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United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit

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United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included
B. which includes
C. including
D. some of which were
E. among them being

[Reveal] Spoiler:
United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included

that could refer to posts or term. The main problem is that the relative is preceded by a comma. Normally you shouldn't use a comma before that.

B. which includes

which refers to term, notice that the verb is in third person singular, which is not correct.

C. including

I don't know whether this "clearly" refers to posts but is the only option left. If someone can clarify why including is not ambiguous please do so.

D. some of which were

some of which ... modifies the previous noun. In this case term. This is not correct.

E. among them being

I think the use of being here is incorrect. Also among them has no clear reference.
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2009, 08:23
I would go with D.
For me , some of which were looks better option than including
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2009, 08:40
I choose C.

Here's my reasoning ....

A) By using "that" it refers to term ... that makes no sense.

B) Same problem as "A"

C) including serves to modify "posts" ... I like this answer.

D) Wordy

E) Wordy

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2009, 08:57
Franklin wrote:
I choose C.

Here's my reasoning ....

A) By using "that" it refers to term ... that makes no sense.

B) Same problem as "A"

C) including serves to modify "posts" ... I like this answer.

D) Wordy

E) Wordy


I agree that the answer should be C, because the others are wrong. But could you explain why including refers to "posts" instead of term?

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2009, 11:15
mikeCoolBoy wrote:
Franklin wrote:
I choose C.

Here's my reasoning ....

A) By using "that" it refers to term ... that makes no sense.

B) Same problem as "A"

C) including serves to modify "posts" ... I like this answer.

D) Wordy

E) Wordy


I agree that the answer should be C, because the others are wrong. But could you explain why including refers to "posts" instead of term?


I actually edited my previous post. I explained my reasoning but it still didn't seem right to me and still doesn't so I deleted it. :-D I felt that including modifies "posts" but the way the sentence is structured it doesn't make sense so I rewrote the sentence in my head ...

"During his first term, United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party, including assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee."

This made more sense to me. Answer C really isn't right with the original sentence ... it's probably wrong because "including" may modify posts or it may not but I couldn't justify choosing any of the other answers because they were clearly wrong, e.g., to use "that" there shouldn't be a comma, "which" is a relative pronoun and refers to "term", etc ... So C is the best out of the bunch but I couldn't come up with a good reason that justifies choosing the answer other than it is better than the others.

This seems to be a bad question. Thoughts?

Is C wrong?

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2009, 01:57
I completely agree with you. I searched the OA and is C. However, I don't know why including refers to posts. It obviously makes sense but is it grammatically unambiguous?

I don't know if someone can explain it please do so.

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2010, 13:59
In this kind of questions always chose ing form
Hence my choice is C

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included - 'that' after a comma is almost wrong in GMAT
B. which includes - 'which' modifies the noun preceding the comma. In this case 'which' is modifying 'term' which is incorrect
C. including - 'including' is a modifier that is modfiying the entire preceding clause. Hence correct.
D. some of which were - 'some of which' is adjective which modifies the closest noun. Here it is modifying 'term' which is not the intent.
E. among them being -

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2016, 16:42
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2016, 21:49
A. that included --- That has ambiguous antecedant - posts and terrm
B. which includes --- similar as A
C. including ---Correct
D. some of which were --- Looks correct but C is concise
E. among them being --- I don't prefer using being unless it's used in a progressive tense

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2016, 06:31
[quote="mikeCoolBoy"]United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included
B. which includes
C. including
D. some of which were
E. among them being

gmat want to teach us a pattern here.

which can not jump over adverb to modify a far noun, though it can jump over a noun modifier to modify that noun.

this is a lesion
a,b,d are out
being in e is redundant.
including, unlike which, can jump over an adverb to modify a noun.
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2017, 14:01
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A - it modify first term rather than post, can't use comma before that
B - it modify first term rather than post
C - Correctly used comma + ing set up
D - This is not run on sentence and is incorrect because of same reason as in B
E - Creates run on sentence, being is wordy, and verb is missing.

In general, when you are using "that" as a relative pronoun to introduce a modifying clause, you should keep these two things in mind:

1) "that" won't be preceded by a comma
2) "that" will refer to the preceding noun
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2017, 12:22
anairamitch1804 wrote:
A - it modify first term rather than post, can't use comma before that
B - it modify first term rather than post
C - Correctly used comma + ing set up
D - This is not run on sentence and is incorrect because of same reason as in B
E - Creates run on sentence, being is wordy, and verb is missing.

