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# Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a

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Manager
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Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 00:06
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Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single entity that could be measured by a simple IQ test. In 1983, however, Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University, introduced his theory of multiple intelligences. Today, there are two major schools of thought on intelligence. Despite extensive and ongoing research, scientists have been unable to prove definitively one theory over the other.
The single intelligence model is based on the idea of one general intelligence, known as positive manifold or simply g. Perhaps the most convincing evidence in support of this theory is the fact that individuals who perform well on tests of one cognitive ability also perform well on tests of a second cognitive ability. For example, those who do well on verbal tests also do well on mathematics tests, and vice versa. Another argument in support of the general intelligence theory is the strong positive correlation between intelligent quotient, or IQ, as measured by psychometric tests, and reaction time. Individuals with faster reaction times or neural processing speeds have higher IQs, suggesting that neural processing speed is equivalent to the one general intelligence.
The theory of multiple intelligences asserts that there is more than one type of intelligence. Proponents of this model differ on the number of intelligences. Gardner, for example, originally proposed seven, but has since added an eighth. His categories are linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Dr. Robert Sternberg, a professor of psychology and education at Yale University, proposes a triarchic theory of intelligence, which divides intelligence into three categories: analytical, creative, and practical. Gardner’s theory is supported primarily by biological evidence. By studying individuals with paralysis, speech impairment, or other disabilities, Gardner has been able to identify specific parts of the brain associated with different physical and cognitive skills. Sternberg’s model relies on observations of real-life situations. He notes that in Brazil, for example, street children can do the math they need to know to survive, thereby demonstrating practical intelligence, but cannot pass a school math class, which requires analytical intelligence.

According to the passage, the term “positive manifold” can be most closely identified with which of the following?

A)The correlation between IQ and reaction time
B)The observation that individuals with speech impairment are able to demonstrate other forms of intelligence
C)The relationship between IQ and performance on standardized tests
D)The three intelligences proposed by Dr. Robert Sternberg
E)Neural processing speed

The author mentions the correlation between IQ and reaction time in order to

A)provide justification for Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
B)explain the triarchic model of intelligence proposed by Robert Sternberg
C)introduce the idea of positive manifold
D)point out one argument in support of general intelligence
E)prove that the single intelligence model is superior to the theory of multiple intelligences

The author of this passage would most likely agree with which of the following?

A)The theory of multiple intelligences is relatively new and untested.
C)Dr. Sternberg’s theory would be strengthened by the discovery of biological evidence for his conclusions.
D)The theory of multiple intelligences is undermined by disagreements among its proponents as to the number of intelligences.
E)There is stronger biological evidence in favor of the single-intelligence model than of the theory of multiple intelligences.

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Director
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Re: RC- You got 6 mins [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 00:36
My choices are E, D, D. Not pretty sure. Waiting for OA.
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Senior Manager
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Re: RC- You got 6 mins [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 05:19
aaron22197 wrote:
Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single entity that could be measured by a simple IQ test. In 1983, however, Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University, introduced his theory of multiple intelligences. Today, there are two major schools of thought on intelligence. Despite extensive and ongoing research, scientists have been unable to prove definitively one theory over the other.
The single intelligence model is based on the idea of one general intelligence, known as positive manifold or simply g. Perhaps the most convincing evidence in support of this theory is the fact that individuals who perform well on tests of one cognitive ability also perform well on tests of a second cognitive ability. For example, those who do well on verbal tests also do well on mathematics tests, and vice versa. Another argument in support of the general intelligence theory is the strong positive correlation between intelligent quotient, or IQ, as measured by psychometric tests, and reaction time. Individuals with faster reaction times or neural processing speeds have higher IQs, suggesting that neural processing speed is equivalent to the one general intelligence.
The theory of multiple intelligences asserts that there is more than one type of intelligence. Proponents of this model differ on the number of intelligences. Gardner, for example, originally proposed seven, but has since added an eighth. His categories are linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Dr. Robert Sternberg, a professor of psychology and education at Yale University, proposes a triarchic theory of intelligence, which divides intelligence into three categories: analytical, creative, and practical. Gardner’s theory is supported primarily by biological evidence. By studying individuals with paralysis, speech impairment, or other disabilities, Gardner has been able to identify specific parts of the brain associated with different physical and cognitive skills. Sternberg’s model relies on observations of real-life situations. He notes that in Brazil, for example, street children can do the math they need to know to survive, thereby demonstrating practical intelligence, but cannot pass a school math class, which requires analytical intelligence.

According to the passage, the term “positive manifold” can be most closely identified with which of the following?

A)The correlation between IQ and reaction time
Its a support for g.
B)The observation that individuals with speech impairment are able to demonstrate other forms of intelligence
speech impairment : Is a disability and cannot guarantee ability according to theory.
C)The relationship between IQ and performance on standardized tests
This should be close.
D)The three intelligences proposed by Dr. Robert Sternberg
E)Neural processing speed

C

The author mentions the correlation between IQ and reaction time in order to

A)provide justification for Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
B)explain the triarchic model of intelligence proposed by Robert Sternberg
C)introduce the idea of positive manifold
D)point out one argument in support of general intelligence
E)prove that the single intelligence model is superior to the theory of multiple intelligences

D

The author of this passage would most likely agree with which of the following?

A)The theory of multiple intelligences is relatively new and untested.
C)Dr. Sternberg’s theory would be strengthened by the discovery of biological evidence for his conclusions.
D)The theory of multiple intelligences is undermined by disagreements among its proponents as to the number of intelligences.
E)There is stronger biological evidence in favor of the single-intelligence model than of the theory of multiple intelligences.
A

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Re: RC- You got 6 mins [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 05:59
i went with:

A
D
E

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Manager
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Re: RC- You got 6 mins [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 08:33
OA is E,D,C.

