GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

 It is currently 25 Sep 2018, 21:56

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Intern
Joined: 09 Jun 2014
Posts: 6
Location: India
Abhishek: Abhi
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Sep 2014, 03:02
IMO C...
As in the passage, there was a doubt on authenticity of map and they were using the ink as a factor to determine that....

(C) says that it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document.....
Senior Manager
Joined: 05 Nov 2012
Posts: 485
Concentration: Technology, Other
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

06 Sep 2014, 02:11
1
1
My vote for A.
Its between A and C. Eshan has already given crisp explain for the options. So will just share my reasoning for A and C.

Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium
1: in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and
2: in that of another fifteenth century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed.
This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that
1: B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that [2 items r linked to JG based upon usage of T based ink.This assumes that usage of ink was restricted]
2: the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity.[Note this doesn't link to JG but assumes that usage of ink was not restricted.]

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that
(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted
>>Correct as explained above.
(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document
>> C is too general must not always be true to raise doubt on the arg.Second, as per the argument only doubt regarding the date has been fixed. The date hasn't been determined in the arg.
_________________

--------------------------------------------------------
Regards

Verbal Forum Moderator
Joined: 13 Feb 2015
Posts: 505
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

15 Aug 2017, 23:23
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
_________________

Intern
Joined: 19 Jun 2017
Posts: 7
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Aug 2017, 08:45
The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that
(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted
(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not --> irrelevant as did not mention in passage.
(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document
(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known --> irrelevant. the passage did not say any thing about the books/map merit. just conclude that both books were printed by same guy and the map must be authentic.
(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible --> irrelevant, did not compare the printed date.
Down to C and A.

In C: mentioned both date and location can be determined by element of ink, this case Titanium. But the passage, there was no mention of map's printed location.
--> Choose A. in the first sentence of passage, "it is thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium" --> there is no firm confirmation that ink before 16th century did not contain titanium, we cant rule out the possibility that titanium can be used, might be in some restricted way, in ink in 15th century --> A supports this.
Manager
Joined: 21 Jul 2017
Posts: 141
Location: India
GMAT 1: 650 Q47 V33
GPA: 4
WE: Project Management (Education)
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Aug 2017, 10:40
I narrowed down it to option A and C. And then picked C. Please explain!
SVP
Joined: 12 Dec 2016
Posts: 1782
Location: United States
GMAT 1: 700 Q49 V33
GPA: 3.64
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Aug 2017, 16:16
first, this is a weaken question. It is hard to realize the question type.
Next, I chose C but I belive A is much better. "not in others" in the passage and "strictly use" in option A tell that A is indeed an assumption.

B,D and E are out of scope.
Intern
Joined: 24 Feb 2017
Posts: 38
Schools: CBS '20 (S)
GMAT 1: 760 Q50 V42
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Aug 2017, 20:11
Question core:

Premise: Recently found that certain X & Y 15th century books contain Ti in ink, but no other books
Conclusion: So, V map is authentic because other 15th century books also have Ti in ink AND only JG could have printed it

This conclusion is based on 2 opposing views -
V map is authentic since Ti in ink wasn't unpopular - anyone could have printed it
only JG could have printed it meaning it was unpopular - only JG could have printed it

That's why (A)

It took 4.5 mins, to decipher this question since the answer choices aren't straight-forward.
Retired Moderator
Status: The best is yet to come.....
Joined: 10 Mar 2013
Posts: 523
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Aug 2017, 02:03
I got the right answer by POE. See, how?

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted--> Don't understand exactly. So, hold it.

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not--> knowledge of the printers or artists is not discussed here. So, it is out of scope.

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document--> Determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing is not main concern here. So, out.

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known--> The argument does not talk about appreciation of the documents. So. out.

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible--> Relative time frame is not the focus of the argument. So, out.

_________________

Hasan Mahmud

GMAT Club Verbal Expert
Joined: 20 Nov 2016
Posts: 277
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 Aug 2017, 10:47

_________________
Intern
Joined: 31 Dec 2015
Posts: 16
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 Aug 2017, 11:17
Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Sep 2014
Posts: 395
Concentration: Finance, Marketing
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Aug 2017, 21:51
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity.

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not :- Not relevant.

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document
We are not concerned with the date or location.

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known :- Not relevant.

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible :- Not relevant

Argument ques : weakener
This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity.

Conclusion :- B-36 was printed by G. + Map is authentic (why? because Ti was present in the ink - 1600th century and not in 15th century)

Bible printed by G and another bible B-36 (1500th century) both has titanium so B-36 must be printed by G.
Intern
Joined: 06 Mar 2018
Posts: 1
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Mar 2018, 04:17
1
Passage tells you : Titanium not used before 16th century. Analysis tells: 1) Bible by Gutenberg contains titanium. 2) B-36 from 15th century contains titanium. 3) Presence of titanium can't be used as evidence to tell that Vinland map didn't belong to 15th century.

Author's conclusion: From (1) & (2) he tells that --> B-36 was written by Gutenberg since Titanium was used only by Gutenberg. (Conclusion A: Restricted usage of titanium by Gutenberg)

From (2) & (3) --> Since Vinland maps had titanium it was doubted if it belonged to 15th century since 15th century books dint have titanium(as given in the 1st line of the passage). B-36 belongs to 15th century and it had titanium. So 15th century used titanium in ink. So presence of titanium in Vinland maps can't be used as a reason to doubt if it belonged to the 15th century. (Conclusion B: Titanium was not only by used by Gutenberg but also someone used it in printing vinland maps. Thus usage wasn't restricted)

My Explanation : From Conclusion A and Conclusion B, we can tell that author has arrived to his conclusions by both restricting the usage of titanium and not restricting the usage of titanium which can be a flaw to his reasoning. How can he change the variable value and arrive in his conclusions. (For ex: using X="Restricted usage of titanium" for equation (1) and (2) and using X="Not restricted usage of titanium" in equation (2) and (3))

The question is "The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that" - FIND A FLAW IN THE REASONING AND NOT TO STRENGTHEN/WEAKEN HIS CONCLUSIONS. (For ex: "If you eat XYZ food, you will feel sad and thus you will gain weight" and you are asked to find flaw in this reasoning, you should either prove "eating XYZ doesn't result in feeling sad" or "feeling sad doesn't result in gaining weight" and NOT proving that "eating XYZ wont make me gain weight")

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted -- This falls in line with my explanation.

