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# Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,

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Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 Jan 2019, 03:42
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Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

58% (01:12) correct 42% (01:11) wrong based on 1017 sessions

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Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century, many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood

A. many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood
B. many scientists believed that phlogiston was an imaginary substance released by combustion and its properties were not fully understood
C. phlogiston was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood and which many scientists had believed was released by combustion
D. phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood, was believed by scientists to be released by combustion
E, many scientists had believed that phlogiston was released by combustion and was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood.

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Originally posted by sdas on 18 Mar 2013, 23:51.
Last edited by Skywalker18 on 17 Jan 2019, 03:42, edited 2 times in total.
formatted
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2013, 00:34
1
B. many scientists believed that phlogiston was an imaginary substance released by combustion and its properties were not fully understood
scientists belived ... its properties were not understood. Illogical
C. phlogiston was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood and which many scientists had believed was released by combustion
what does which refer to?
D. phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood, was believed by scientists to be released by combustion
avoid passive
E, many scientists had believed that phlogiston was released by combustion and was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood.
A is more clear...

IMO A
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2013, 00:38
my take wud be A :Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century, many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2013, 08:12
Hi,

Even i believe the ans should be A as rest all seem to be too wordy.

Regds
SOny
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2013, 09:12
sony26 wrote:
Hi,

Even i believe the ans should be A as rest all seem to be too wordy.

Regds
SOny

Sony, all other choices completely distorts the intended meaning of the sentence, that is why they are not correct. Choice C looks close, but watch closer the opening subordinate clause and the main clause has a big modifier in between (supposed to be modifier, but in C it becomes a main clause and , which.... becomes another subordinate clause)

Hope this clears the concept of the sentence

Thank you all mates
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2013, 09:15
what is the source of this question ?
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2013, 09:22
Sdas,

Thanks for the clarification.

Regds
Sony
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2013, 10:08
1
what is the source of this question ?

MGMAT Study Hall all the way from horse's mouth - Ron Purewal
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2013, 19:44
whoa, isn't the first part a preposition? So the subject can't be in there. 'Many scientists believed' modifying the 18th century seems awful.

Can someone clarify why D is wrong? I thought phlogiston was the subject....
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2013, 22:02
I am not clear why E is wrong. It used the Past Perfect tense as used in A. Is it because it used a Passive voice that it has been not given preference over A. Can someone please explain?
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2013, 02:43
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surya167 wrote:
I am not clear why E is wrong. It used the Past Perfect tense as used in A. Is it because it used a Passive voice that it has been not given preference over A. Can someone please explain?

You should always avoid passive in SC.
Another problem with E, I would say, is that is not perfectly clear.

Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century, many scientists had believed that phlogiston was released by combustion and was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood.

"was an imaginary substance" doesn't sound good...

"many scientists had believed that"(..)"and was an imaginary substance" is not clear: many scientists belived it was an imaginary substance OR phlogiston was an imaginary substance (regardless of the scientists' opinion)?

In A the use of the comma creates a better structure:
many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston, an imaginary substance (the phlogiston) whose properties were not fully understood
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2013, 02:45
First you can create the 3/2 split because the first part should modify "many scientists" so discard C and D. Then first part "Tammy Howard proved ... in 18th century" suggests this happened in the past, you need "many scientists had believed" so can eliminate B.

Finally to pick between A and E, A wins on meaning. It made more sense than the way E is structured.
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2013, 09:02
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surya167 wrote:
I am not clear why E is wrong. It used the Past Perfect tense as used in A. Is it because it used a Passive voice that it has been not given preference over A. Can someone please explain?

Hi, Choice E distorts the intended meaning of the original sentence completely.
Scientists had.....x and......y showing 2 beliefs but in reality scientists had only one belief and the later (as shown in choice E), is a general fact stated about the chemical.

Also, please note "passive voice answers are wrong" is a misconception and farce in GMAT. Please read through threads carefully. You can never ignore an answer choice because it is in passive voice, unless it has grammatical errors. Note passive voice is no form grammar issue.

Hope this helps
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2013, 04:50
sdas wrote:
surya167 wrote:
I am not clear why E is wrong. It used the Past Perfect tense as used in A. Is it because it used a Passive voice that it has been not given preference over A. Can someone please explain?

Hi, Choice E distorts the intended meaning of the original sentence completely.
Scientists had.....x and......y showing 2 beliefs but in reality scientists had only one belief and the later (as shown in choice E), is a general fact stated about the chemical.

