

(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.-Correct
As UI is looking to reduce maintenance cost , energy efficiency is a factor to consider.

(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.-Incorrect
Out Of scope, irrelevant for argument

(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.-Incorrect
out of scope , whether UI intends to buy more on not

(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.-Incorrect
Out Of scope , no new useful information by comparing it with other backs

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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 19:06
(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology. --no need to be significantly longer
(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors. --correct energy cost will impact the maintenance cost
(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well. --not related
(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities. --not related
(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems. --not related
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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 20:27
1
Updated existing MF comp servers with FMP processors instead of purchasing new models of existing technology processors. this move is to reduce maintenance costs. these are also simpler (meaning simpler installation?), reliable processors and their average operational span is substantially longer.

Which of the following would be most useful in assessing whether the bank management’s decision will reduce the company’s maintenance costs?

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.
this option suggests to evaluate operational span of FMP models with the new models of existing technology. however, this has already been compared and passage mentions that average operational span is substantially longer

(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.
Comparing efficiency between the models. there is no efficiency evaluated in the passage. if not efficient, then it will incur considerable cost in if amount of energy expended is high. keep the answer.

(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.
If there are servers available from older technology, it will not help determine the management's decision to reduce maintenance costs with FMP processors

(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
Even if they intend to purchase more servers next year, the question of buying FMP processors is about the current management's decision.

(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.
Even if other banks did upgrade their computing system, it would not impact the buying decision for this bank.

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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 21:20
United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe computer servers to the newly developed flash-memory processors (FMPs) instead of purchasing new models of its existing technology, in order to significantly reduce its maintenance costs. FMP computers have simpler, more reliable processors, and their average operational span is substantially longer.

Summary: Choose Upgrade existing server with new tech instead of new model with same tech since its more simple, reliable and operational span is longer.
Will this decision reduce operational costs?

Which of the following would be most useful in assessing whether the bank management’s decision will reduce the company’s maintenance costs?

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.
Yes - Strengthen No - may not reduce. Lets keep this

After further analysis of other answer choices, this seems to be a trap. It is given as a fact that, it is SUBSTANTIALLY longer, whether or not it is significantly longer does not really matter

(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.
Higher energy efficiency does not guarantee lower maintenance costs. So Not this

(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.
producing and manufacturing Older technology or not is criteria to assess the maintenance costs
(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
Yes - Weaken - so more servers anyway has to be purchased so costs may not reduce. No - Strengthen, maintenance costs will reduce.
(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.
Does not matter when the upgrade was done.

So, IMO D.
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Updated on: 21 Jul 2019, 23:43
The management is upgrading its Mainframe Computer Servers to FMPs because FMP computers have simpler, more reliable processors, and their average operational span is substantially longer.

We need to find an answer that will help us to assess whether the bank management’s decision will reduce the company’s maintenance costs.

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.
The operation span might be significantly longer. However, the need for maintenance can be more frequent. We cannot access the decision with this knowledge.

(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.
With higher efficiency, comes lower maintenance. This shows computers equipped with FMPs can deliver more output at less cost. Thus, reducing maintenance costs.

(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.
Whether the manufacturer still produces the older technology products or not, does not help us analyze whether maintenance cost has reduced by switching to FMPs.

(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
Bank's management can purchase mainframes due to various reasons - maybe it is way cheaper to buy than FMPs? We cannot definitely be sure that they decide to purchase mainframes because the maintenance of FMPs was not cheaper.

(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.
The challenges faced by United Investments might not be the same as that of other banks. So, their decision is irrelevant to us.

Originally posted by Sayon on 17 Jul 2019, 21:24.
Last edited by Sayon on 21 Jul 2019, 23:43, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 22:14
1
we have to evaluate
whether the bank management’s decision will reduce the company’s maintenance costs?

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.
it's already given in stimulus that FMP operational span is substantially longer and evaluating this answer doesn't help explain management decision will reduce maintenance cost or not (OUT)

(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.
let's apply the variance test on this answer choice
yes--FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors
if this is the case then FMP computers will use less energy than that of the new model of the existing processors to perform the same task
and this will reduce the maintenance cost (this STRENGTHEN the management decision)

no--FMP computers have not higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors
if this is the case then FMP computers will use more energy than that of the new model of the existing processors to perform the same task
and this will increase the maintenance cost (this WEAKEN the management decision)

(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.
manufacturers produce and market older technology server or not doesn't help to assess the management decision (OUT)

(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
we are concerned about ...upgrading to FMP computers will reduce maintenance costs or not
this answer choice talks about the intention of bank's management to buy mainframe servers next year.....this doesn't answer our concern whether management decision will help reduce cost (OUT)

(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.
other banks upgraded their computing system or not doesn't help evaluate that management decision will reduce maintenance cost or not
so this option is (OUT)
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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 22:45
(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.
Comparison between new models of old technology and FMPs regarding operation span will definitely help in assessing the decision taken by the board....................Best Option.

