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# Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-

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17 Apr 2013, 10:26
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Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer or freeze solid in winter.

(A) it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are
(B) it takes the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada three to four years until it reaches adulthood, and therefore it is
(C) in the Sierra Nevada, mountain yellow-legged tree frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus being
(D) mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years until they reach adulthood, thus
(E) mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years to reach adulthood, and so they are

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Unlike frogs..........................., mountain yellow-legged frogs..............
Down to D, E.
E is correct. The right idiom is: X TAKE three or four years TO REACH.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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22 Sep 2013, 04:29
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Usage of "until" is wrong here.

what follows "until" is the condition when the action before "until" stops.

Eg. I will keep walking until I see a pond.
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23 Sep 2013, 10:39
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E, it is.
Unlike like like should be used to compare nouns. So A,B,C are out
D take three to four years until; (usage of until- take three to four years for what)
E Idiomatically correct to reach adulthood, they clearly refers to the frogs (yellow-legged)
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23 Sep 2013, 10:50
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pqhai wrote:
rakeshd347 wrote:
Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer or freeze solid in winter.

(A) it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are
(B) it takes the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada three to four years until it reaches adulthood, and therefore it is
(C) in the Sierra Nevada, mountain yellow-legged tree frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus being
(D) mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years until they reach adulthood, thus
(E) mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years to reach adulthood, and so they are

KUDOS will encourage me to post more new changeling questions.

Comparison problem.

Unlike frogs..........................., mountain yellow-legged frogs..............
Down to D, E.
E is correct. The right idiom is: X TAKE three or four years TO REACH................

I didn't see the idiom at all. Basing my decision on meaning

In D there is a suddenly shift after comma with thus doesn't have much sense. Moreover, the frogs and they in the same sentence is redundant; we already have a subject clear and straight.

In E: unlike X, Y do something or have certain characteristics , AND they are incapsulated in something I do not know whatever else who cares...........

Really nice question +1

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23 Sep 2013, 10:53
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Answer is E. This is of the form: Unlike X,Y. The Y (mountain yellow legged frogs) should follow immediately after the comma.
Also, the frogs (plural) take 3 - 4 years to reach is the correct form
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02 Oct 2013, 03:02
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gmatter0913 wrote:
Usage of "until" is wrong here.

what follows "until" is the condition when the action before "until" stops.

Eg. I will keep walking until I see a pond.

I would keep myself away getting into nitty gritty of the sentences, especially, when I have more sound reasoning present.

In D, what does phrase modify "restricted to deeper....." --> Modifies "Adulthood" --> Incorrect.

Moreover, sentence is trying to get into Cause Effect phenomenon. E clearly sets this in.
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02 Oct 2013, 03:34
[quote="pqhai"][quote="rakeshd347"]Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer or freeze solid in winter.

(A) it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are
(B) it takes the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada three to four years until it reaches adulthood, and therefore it is
(C) in the Sierra Nevada, mountain yellow-legged tree frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus being
(D) mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years until they reach adulthood, thus
(E) mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years to reach adulthood, and so they are

Can anyone explain me why don't we have a pronoun ambiguity here. What does "they" represent here?
Is it the first type of frogs or yellow-legged frogs?
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02 Oct 2013, 04:02
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It refers unambiguously to yello legged frogs.
Here is the rule:
Subject pronoun in one clause refers to the subject of another clause.

Example:
Petrol cars have huge maintenance, and hence they are unaccepted in poor countries.
Here they refers to petrol cars.

In the original sentence, unlike x is just a modifier.. Real sentence starts after modifier.
Let me know in case of any doubt
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01 Jun 2014, 10:31
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Boils down to (D) and we when we remember the below construction:

Unlike X,Y

X || Y

Why I rejected (D) is some other reason than given by previous posters.

It should have been

,thus are restricted...

Or

; thus an independent clause.

Both are missing. Hence , incorrect!
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04 Sep 2015, 06:11
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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17 Sep 2016, 02:24
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
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27 Nov 2016, 02:20
pqhai wrote:
rakeshd347 wrote:
Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer or freeze solid in winter.

(A) it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are
(B) it takes the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada three to four years until it reaches adulthood, and therefore it is
(C) in the Sierra Nevada, mountain yellow-legged tree frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus being
(D) mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years until they reach adulthood, thus
(E) mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years to reach adulthood, and so they are

KUDOS will encourage me to post more new changeling questions.

Comparison problem.

Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer or freeze solid in winter.

(A) it takes three to four years for the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada to reach adulthood, and so they are --Unlike frog...it takes.. improper comparison
(B) it takes the mountain yellow-legged frog of the Sierra Nevada three to four years until it reaches adulthood, and therefore it is--Unlike frog...it takes.. improper comparison
(C) in the Sierra Nevada, mountain yellow-legged tree frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus being--Unlike frog...in the Sierra Nevada.. improper comparison(D) mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years until they reach adulthood, thus--There is no conjunction. There is no verb after THUS.
(E) mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years to reach adulthood, and so they are--AND is used to join the independent clause which has a working verb ARE. CORRECT
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04 Dec 2016, 14:09
pqhai carcass sayantanc2k

Faced the same question in one of the GMAT prep test, but with a slight variation.

You can see the difference in the clause after the comma in Option E, any views how "with the result" is correct?

