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Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2014, 00:54
itzmyzone911 wrote:
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not
contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of
the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenthcentury
Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other
fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not
only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but
also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth
century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the
map’s authenticity.
The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium
as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely
restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has
only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the
fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a
document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the
presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated
on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the
identity of the person who made them is known

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred
before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the
B-36 Bible


I would go with A. Here's my reasoning:

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not ---->The argument never talks about whether the artists were aware of titanium being an ingredient of the ink or not. It focuses on the fact whether titanium was common in the paints of that era or not. Out of Scope

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known ---->Again, we don't care about whether the objects can be appreciated or not. Out of Scope

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible ---->Yes, it does seem from the argument that titanium was discovered in the ink of the Vinland map before it was found in the two Bibles. But this is not what we are debating. Out of Scope

I was confused between A and C and I went with A. I discarded C as follows.

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document ---->The author never says that the Vinland map is from the 15th century just because titanium was discovered in the ink. Rather, it can be inferred from the argument that the discovery of titanium in the ink of the map had cast a doubt on it's authenticity when all the other clues might have been pointing to the fact that it was made in the 15th century. So, C is wrong

Which leaves only A which must be correct.

Please let me know the OA.
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2014, 03:02
IMO C...
As in the passage, there was a doubt on authenticity of map and they were using the ink as a factor to determine that....

(C) says that it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document.....

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2014, 02:11
My vote for A.
Its between A and C. Eshan has already given crisp explain for the options. So will just share my reasoning for A and C.

Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium
1: in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and
2: in that of another fifteenth century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed.
This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that
1: B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that [2 items r linked to JG based upon usage of T based ink.This assumes that usage of ink was restricted]
2: the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity.[Note this doesn't link to JG but assumes that usage of ink was not restricted.]

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that
(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted
>>Correct as explained above.
(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document
>> C is too general must not always be true to raise doubt on the arg.Second, as per the argument only doubt regarding the date has been fixed. The date hasn't been determined in the arg.
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2017, 23:23
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2017, 08:45
The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that
(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted
(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not --> irrelevant as did not mention in passage.
(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document
(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known --> irrelevant. the passage did not say any thing about the books/map merit. just conclude that both books were printed by same guy and the map must be authentic.
(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible --> irrelevant, did not compare the printed date.
Down to C and A.

In C: mentioned both date and location can be determined by element of ink, this case Titanium. But the passage, there was no mention of map's printed location.
--> Choose A. in the first sentence of passage, "it is thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium" --> there is no firm confirmation that ink before 16th century did not contain titanium, we cant rule out the possibility that titanium can be used, might be in some restricted way, in ink in 15th century --> A supports this.

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2017, 10:40
I narrowed down it to option A and C. And then picked C. Please explain!

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2017, 16:16
first, this is a weaken question. It is hard to realize the question type.
Next, I chose C but I belive A is much better. "not in others" in the passage and "strictly use" in option A tell that A is indeed an assumption.

B,D and E are out of scope.

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2017, 20:11
Question core:

Premise: Recently found that certain X & Y 15th century books contain Ti in ink, but no other books
Conclusion: So, V map is authentic because other 15th century books also have Ti in ink AND only JG could have printed it

This conclusion is based on 2 opposing views -
V map is authentic since Ti in ink wasn't unpopular - anyone could have printed it
only JG could have printed it meaning it was unpopular - only JG could have printed it

That's why (A)

It took 4.5 mins, to decipher this question since the answer choices aren't straight-forward.

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2017, 02:03
I got the right answer by POE. See, how?

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted--> Don't understand exactly. So, hold it.

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not--> knowledge of the printers or artists is not discussed here. So, it is out of scope.

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document--> Determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing is not main concern here. So, out.

(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known--> The argument does not talk about appreciation of the documents. So. out.

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible--> Relative time frame is not the focus of the argument. So, out.

Therefore, answer would be A.

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2017, 10:47
Thanks for your explanations!

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2017, 11:17
I fail to understand why the answer is choice (A) and why not (D). Please help.

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2017, 15:18
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sameerkamath21 wrote:
I fail to understand why the answer is choice (A) and why not (D). Please help.

The argument has nothing to do with the appreciation of the B-36 and Vinland Map, so choice (D) is not relevant.

Instead, the argument is based the following analysis: "a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed."

Prior to that analysis, "it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium." As a result, PRIOR to the analysis, "the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map" was regarded as a reason for doubting the map's authenticity.

The author interprets the analysis by saying that, since titanium was found in two pre-sixteenth-century bibles, it must be possible for titanium to be present in the ink of various other pre-sixteenth century documents (such as the Vinland Map). Thus, even though it contains titanium ink, it is possible that the Vinland Map was created before the sixteenth century. This reasoning is based on the notion that, even though only found in two documents, usage of titanium in ink was possible in VARIOUS pre-sixteenth-century documents (i.e. the usage was NOT restricted).

But the author also concludes that the analysis "strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg." The author concludes that, since use of titanium was so restricted before the 16th century, it is likely that any pre-sixteenth century document containing titanium ink was printed by Gutenberg. This reasoning is based on the notion that the usage of titanium in ink WAS restricted; otherwise, the presence of titanium in ink could not be used as evidence to support that Gutenberg was the printer.

Thus, the author uses two contradictory lines of reasoning, as described in choice (A).

I hope that helps!
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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2017, 21:51
Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth century did not contain titanium. However, a new type of analysis detected titanium in the ink of the famous Bible printed by Johannes Gutenberg and in that of another fifteenth-century Bible known as B-36, though not in the ink of any of numerous other fifteenth-century books analyzed. This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity.

The reasoning in the passage is vulnerable to criticism on the ground that

(A) the results of the analysis are interpreted as indicating that the use of titanium as an ingredient in fifteenth-century ink both was, and was not, extremely restricted

(B) if the technology that makes it possible to detect titanium in printing ink has only recently become available, it is unlikely that printers or artists in the fifteenth century would know whether their ink contained titanium or not :- Not relevant.

(C) it is unreasonable to suppose that determination of the date and location of a document’s printing or drawing can be made solely on the basis of the presence or absence of a single element in the ink used in the document
We are not concerned with the date or location.


(D) both the B-36 Bible and the Vinland Map are objects that can be appreciated on their own merits whether or not the precise date of their creation or the identity of the person who made them is known :- Not relevant.

(E) the discovery of titanium in the ink of the Vinland Map must have occurred before titanium was discovered in the ink of the Gutenberg Bible and the B-36 Bible :- Not relevant

Argument ques : weakener
This finding is of great significance, since it not only strongly supports the hypothesis that B-36 was printed by Gutenberg but also shows that the presence of titanium in the ink of the purportedly fifteenth century Vinland Map can no longer be regarded as a reason for doubting the map’s authenticity.

Conclusion :- B-36 was printed by G. + Map is authentic (why? because Ti was present in the ink - 1600th century and not in 15th century)

Bible printed by G and another bible B-36 (1500th century) both has titanium so B-36 must be printed by G.

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Re: Until recently it was thought that ink used before the sixteenth centu   [#permalink] 26 Aug 2017, 21:51

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