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not -- doesn't matter if they knew about it or not. They used it in 15th century. Vinland Maps and B-36 has it. Still doesn't bring criticism to author's reasoning.

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document -- "Date of a document" here can only refer to Vinland Maps in this passage. Author didn't SUPPOSE that "Presence of titanium proves that Vinland maps belong to 15th century", he said that "Presence of titanium can't be used as a doubt that if Vinland Map belonged to 15th century"

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known -- Author didn't link merits of these objects with "Gutenbery" or them belonging to 15th century. This option will only weaken Author's reasoning if he had linked "Merits" to "date of creation" and "Gutenberg" which he clearly din't in this passage.

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible -- doesn't matter which was discovered first. The author gives his reasoning after all three discoveries have been made. Doesn't matter which variable is assigned the value first.
Intern
Joined: 14 Sep 2017
Posts: 13
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

13 Mar 2018, 14:20
eshan429 wrote:
itzmyzone911 wrote:
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not
contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of
the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenthcentury
Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other
fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not
only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but
also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth
century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the
map’s authenticity.
The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium
as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely
restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has
only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the
fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a
document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the
presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated
on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the
identity of the person who made them is known

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred
before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the
B-36 Bible

I would go with A. Here's my reasoning:

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not ---->The argument never talks about whether the artists were aware of titanium being an ingredient of the ink or not. It focuses on the fact whether titanium was common in the paints of that era or not. Out of Scope

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known ---->Again, we don't care about whether the objects can be appreciated or not. Out of Scope

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible ---->Yes, it does seem from the argument that titanium was discovered in the ink of the Vinland map before it was found in the two Bibles. But this is not what we are debating. Out of Scope

I was confused between A and C and I went with A. I discarded C as follows.

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document ---->The author never says that the Vinland map is from the 15th century just because titanium was discovered in the ink. Rather, it can be inferred from the argument that the discovery of titanium in the ink of the map had cast a doubt on it's authenticity when all the other clues might have been pointing to the fact that it was made in the 15th century. So, C is wrong

Which leaves only A which must be correct.

Please let me know the OA.

This is great reasoning and good explanation for why C is incorrect. Thank you. However, A still strikes me as incorrect too (and even more so). By discovering something in the 15th century having titanium ink, the theory is disproved that such use dates from the 16thC onward only and therefore the map may be from the 15thC. This last deduction is a very far cry from saying its 15thC use was prevalent (not restricted). It may have been printed by Gutenberg as well. And may be the only other object with titanium ink. So A therefore seems totally incorrect whereas C appears unresponsive to the location of the map.
GMAT Club Verbal Expert
Joined: 20 Nov 2016
Posts: 277
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

13 Mar 2018, 14:40
eshan429 wrote:
itzmyzone911 wrote:
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not
contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of
the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenthcentury
Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other
fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not
only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but
also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth
century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the
map’s authenticity.
The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium
as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely
restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has
only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the
fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a
document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the
presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated
on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the
identity of the person who made them is known

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred
before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the
B-36 Bible

I would go with A. Here's my reasoning:

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not ---->The argument never talks about whether the artists were aware of titanium being an ingredient of the ink or not. It focuses on the fact whether titanium was common in the paints of that era or not. Out of Scope

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known ---->Again, we don't care about whether the objects can be appreciated or not. Out of Scope

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible ---->Yes, it does seem from the argument that titanium was discovered in the ink of the Vinland map before it was found in the two Bibles. But this is not what we are debating. Out of Scope

I was confused between A and C and I went with A. I discarded C as follows.

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document ---->The author never says that the Vinland map is from the 15th century just because titanium was discovered in the ink. Rather, it can be inferred from the argument that the discovery of titanium in the ink of the map had cast a doubt on it's authenticity when all the other clues might have been pointing to the fact that it was made in the 15th century. So, C is wrong

Which leaves only A which must be correct.

Please let me know the OA.

This is great reasoning and good explanation for why C is incorrect. Thank you. However, A still strikes me as incorrect too (and even more so). By discovering something in the 15th century having titanium ink, the theory is disproved that such use dates from the 16thC onward only and therefore the map may be from the 15thC. This last deduction is a very far cry from saying its 15thC use was prevalent (not restricted). It may have been printed by Gutenberg as well. And may be the only other object with titanium ink. So A therefore seems totally incorrect whereas C appears unresponsive to the location of the map.

datatrader, have you read this explanation? See if that helps you understand why choice (A) is correct.
_________________
Manager
Joined: 25 Jan 2018
Posts: 102
Location: United States (IL)
Concentration: Strategy, Operations
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 Jun 2018, 21:36
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity.

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible

Great question - I selected C but realized later A is the best choice -
-- Both the bibles are written by the same person - (make usage of ink extremely restricted)
-- we can't doubt the authenticity of the VINLAND map - (makes usage of ink extremely positive)
Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu &nbs [#permalink] 19 Jun 2018, 21:36

Go to page   Previous    1   2   [ 35 posts ]

Display posts from previous: Sort by

# Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu

## Events & Promotions

 Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.