I generally found sentences/clauses starting "with" to be a bit awkward, any help please..
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06 Dec 2016, 04:08
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ankitmining wrote:
pqhai carcass sayantanc2k

Faced the same question in one of the GMAT prep test, but with a slight variation.

You can see the difference in the clause after the comma in Option E, any views how "with the result" is correct?

I generally found sentences/clauses starting "with" to be a bit awkward, any help please..

Generalising often leads to faulty concepts. Nowhere in the GMAT instructions or guides is it stated that "with" is awkward - it all depends on usage. "With" is used to indicate combination or addition. Like majority of the prepositional phrases, here the prepositional phrase "with the result..." is used as a verb modifier to modifiy "take". Taking 3 to 4 years and result happen in combination, indicated by the preposition "with".
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17 May 2017, 12:18
Hi Pqhai,

Can you please explain why C is wrong?

I think the subject of choice is mountain yellow-legged tree frog, which is a logical comparison with frogs.

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17 May 2017, 15:20
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(C) in the Sierra Nevada, mountain yellow-legged tree frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus being

bubblehead0922, there are a few issues with (C). First, you're right that "mountain yellow-legged tree frogs" would be a perfectly good comparison, but the trouble is that the phrase "in the Sierra Nevada" is in the way. So now we've broken the "unlike X, Y" structure: "Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, in the Sierra Nevada..." That construction isn't anywhere near as clear as the construction in (D) or (E).

"Being" is also a problem. I'm not quite sure what "being" is trying to do here -- I guess it's trying to modify the frogs? And "being" can't be used as a modifier on the GMAT -- only as a noun or a verb. There's a discussion of "being" on one of the QOTD threads if you're curious for more: https://gmatclub.com/forum/qotd-heavy-c ... 40146.html

I hope this helps!
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18 May 2017, 14:09
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
(C) in the Sierra Nevada, mountain yellow-legged tree frogs take three to four years to reach adulthood, thus being

bubblehead0922, there are a few issues with (C). First, you're right that "mountain yellow-legged tree frogs" would be a perfectly good comparison, but the trouble is that the phrase "in the Sierra Nevada" is in the way. So now we've broken the "unlike X, Y" structure: "Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, in the Sierra Nevada..." That construction isn't anywhere near as clear as the construction in (D) or (E).

"Being" is also a problem. I'm not quite sure what "being" is trying to do here -- I guess it's trying to modify the frogs? And "being" can't be used as a modifier on the GMAT -- only as a noun or a verb. There's a discussion of "being" on one of the QOTD threads if you're curious for more: https://gmatclub.com/forum/qotd-heavy-c ... 40146.html

I hope this helps!

Dear GMATNinja,

1. Can you please confirm that "Unlike X, Y" structure can never be interrupted in GMAT, as Choice C does?
2. Can "being restricted" function as a passive version of verb-ing modifier? It means the frog is restricted to deeper bodies of water,because it took 3 to 4 years to reach adulthood.
3. Do you think the change of the placement of "Sierra Nevada" alter the intended meaning of the original sentence?
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19 May 2017, 04:02
Can anyone explain why D is wrong?
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19 May 2017, 15:02
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Quote:

1. Can you please confirm that "Unlike X, Y" structure can never be interrupted in GMAT, as Choice C does?
2. Can "being restricted" function as a passive version of verb-ing modifier? It means the frog is restricted to deeper bodies of water,because it took 3 to 4 years to reach adulthood.
3. Do you think the change of the placement of "Sierra Nevada" alter the intended meaning of the original sentence?

1. The "(un)like X, Y" structure can be interrupted, but you'd need to have a really good reason for doing so. The only case I've ever seen in a correct SC sentence would involve a noun modifier: "Unlike United Airlines, which is apparently run by buffoons, Southwest Airlines believes that passengers are actually human." That noun modifier between the two airlines doesn't hurt the clarity of the comparison at all, so you occasionally see this type of construction on the GMAT. The placement of "in the Sierra Nevada" in choice (C) definitely hurts the clarity of the comparison.

2. Passive voice is a characteristic of verb phrases -- so it doesn't make sense to talk about a modifier as "passive." And I don't think that "being" is never used as a modifier on the GMAT. (For more on passive voice, there's a brief discussion here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/active-vs-pa ... 74613.html. Also a short discussion of "being" in last Wednesday's chat transcript: https://gmatclub.com/forum/verbal-chat- ... l#p1853539.)

3. I guess it does a little bit. In (D) and (E), the frogs' location is an inherent part of how you describe the animal ("frogs of the Sierra Nevada"); in (C), it just sounds like the frogs take a few years to reach adulthood only when they happen to be in the Sierra Nevada. So (D) and (E) are a little bit better in terms of meaning, too.
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19 May 2017, 15:06
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Quote:
Can anyone explain why D is wrong?

Here's (D) again, inserted into the sentence:

Quote:
Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-year period, the mountain yellow-legged frogs of the Sierra Nevada take three to four years until they reach adulthood, thus restricted to deeper bodies of water that do not dry up in summer or freeze solid in winter.

The problem here is that it's not clear what, exactly is restricted to deeper bodies of water -- it almost sounds like "adulthood" is the thing that's restricted, and that doesn't make sense. Much clearer to repeat the subject, as choice (E) does.
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Re: Unlike frogs that metamorphose from tadpoles into adults within a one-   [#permalink] 19 May 2017, 15:06
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