(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.
This information doesn't help much in assessing the decision. Second best option after "A".....................Can be eliminated.

(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.
This is option is not related to the topic.....................Can be eliminated.

(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
This is option is not related to the topic.....................Can be eliminated.

(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.
This information doesn't give much information. Other banks can have other reasons to do so....................Can be eliminated.

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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 23:28
Maintenance expenses are the costs incurred to keep an item in good condition or good working order. Examples of such costs are desktops, printers, electricity, IT support, etc. Only B is concerned with maintenance costs.
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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 23:40
We need to find an answer choice which when true strengthens the decision of the bank and when we negate this choice, it should significantly weaken the decision of the bank.

Answer choice A is the most useful in assessing the bank management's decision. This is because in determining whether FMP processors' operational span is significantly longer than the new models of existing technology we are able tell if the rationale behind the bank's choice of FMP which is to significantly reduce operational maintenance cost can be achieved. If this assessment reveals that the FMP processors have longer operational spans, then the bank's rationale is strengthened. However should it turn out that FMP processor's operational span is short, then bank management's decision is weakened.

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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2019, 23:50
Analysis: Management has decided to upgrade its mainframe computers to FMP's. This move is believed to reduce maintenance cost significantly. FMP's have simpler, more reliable processers and their span is longer compared to new model of existing technology. If there is some other problem with FMP's such as high initial investment cost which would offset the long term cost benefits, there would be no point in swtching.

(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology. -Incorrect. This is already stated in the argument. Even if the span of FMP's is equal to that of new models of existing technology, there can still be cost advantage
(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors. -Correct. If the FMP's are inefficient, then their maintenance cost will be higher, which would work against management's intentions
(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well. - Incorrect. We are already told about new models of existing technology. Whether manufacturers produce computers with older technology is irrelevant.
(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.-Incorrect. Irrelevant
(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems. - Incorrect, as what other banks do is irrelevant for the discussion

Correct Ans: B

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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2019, 00:09
(A) Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology. We don`t know the fact that FMP processors will have a longer life than new models, as there is no comparison in the paragraph also.
(B) Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors. Again, we don`t know the energy efficiency comparison between FMP and new models.
(C) Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on older technology as well. This can be contributed to the answer, but mainframe computer manufacturers have already upgraded the technology.
(D) Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities. This can strengthen the assessment, as if a bank will buy more mainframe servers, then they can compare the FMP and mainframe, and see that the cost is low for FMP or not.
(E) Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems. : This does not have to do anything with the cost assessment of a particular bank.

Please hit kudos if you like the solution.
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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2019, 00:37
Evaluate the Argument questions require the answer choice that helps figure out the validity of the argument. Answering Yes and No to the answer choice we can see how the conclusion will change. What we should evaluate is whether new computers will reduce the maintenance expenditures.

A. Whether FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology.

B. Whether FMP computers have higher energy efficiency than that of new models of the existing processors.

C. Whether mainframe computer manufacturers still produce and market servers that are based on the older technology as well.
The stimulus says that they are still produced.

D. Whether the bank's management intends to purchase more mainframe servers next year, in order to expand its capabilities.
We are discussing the current situation, not the future.

E. Whether other banks in its market recently upgraded their computing systems.
This is irrelevant to our question.

IMO B
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Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2019, 00:58
We have to find the option which helps us to evaluate whether up gradation of the mainframe computer servers to FMPs is cost efficient or not.

A. If the FMP processors’ operational span is significantly longer than that of new models of existing technology, then these FMPs will help to cut the maintenance cost.
If their operational span is not significantly longer , then maintenance cost will not be reduced. Keep this option

B. 'higher energy efficiency' can't tell us whether the maintenance cost will be high or low. {Irrelevant}

C. This option doesn't help us to compare maintenance cost of new models of existing technology and that of when upgraded to the newly developed flash-memory processors. {Irrelevant}

D. The the bank's management intention to purchase more mainframe servers next year is irrelevant for the evaluation.

E. We have no idea whether other banks upgraded to FPMs. Also, it doesn't give us any information about the maintenance cost. {out}

IMO A
Re: United Investments’ management has decided to upgrade its mainframe co   [#permalink] 18 Jul 2019, 00:58

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