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# United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit

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United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2009, 23:48
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United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included
B. which includes
C. including
D. some of which were
E. among them being

[Reveal] Spoiler:
United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included

that could refer to posts or term. The main problem is that the relative is preceded by a comma. Normally you shouldn't use a comma before that.

B. which includes

which refers to term, notice that the verb is in third person singular, which is not correct.

C. including

I don't know whether this "clearly" refers to posts but is the only option left. If someone can clarify why including is not ambiguous please do so.

D. some of which were

some of which ... modifies the previous noun. In this case term. This is not correct.

E. among them being

I think the use of being here is incorrect. Also among them has no clear reference.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2009, 08:23
I would go with D.
For me , some of which were looks better option than including
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2009, 08:40
I choose C.

Here's my reasoning ....

A) By using "that" it refers to term ... that makes no sense.

B) Same problem as "A"

C) including serves to modify "posts" ... I like this answer.

D) Wordy

E) Wordy
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2009, 08:57
Franklin wrote:
I choose C.

Here's my reasoning ....

A) By using "that" it refers to term ... that makes no sense.

B) Same problem as "A"

C) including serves to modify "posts" ... I like this answer.

D) Wordy

E) Wordy

I agree that the answer should be C, because the others are wrong. But could you explain why including refers to "posts" instead of term?
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2009, 11:15
mikeCoolBoy wrote:
Franklin wrote:
I choose C.

Here's my reasoning ....

A) By using "that" it refers to term ... that makes no sense.

B) Same problem as "A"

C) including serves to modify "posts" ... I like this answer.

D) Wordy

E) Wordy

I agree that the answer should be C, because the others are wrong. But could you explain why including refers to "posts" instead of term?

I actually edited my previous post. I explained my reasoning but it still didn't seem right to me and still doesn't so I deleted it. I felt that including modifies "posts" but the way the sentence is structured it doesn't make sense so I rewrote the sentence in my head ...

"During his first term, United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party, including assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee."

This made more sense to me. Answer C really isn't right with the original sentence ... it's probably wrong because "including" may modify posts or it may not but I couldn't justify choosing any of the other answers because they were clearly wrong, e.g., to use "that" there shouldn't be a comma, "which" is a relative pronoun and refers to "term", etc ... So C is the best out of the bunch but I couldn't come up with a good reason that justifies choosing the answer other than it is better than the others.

This seems to be a bad question. Thoughts?

Is C wrong?
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2009, 01:57
I completely agree with you. I searched the OA and is C. However, I don't know why including refers to posts. It obviously makes sense but is it grammatically unambiguous?

I don't know if someone can explain it please do so.
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2010, 13:59
In this kind of questions always chose ing form
Hence my choice is C
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2010, 14:43
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United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included - 'that' after a comma is almost wrong in GMAT
B. which includes - 'which' modifies the noun preceding the comma. In this case 'which' is modifying 'term' which is incorrect
C. including - 'including' is a modifier that is modfiying the entire preceding clause. Hence correct.
D. some of which were - 'some of which' is adjective which modifies the closest noun. Here it is modifying 'term' which is not the intent.
E. among them being -
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2016, 21:49
A. that included --- That has ambiguous antecedant - posts and terrm
B. which includes --- similar as A
C. including ---Correct
D. some of which were --- Looks correct but C is concise
E. among them being --- I don't prefer using being unless it's used in a progressive tense
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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27 Apr 2016, 06:31
[quote="mikeCoolBoy"]United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included
B. which includes
C. including
D. some of which were
E. among them being

gmat want to teach us a pattern here.

which can not jump over adverb to modify a far noun, though it can jump over a noun modifier to modify that noun.

this is a lesion
a,b,d are out
being in e is redundant.
including, unlike which, can jump over an adverb to modify a noun.
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2017, 14:01
1
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A - it modify first term rather than post, can't use comma before that
B - it modify first term rather than post
C - Correctly used comma + ing set up
D - This is not run on sentence and is incorrect because of same reason as in B
E - Creates run on sentence, being is wordy, and verb is missing.

In general, when you are using "that" as a relative pronoun to introduce a modifying clause, you should keep these two things in mind:

1) "that" won't be preceded by a comma
2) "that" will refer to the preceding noun
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2017, 12:22
anairamitch1804 wrote:
A - it modify first term rather than post, can't use comma before that
B - it modify first term rather than post
C - Correctly used comma + ing set up
D - This is not run on sentence and is incorrect because of same reason as in B
E - Creates run on sentence, being is wordy, and verb is missing.

In general, when you are using "that" as a relative pronoun to introduce a modifying clause, you should keep these two things in mind:

1) "that" won't be preceded by a comma
2) "that" will refer to the preceding noun

Hi Anaira ,

Don't you think the verg ing modifier must makes sense with the subject of the clause it modifies ,I suppose United states senator Daniel Inouye is the subject and this ing modifier dosen't makes sense with this.Please correct me if my understanding is wrong.
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United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2017, 22:09
United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included - usage of comma + that is incorrect
B. which includes - which refers to first term
C. including - Correct
D. some of which were - the "which" is trying to refer to "several posts", which is way too far away from the comma to be acceptable
E. among them being - usage of being

EMPOWERgmatRichC , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , daagh , egmat , GMATNinjaTwo , sayantanc2k , other experts
Comma + including modifies the preceding noun and thus does not actually work like a verb+ ing . But isn't posts too far away for comma+including to work this way?
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2017, 00:04
A) use of past tense in included not required.
B) posts - includes, S-V disagreement.
C) including: appropriate as modifies posts
D) wordy
E) being not appropriate
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2017, 03:24
d is wrong wrong because which can not refer to a far noun
while
including can refer to a far noun

this is extremly hard problem
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2017, 15:07
Skywalker18 wrote:
United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included - usage of comma + that is incorrect
B. which includes - which refers to first term
C. including - Correct
D. some of which were - the "which" is trying to refer to "several posts", which is way too far away from the comma to be acceptable
E. among them being - usage of being

Comma + including modifies the preceding noun and thus does not actually work like a verb+ ing . But isn't posts too far away for comma+including to work this way?