In general, when you are using "that" as a relative pronoun to introduce a modifying clause, you should keep these two things in mind:

1) "that" won't be preceded by a comma
2) "that" will refer to the preceding noun


Hi Anaira ,

Don't you think the verg ing modifier must makes sense with the subject of the clause it modifies ,I suppose United states senator Daniel Inouye is the subject and this ing modifier dosen't makes sense with this.Please correct me if my understanding is wrong.

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United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2017, 22:09
United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included - usage of comma + that is incorrect
B. which includes - which refers to first term
C. including - Correct
D. some of which were - the "which" is trying to refer to "several posts", which is way too far away from the comma to be acceptable
E. among them being - usage of being

Answer C

EMPOWERgmatRichC , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , daagh , egmat , GMATNinjaTwo , sayantanc2k , other experts
Comma + including modifies the preceding noun and thus does not actually work like a verb+ ing . But isn't posts too far away for comma+including to work this way?
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2017, 00:04
finding answer by spotting errors:
A) use of past tense in included not required.
B) posts - includes, S-V disagreement.
C) including: appropriate as modifies posts
D) wordy
E) being not appropriate

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2017, 03:24
d is wrong wrong because which can not refer to a far noun
while
including can refer to a far noun

this is extremly hard problem

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 15:07
Skywalker18 wrote:
United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included - usage of comma + that is incorrect
B. which includes - which refers to first term
C. including - Correct
D. some of which were - the "which" is trying to refer to "several posts", which is way too far away from the comma to be acceptable
E. among them being - usage of being

Answer C
Comma + including modifies the preceding noun and thus does not actually work like a verb+ ing . But isn't posts too far away for comma+including to work this way?

Dear Skywalker18,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

The short answer is "no," it's not too far.

Here, it's important to appreciate the different between vital vs. non-vital modifiers. See
GMAT Grammar: Vital Noun Modifiers

The word "posts" is generic and nondescript. It needs clarification. Both prepositional phrases are necessary to describe it. This is the entire phrase
" . . . posts within the Democratic party during his first term . . . "
This phrase functions as a single logical unit, and this single logical unit is "touching" the modifier "including" that targets it.

The distance that matters is not a word count. The distance that matter is one of logic & meaning, and in this context, there's really no distance at all between target and modifier.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2017, 03:39
mikemcgarry wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts within the Democratic party during his first term, that included assistant majority whip and vice-chair of the Democratic Senatorial Committee.

A. that included - usage of comma + that is incorrect
B. which includes - which refers to first term
C. including - Correct
D. some of which were - the "which" is trying to refer to "several posts", which is way too far away from the comma to be acceptable
E. among them being - usage of being

Answer C
Comma + including modifies the preceding noun and thus does not actually work like a verb+ ing . But isn't posts too far away for comma+including to work this way?

Dear Skywalker18,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

The short answer is "no," it's not too far.

Here, it's important to appreciate the different between vital vs. non-vital modifiers. See
GMAT Grammar: Vital Noun Modifiers

The word "posts" is generic and nondescript. It needs clarification. Both prepositional phrases are necessary to describe it. This is the entire phrase
" . . . posts within the Democratic party during his first term . . . "
This phrase functions as a single logical unit, and this single logical unit is "touching" the modifier "including" that targets it.

The distance that matters is not a word count. The distance that matter is one of logic & meaning, and in this context, there's really no distance at all between target and modifier.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Hi Mike,
Please clarify the below- comma + ing modifies the preceding clause and modifies the subject as well. Now, subject of the sentence is United States Senator Daniel Inouye , so how including is modifying the subject. As per the meaning including should modify posts, so is comma+ing (including) presently gives additional information about the preceding clause.

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2017, 03:42
hi, I understood why other options a/b/d/e are incorrect. I have a few cents of doubt in option c-
Please clarify the below- comma + ing modifies the preceding clause and modifies the subject as well. Now, subject of the sentence is United States Senator Daniel Inouye , so how including is modifying the subject. As per the meaning including should modify posts, so is comma+ing (including) presently give additional information about the preceding clause and thus do not modify the subject?

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Re: United States Senator Daniel Inouye was appointed to several posts wit   [#permalink] 23 Sep 2017, 03:42

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