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Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of

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Until Berta and Emst Scharrer established the concept  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2012, 12:22
Until Berta and Emst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion
in 1928, scientists believed that either cells secreted hormones, which made
them
endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted
electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the
nervous system.

A. either cells secreted hormones, which made them
B. either cells secreted hormones, making them
C. either cells secreted hormones and were
D. cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were
E. cells either secreted hormones, which made them

The SC has been discussed several times. But the pronoun references in each answer choice are not clear and never been discussed. Can we have some expert comments on the pronoun reference, please.
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Re: Until Berta and Emst Scharrer established the concept  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2012, 13:21
D
Agree with BDsundevil over pronoun discussion.
but here isn't Concision is also imp.? i mean either cells - cells either - ?
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Re: Until Berta and Emst Scharrer established the concept  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2012, 14:22
This has been discussed in another forum post, but before I address the pronoun issue, let me give a quick explanation.

Following rules of parallelism, cells either A or B, hence (D) or (E).

Next case of parallelism is 'in which case' - notice that the non-underlined part contains this phrase and to maintain parallelism the answer has to as well.

Now for the pronoun issue. 'They' is only ambiguous if it could reasonably refer to more than one plural subject. To say that scientists were nerve cells or endocrine cells is clearly absurd and thus not reasonable. Therefore, there is no ambiguity in the use of 'they.'

Hope that helps :)
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Re: Until Berta and Emst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2013, 18:21
I was confused between B and D.
B] ", making them..." could be verb+ing modifier, in which case later phrase has to modify the entire previous clause. Here is modifying only "cells". This makes is a bad choice
D] is good from point of view of parallelism
A and E have wrong use of "which"
C is changing the meaning of sentence.
Thus D prevails.
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New post 21 Oct 2013, 01:01
D is correct. Parallel. E is not parallel.
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Re: Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2014, 09:55
2
Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion in 1928, scientists believed that either cells secreted hormones, which made them endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system.

a) either cells secreted hormones, which made them
The idiom is either A or B, A and B should be structurally parallel. Here "cells secreted hormones", a clause, and "conducted electrical impulses", a verb phrase, are not parallel. So to make them parallel cells should be placed before either. Also pronoun them has no clear referrent.
b) either cells secreted hormones, making them
either...or.... structure violation.

c) either cells secreted hormones and were
either... or violations. Also "and were" changes the meaning and also grammatically wrong in this sentence.
d) cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were
Correct. either...or.... structure is fine. Also in which they were is parallel to the structure in the later part of the sentence.
e) cells either secreted hormones, which made them
either ...or.... structure is fine. "which made them" is not parallel to "in which case they were..." and also changes the meaning. hormones doesn't made them endocrine cells, but they are identified as endocrine cells.
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Re: Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2015, 07:05
1
tarek99 wrote:
Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion in 1928, scientists believed that either cells secreted hormones, which made them endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system.

a) either cells secreted hormones, which made them

b) either cells secreted hormones, making them

c) either cells secreted hormones and were

d) cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were

e) cells either secreted hormones, which made them


Although I know when to use the construction of "either...or", however, this particular sentence confused me. Can anybody show me how to tackle this? thanks


The original sentence uses an either..or... construct.
In the non underlined part, 'or' starts with a verb. So 'either' should also start with a verb. Hence A,B and C are eliminated

(E) 'which' refers to hormones'. This changes the meaning - now it seems hormones made them endocrine cells.

D = correct
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Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2016, 02:16
[quote="tarek99"]Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion in 1928, scientists believed that either cells secreted hormones, which made them endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system.

a) either cells secreted hormones, which made them ==> Either X or Y do somthing, put either here we find no verb to complete the clause. Moreover, X and Y in the sentence are not parallel.

b) either cells secreted hormones, making them ==> not parallel, and putting either before cells makes the clause incomplete

c) either cells secreted hormones and were ==> very incorrect

d) cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were ==> Correct. This answer completes the clause, and satisfies the parallelism

e) cells either secreted hormones, which made them ==> not parallel

Parallel makers
And ==> X and Y
X,Y, and Z
Both==> Both X and Y
Either ==> Either X or Y.
Find more in Chapter 4 Paralellism MGMAT
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Re: Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2016, 11:30
tarek99 wrote:
Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion in 1928, scientists believed that either cells secreted hormones, which made them endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system.