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Re: RC- You got 6 mins [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 09:45
aaron22197 wrote:
Until recently, nearly everyone thought of intelligence as a single entity that could be measured by a simple IQ test. In 1983, however, Dr. Howard Gardner, a professor of education at Harvard University, introduced his theory of multiple intelligences. Today, there are two major schools of thought on intelligence. Despite extensive and ongoing research, scientists have been unable to prove definitively one theory over the other.
The single intelligence model is based on the idea of one general intelligence, known as positive manifold or simply g. Perhaps the most convincing evidence in support of this theory is the fact that individuals who perform well on tests of one cognitive ability also perform well on tests of a second cognitive ability. For example, those who do well on verbal tests also do well on mathematics tests, and vice versa. Another argument in support of the general intelligence theory is the strong positive correlation between intelligent quotient, or IQ, as measured by psychometric tests, and reaction time. Individuals with faster reaction times or neural processing speeds have higher IQs, suggesting that neural processing speed is equivalent to the one general intelligence.
The theory of multiple intelligences asserts that there is more than one type of intelligence. Proponents of this model differ on the number of intelligences. Gardner, for example, originally proposed seven, but has since added an eighth. His categories are linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. Dr. Robert Sternberg, a professor of psychology and education at Yale University, proposes a triarchic theory of intelligence, which divides intelligence into three categories: analytical, creative, and practical. Gardner’s theory is supported primarily by biological evidence. By studying individuals with paralysis, speech impairment, or other disabilities, Gardner has been able to identify specific parts of the brain associated with different physical and cognitive skills. Sternberg’s model relies on observations of real-life situations. He notes that in Brazil, for example, street children can do the math they need to know to survive, thereby demonstrating practical intelligence, but cannot pass a school math class, which requires analytical intelligence.

According to the passage, the term “positive manifold” can be most closely identified with which of the following?

A)The correlation between IQ and reaction time
B)The observation that individuals with speech impairment are able to demonstrate other forms of intelligence
C)The relationship between IQ and performance on standardized tests
D)The three intelligences proposed by Dr. Robert Sternberg
E)Neural processing speed
>>>
The single intelligence model is based on the idea of one general intelligence, known as positive manifold
Individuals with faster reaction times or neural processing speeds have higher IQs, suggesting that neural processing speed is equivalent to the one general intelligence.

The author mentions the correlation between IQ and reaction time in order to

A)provide justification for Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences
B)explain the triarchic model of intelligence proposed by Robert Sternberg
C)introduce the idea of positive manifold
D)point out one argument in support of general intelligence
>>>Another argument in support of the general intelligence theory is the strong positive correlation between intelligent quotient,
E)prove that the single intelligence model is superior to the theory of multiple intelligences

The author of this passage would most likely agree with which of the following?

A)The theory of multiple intelligences is relatively new and untested.
C)Dr. Sternberg’s theory would be strengthened by the discovery of biological evidence for his conclusions.
D)The theory of multiple intelligences is undermined by disagreements among its proponents as to the number of intelligences.
E)There is stronger biological evidence in favor of the single-intelligence model than of the theory of multiple intelligences.

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VP
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Re: RC- You got 6 mins [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 09:47
I picked D for Q3. Aaron do you have the OE? If yes please post

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Re: RC- You got 6 mins [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 09:48
pmenon wrote:
i went with:

A
D
E

Menon,Can you pls explain why you picked E for Q3?

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Director
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Re: RC- You got 6 mins [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 22:34
goalsnr wrote:
I picked D for Q3. Aaron do you have the OE? If yes please post

I also think D but anyway OA says C. Can anybody explain the implication for last question. For this kind of question (author agrees), what could be the best way to handle the question?
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Re: RC- You got 6 mins [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2008, 23:03
I am posting the OE for the last question. Just to let you know that the last question is a 700 level RC question. I do not agree with the OA. I chose D and D seems to make more sense. If anyone of you can gather the OE better and understand why C is better than D, Pls let me know.

The author of this passage would most likely agree with which of the following?

A)The theory of multiple intelligences is relatively new and untested.
C)Dr. Sternberg’s theory would be strengthened by the discovery of biological evidence for his conclusions.
D)The theory of multiple intelligences is undermined by disagreements among its proponents as to the number of intelligences.
E)There is stronger biological evidence in favor of the single-intelligence model than of the theory of multiple intelligences.

Although this question appears to be a specific question, it is really a general question concerned with the tone of the passage. A close reading reveals that the general tone is objective and neutral. Therefore, you should eliminate answer choices that are too extreme or that favor one theory over the other.

(A) The author of the passage might well agree that the theory of multiple intelligences is “relatively new,” since she appears to say that the theory originated in 1983. However, there is no indication that the author believes the theory is relatively untested. Indeed, she cites a variety of evidence supporting the theory.

(B) This passage is descriptive, not predictive. There is no indication that the author believes the intelligence debate will be resolved.

(C) CORRECT. This statement is attractive because it is very neutral. The author would most likely agree that any additional evidence would strengthen Sternberg’s theory, but especially biological evidence as the passage only mentions evidence for the triarchic model from “real-life situations.”

(D) The author states that there are different models of multiple intelligence, but does not indicate that this weakens the theory.

(E) The author does not appear to favor one theory over the other, and expresses no opinion as to the relative merits of the biological evidence supporting each theory.

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Re: RC- You got 6 mins [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2010, 21:19
If this question is from MGMAT can you please confirm the OA for the first question is E, as mentioned in the earlier post. I somehow cant convince myself that the answer should be E and not C.
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Re: RC- You got 6 mins   [#permalink] 13 Aug 2010, 21:19
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