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# Until recently it was thought that ink used before the

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Director
Joined: 29 Jul 2006
Posts: 856
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2007, 04:29
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24% (02:00) correct 76% (02:24) wrong based on 129 sessions

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Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the mapâ€™s authenticity.

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a documentâ€™s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible

Give reasons for ur choices...

mvictor - updated the OA.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2007, 11:29
1
KUDOS
The passage tells us, that in SOME documents during the 15th century titanium has been detected, but far from all...so far two total.

therefore a map which contains this element can be included among the 15th century work.

The flaw is taking one exception and extending it to be concidered the norm.

I honestly do not understand A although something in it makes me want to chose the answer.

The only other one is C which states that the absence or presence of one element cannot determine the date and location of a document.
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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12 Apr 2007, 11:39
vineetgupta wrote:
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the mapâ€™s authenticity.
The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that
(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted
(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not
(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a documentâ€™s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document
(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known
(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible

Give reasons for ur choices...

I think its C
Director
Joined: 29 Jul 2006
Posts: 856
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2007, 08:01
hi defenestrate,actually the problem with C is that their is no mention of the date and location of the map in the argument.

Any thoughts??
VP
Joined: 07 Nov 2005
Posts: 1118
Location: India
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2007, 19:29
Picking A.

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted. Keep it

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not. Doesn't provide with any substantial argument.

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a documentâ€™s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document. Sounds good but no reference to location as such.

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known. Useless argument.
(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible. The order of discovery doesn't really change anything.
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2007, 22:07
1
KUDOS
vineetgupta wrote:
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the mapâ€™s authenticity.

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a documentâ€™s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible

Give reasons for ur choices...

I too believe it's A.

The author uses the evidence of presence of Titanium to buttress his argument that B36 was printed by Gutenberg

- since Gutenberg's bible contained Titanium AND B36 also showed Titanium ---> hence author says Gutenberg printed B36 -

Thus the author creates exclusivity vis-a-vis titanium usage simply for the sake of justifying his argument ---- There's no reason to believe why - if titanium is accepted as having been used - could any one else not have printed the B36 using the same Titanium in the ink

Similary the author extends the argument that Vinland maps were published in the fifteenth century because use of titanium in the fifteenth century has been established through Gutenberg's bible episode.
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Joined: 26 Feb 2007
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2007, 00:19
A.
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Joined: 01 Jan 2007
Posts: 322
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2007, 05:55
vineetgupta wrote:
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the mapâ€™s authenticity.

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a documentâ€™s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible

Give reasons for ur choices...

Well the argument says that the occurance of titanium in gutenberg bible and B-36 proves that gutenberg wrote B-36 and that the presence of titanium in the ink used for making vinland map is the sole justification of the authentification of the map. The only choice that exposes this faulty conclusion of the argument is choice C.

A= irrerelavant
B=it talks about technology and thus this choice out of scope of the argument
C= Is the correct choice as it correctly exposes the loopholes in the argument buy stating that only occurance of one element ( titanium) can not be assumed to be the proof of the date and location of the printing or drawing article.
D=says the same thing as said in the argument
E=is again irrerelavant

Javed.

Cheers!
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Joined: 02 Apr 2007
Posts: 32
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2007, 06:29
1
KUDOS
vineetgupta wrote:
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the mapâ€™s authenticity.

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a documentâ€™s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible

Give reasons for ur choices...

C is the answer. presence of titanum does not necessarily indicate the authenticity...
VP
Joined: 03 Apr 2007
Posts: 1342
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2007, 11:45
vineetgupta wrote:
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the mapâ€™s authenticity.

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a documentâ€™s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible

Give reasons for ur choices...

I will pick A.

C seems OOS because C is emphasizing on a single element/ingredient. This is no where mentioned in the stimulus.The stimulus is about a type of ink .
Director
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Posts: 856
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2007, 01:01
The OA is A.

Hi goalsnr, C is out of scope because of no mention of date or location in the argument.The argument is actually about an element ie titanium in the ink...not a type.
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Posts: 219
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2011, 10:38
1
KUDOS
dwivedys wrote:
I too believe it's A.

The author uses the evidence of presence of Titanium to buttress his argument that B36 was printed by Gutenberg

- since Gutenberg's bible contained Titanium AND B36 also showed Titanium ---> hence author says Gutenberg printed B36 -

Thus the author creates exclusivity vis-a-vis titanium usage simply for the sake of justifying his argument ---- There's no reason to believe why - if titanium is accepted as having been used - could any one else not have printed the B36 using the same Titanium in the ink

Similary the author extends the argument that Vinland maps were published in the fifteenth century because use of titanium in the fifteenth century has been established through Gutenberg's bible episode.

Thanks for the great explanation man!
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2016, 17:11
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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03 Dec 2016, 00:01
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity.

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted
(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not
(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document
(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known
(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2016, 08:23
merging topics.

please use the search function before posting
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the   [#permalink] 08 Dec 2016, 08:23
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