a) either cells secreted hormones, which made them

b) either cells secreted hormones, making them

c) either cells secreted hormones and were

d) cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were

e) cells either secreted hormones, which made them


Although I know when to use the construction of "either...or", however, this particular sentence confused me. Can anybody show me how to tackle this? thanks

Either X Or Y should be parallel

Cells either "secreted hormones, in which case they were" is parallel to "conducted ..., in which case they were...."
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Re: Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2016, 01:37
A,B,E are out because they all change the meaning of the sentence.
Does the secretion of hormone made (or Converted) the cells into endocrine cells. Nope .
The sentence is trying to tell- because the cells secreted hormone, they were CATEGORISED as endocrine cells.

C and E remaining as valid options.

E is parallel and correctly use the idiom "either or"
EITHER cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were blah , blah blah, OR conducted electrical impulse, in which case they were nerve cell blah blah blah..


C is wrong because it is not parallel.


ANSWER IS C


Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion in 1928, scientists believed that either cells secreted hormones, which made them endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system.

a) either cells secreted hormones, which made them

b) either cells secreted hormones, making them

c) either cells secreted hormones and were

d) cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were

e) cells either secreted hormones, which made them
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Re: Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2016, 11:28
A lot has already been talked about the answer choices in this thread.
Here is something to think about parallelism. This will sound very mechanical to some folks for sure

When we say either x or y , x and y must be parallel items
1)either cells secreted or cells conducted --good
2)cells either secreted or conducted -- good
3)either cells secreted or conducted --nope not good.

The construction of #2 is against #3 and in GMAT view, that is wrong.
We can write cells secreted or conducted, but with either or we need to be strict.
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Re: Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2016, 12:00
tarek99 wrote:
Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion in 1928, scientists believed that either cells secreted hormones, which made them endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system.

a) either cells secreted hormones, which made them

b) either cells secreted hormones, making them

c) either cells secreted hormones and were

d) cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were

e) cells either secreted hormones, which made them


Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion in 1928, scientists believed that cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system.

Correct aswer must be (D) for the correct idiomatic usage and Parallelism ...

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Re: Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2016, 22:47
tarek99 wrote:
Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion in 1928, scientists believed that either cells secreted hormones, which made them endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system.

a) either cells secreted hormones, which made them

b) either cells secreted hormones, making them

c) either cells secreted hormones and were

d) cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were

e) cells either secreted hormones, which made them


Although I know when to use the construction of "either...or", however, this particular sentence confused me. Can anybody show me how to tackle this? thanks


This is a pure paralyse questions where the two ends of either or needs to be parallel and cells have to come before either to maintain parallelism .
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Re: Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2017, 05:58
Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion in 1928, scientists believed that either cells secreted hormones, which made them endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system.

a) either cells secreted hormones, which made them - Parallelism issue - Either X or Y -- no subject for conducted

b) either cells secreted hormones, making them - same as A

c) either cells secreted hormones and were - same as A

d) cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were - Parallelism

e) cells either secreted hormones, which made them - illogical - The hormones did not make the cells endocrine cells. The fact that the cells produced these hormones shows that the cells are endocrine cells ; parallelism is better in D


Answer D
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Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2017, 20:08
Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of neurosecretion in 1928, scientists believed that either cells secreted hormones, which made them endocrine cells and thus part of the endocrine system, or conducted electrical impulses, in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system.

a) either cells secreted hormones, which made them

b) either cells secreted hormones, making them

c) either cells secreted hormones and were

d) cells either secreted hormones, in which case they were

e) cells either secreted hormones, which made them

* PARALLELISM ISSUE (2 THINGS)
1) [ME PARAPHRASING]: Either cells secreting hormones making them.
OR (needed b/c of "either" in first condition)
2) conducted electrical impulses, [in which case they were nerve cells and thus part of the nervous system]
> FIRST PART MUST MATCH THIS LANGUAGE!


* KEY: ELECTRICAL IMPULSES, IN WHICH --> MEANS THE ANSWER MUST BE "D".
> D = CORRECT B/C "SECRETED HORMONES, IN WHICH"

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Re: Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2017, 16:15
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Until Berta and Ernst Scharrer established the concept of &nbs [#permalink] 19 Dec 2017, 16:15

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