Also, please note "passive voice answers are wrong" is a misconception and farce in GMAT. Please read through threads carefully. You can never ignore an answer choice because it is in passive voice, unless it has grammatical errors. Note passive voice is no form grammar issue.

Hope this helps

Thanks SDAS.

It surely did help!
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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22 Mar 2013, 14:21
sdas wrote:
Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century, many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood

A. ....
B. many scientists believed that phlogiston was an imaginary substance released by combustion and its properties were not fully understood
C. phlogiston was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood and which many scientists had believed was released by combustion
D. phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood, was believed by scientists to be released by combustion
E, many scientists had believed that phlogiston was released by combustion and was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood.

Request discussion, OA to be revealed later

C and D are out because in both cases whose modifies "imaginary substance" which is incorrect, it must modify pholo...
B has pronoun ambiguity...its refer to "imaginary substance", its must refer to pholo...
E passive voice......

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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2013, 09:18
1
1
Ron's SC Videos(Thursdays With Ron-Manhattan):

November 12, 2009:

Sentence Correction: Miscellaneous Topics

January 21, 2010:

Sentence Correction: Parallelism, Ambiguous Sentences & Comparisons of Quantities

May 13, 2010:

Sentence Correction: Parallelism and Placement of Helping Verbs

June 24, 2010:

Sentence Correction

September 23, 2010:

Sentence Correction: use of "based on", "due to", "including" Sentence Correction: appositive modifiers" SC: appositive modifiers

November 18, 2010:

Sentence Correction: A New Way to Study Sentence Correction Sentence Correction: Verb Tense Basics

December 16, 2010:

Sentence Correction: Verb Tense Quantitative: Probability

March 31, 2011:

Sentence Correction: "Which" Modifiers Sentence Correction: Ambiguous Pronouns

May 12, 2011:

Sentence Correction: Initial Modifiers

August 25, 2011:

Sentence Correction: "Which" Modifiers

October 20, 2011:

Sentence Correction: Miscellaneous Comparisons

November 17, 2011:

SC: More problems with COMPARISONS (PDF slides only)
http://www.manhattangmat.com/pdf/twr-sl ... 172011.pdf

January 5, 2012:

Sentence Correction: Meaning and Modifiers

February 16, 2012:

SC: Use of -ING forms

March 1, 2012:

SC: Use of "AND"

March 15, 2012:

The Use of "AND" as a Connector

April 26, 2012:

SC: Modifier Workshop

May 10, 2012:

SC: Modifier Workshop, Part 2

October 25, 2012:

SC: Overall Sentence Structure Issues

December 6, 2012:

SC: More on Overall Sentence Structure Issues

Folks: very useful links, for each one of us, it clears many of our doubts including, passive voice answers as incorrect always misconception...

Hope we find these useful
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2014, 04:21
I was between A and E.
Straight A, as no error was discovered.

In E, there is no need to describe ideas separated by coordinating conjunction and. Ideas are closely related and A presents a perfect construction.
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2017, 00:37
sdas wrote:
Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century, many scientists had believed that combustion released phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood

A. ....
B. many scientists believed that phlogiston was an imaginary substance released by combustion and its properties were not fully understood
C. phlogiston was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood and which many scientists had believed was released by combustion
D. phlogiston, an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood, was believed by scientists to be released by combustion
E, many scientists had believed that phlogiston was released by combustion and was an imaginary substance whose properties were not fully understood.

Request discussion, OA to be revealed later

I was able to choose correct answer (A) by the POE, but do we really nee "had" as mentioned in the part of the sentence (had believed that combustion)?
Use of "Until" clearly indicates that what many scientists believe was the action before the action of "Tammy Howard proved otherwise".

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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2017, 09:43
Jabjagotabhisavera wrote:

I was able to choose correct answer (A) by the POE, but do we really nee "had" as mentioned in the part of the sentence (had believed that combustion)?
Use of "Until" clearly indicates that what many scientists believe was the action before the action of "Tammy Howard proved otherwise".

Hi Jabjagotabhisavera ,

GMAT says ideally its not preferable to show the sequencing when we already have words such as until, after, before, etc. But in case we don't have any option that is correct without this case, then this case is acceptable.

Does that make sense?
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Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,  [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2017, 11:19
can anyone explain why B is wrong ? it because of placement of *IT* after and makes the sentence confusing? otherwise please give reason.
Re: Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century, &nbs [#permalink] 24 Dec 2017, 11:19

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# Until Tammy Howard proved otherwise in the 18th century,

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