Dear Skywalker18,

I'm happy to respond.

The short answer is "no," it's not too far.

Here, it's important to appreciate the different between vital vs. non-vital modifiers. See
GMAT Grammar: Vital Noun Modifiers

The word "posts" is generic and nondescript. It needs clarification. Both prepositional phrases are necessary to describe it. This is the entire phrase
" . . . posts within the Democratic party during his first term . . . "
This phrase functions as a single logical unit, and this single logical unit is "touching" the modifier "including" that targets it.

The distance that matters is not a word count. The distance that matter is one of logic & meaning, and in this context, there's really no distance at all between target and modifier.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2017, 03:39
mikemcgarry wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included - usage of comma + that is incorrect
B. which includes - which refers to first term
C. including - Correct
D. some of which were - the "which" is trying to refer to "several posts", which is way too far away from the comma to be acceptable
E. among them being - usage of being

Comma + including modifies the preceding noun and thus does not actually work like a verb+ ing . But isn't posts too far away for comma+including to work this way?

Dear Skywalker18,

I'm happy to respond.

The short answer is "no," it's not too far.

Here, it's important to appreciate the different between vital vs. non-vital modifiers. See
GMAT Grammar: Vital Noun Modifiers

The word "posts" is generic and nondescript. It needs clarification. Both prepositional phrases are necessary to describe it. This is the entire phrase
" . . . posts within the Democratic party during his first term . . . "
This phrase functions as a single logical unit, and this single logical unit is "touching" the modifier "including" that targets it.

The distance that matters is not a word count. The distance that matter is one of logic & meaning, and in this context, there's really no distance at all between target and modifier.

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Hi Mike,
Please clarify the below- comma + ing modifies the preceding clause and modifies the subject as well. Now, subject of the sentence is United States Senator Daniel Inouye , so how including is modifying the subject. As per the meaning including should modify posts, so is comma+ing (including) presently gives additional information about the preceding clause.
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2017, 03:42
hi, I understood why other options a/b/d/e are incorrect. I have a few cents of doubt in option c-
Please clarify the below- comma + ing modifies the preceding clause and modifies the subject as well. Now, subject of the sentence is United States Senator Daniel Inouye , so how including is modifying the subject. As per the meaning including should modify posts, so is comma+ing (including) presently give additional information about the preceding clause and thus do not modify the subject?
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2017, 03:44
anairamitch1804 wrote:
A - it modify first term rather than post, can't use comma before that
B - it modify first term rather than post
C - Correctly used comma + ing set up
D - This is not run on sentence and is incorrect because of same reason as in B
E - Creates run on sentence, being is wordy, and verb is missing.

In general, when you are using "that" as a relative pronoun to introduce a modifying clause, you should keep these two things in mind:

1) "that" won't be preceded by a comma
2) "that" will refer to the preceding noun

Hi,
Please clarify the below- comma + ing modifies the preceding clause and modifies the subject as well. Now, subject of the sentence is United States Senator Daniel Inouye , so how including is modifying the subject. As per the meaning including should modify posts, so does comma+ing (including) presently give additional information about the preceding clause and how to be certain that in such scenarios the comma + ing do not modify the subject of the preceding clause.
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2017, 11:43
sunny91 wrote:

Hi Mike,
Please clarify the below- comma + ing modifies the preceding clause and modifies the subject as well. Now, subject of the sentence is United States Senator Daniel Inouye , so how including is modifying the subject. As per the meaning including should modify posts, so is comma+ing (including) presently gives additional information about the preceding clause.

Dear sunny91,

I'm happy to respond.

My friend, here's what I'll say. Some students imagine that they can learn all the "rules" to grammar and that this rule-based approach will lead to GMAT SC mastery. That approach is doomed to failure. Yes, it absolutely is important to learn the basic rules of grammar--those alone give you about 25% of what you need for GMAT SC. Beyond that, you need to develop intuition for the way that sentences convey meaning through logic and rhetoric. The only way for a non-native speaker to develop this intuition is through an assiduous habit of reading. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

I will also say, on the rules side, please be precise in your language. Precision in language support precision in thought. The form of a verb that ends in -ing can be part of a progressive tense verb or a participle or a gerund. It's important to learn the precise language.

When we have
[independent clause],[participle]
there's no one-size-fits-all rule for this case. Sometimes the participle is a noun-modifier modifying the noun that it touches. Sometimes the participle is a noun modifier that modifies the subject of the sentence. Sometimes the participle is a verb modifier modifying the action of the independent clause. So much depends on the meaning conveyed in the independent clause, the rhetorical emphasis within the independent clause, and the meaning of the modifier. In this particular case, the modifier "including" by its very nature must modify some collection or set: in this sentence, it absolutely cannot modify the subject, Daniel Inouye, and has to modify the noun "several posts." Again, the best way to develop intuition for all these nuances is to develop a habit of reading.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit   [#permalink] 25 Sep 2017, 11:43

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