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# Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA

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Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 11:55
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This question is second practice problem in the meaning based questions and tests proper usage of modifiers. Correct and best explanation will get a Kudos from us and a free subscription for 1 month to our[highlight]OG Verbal 2 solutions for Sentence Correction[/highlight]. OG Verbal 2 solutions contain solutions to all SC questions using e-GMAT 3 step process- amounting to 14 hrs of audio visual content. Currently 60 solutions are uploaded. The set will be completed by the end of the month.

DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.

A. its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design
B. preventing its engine’s thrust from dissipating in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design
C. preventing the dissipation of its engine’s thrust in the stratosphere due to its conical unibody design
D. prevented its engine’s thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design
E. its engine’s thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design

We will provide the official answer in a couple of hrs.

Also Check out 5 strategies that GMAT uses to distort the meaning of the original sentence
5-strategies-that-gmat-uses-to-distort-meaning-124296.html
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by egmat on 09 Dec 2011, 23:15, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 21:15
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IMO A should be the answer. Here is my reasoning:

B - The Vehicle does not prevent its engine's thrust from dissipating. Rather, the conical unibody design prevents the engine's thrust from dissipating. The structure in option B seems to imply that the Vehicle prevents the dissipation. Moreover, "preventing" typically refers to the entire preceding clause. The preceding clause, however, has nothing to do with the dissipation.
C - The entire clause preceding "preventing" does not affect the dissipation in any way. Hence "preventing" is wrong. "Due to" is wrongly used.
D - "prevented" is the wrong word. The Vehicle did not prevent the dissipation. The conical design did. That is why "prevented", which refers to Vehicle in this option is wrong.
E - This is another clause in its entirety, totally independent of the preceding main clause. A semicolon after "30 minutes" was required to have made this a logical choice. Moreover, "prevented from doing X by Y" is more correct than "prevented from doing X because of Y" in this case, since the causal relationship has to be mentioned.

Please provide the OA with explanation. Would love to stand corrected in my line of reasoning.

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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 21:28
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E is run-on sentence.

The action of plane "can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes" cannot prevent .... So, we can eliminate B and C in which "preventing..." modifies the preceding.

In choice D, "prevented" can be used as participle => modifies incorrectly preceding part or verb => incorrect S-V agreement

So, correct choice should be A
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2011, 22:49
confused between A and B

Can anyone please explain more clearly and lso please share the OA
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2011, 00:24
b,c,preventing is wrong as it modifies the Falcon while Falcon's body design prevents the engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating
In D prevented should modify body design and not falcon...
E reverses the cause-action relation given in the original sentence
So answer is A
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2011, 10:26
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@siddharthmuzumdar: Absolutely correct and detailed explanation!!
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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12 Dec 2011, 10:28
Quote:
egmat wrote:
DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.

A. its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design
B. preventing its engine’s thrust from dissipating in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design
C. preventing the dissipation of its engine’s thrust in the stratosphere due to its conical unibody design
D. prevented its engine’s thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design
E. its engine’s thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design

Here is the official explanation for this question:

Understand the Meaning of the Original Sentence

The sentence presents a fact about DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle (FHTV). It states that this vehicle can fly as fast as 6 times the speed of sound. It can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes. Then the sentence presents the reason why such performance is achievable. The engine’s thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere. This is because of the conical unibody design.

Find the Errors in the Original Sentence

DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.

This sentence contains a single clause with the SV pair highlighted. The underlined portion of the sentence contains a modifier – a noun + noun modifier structure. This modifier provides further information about how the vehicle can fly this fast and can attack this fast and this far away. The sentence has no grammatical errors and communicates the meaning very clearly.

Choice B – Even though grammatically correct, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence since now it uses “verb-ing modifier” in place of “noun + noun modifier”. Thus instead of now presenting a mechanism of how the vehicle is this fast, it presents the following two meanings, both of which are illogical:
1.The vehicle itself prevents its thrust from dissipating – Illogical.
2.The vehicle goes this fast and this results in preventing its thrust from dissipating. – Reversed causal relationship - hence illogical.

Choice C – Same errors as in Choice B. Furthermore, “due to” is not used correctly. Here it may illogically imply that the dissipation of thrust is due to conical design.

Choice D – Use of verb-ed modifier in this sentence is not correct. Typically these modifiers are used to modify the nouns. Even if they are used to modify the clauses, they associate with the subject of the clause, and this is non-sensical in the context of this sentence as discussed in choice B analysis.

Choice E – This choice connects two independent clauses using comma. Semicolon should be used. Furthermore, this choice is very wordy.

TAKE AWAYS

1. Understand the meaning of the original sentence and determine the role of each modifier.
2. Be cautious of change of structure of modifiers since such changes even though grammatically correct may distort the meaning of the sentence.

Note: The attachment at http://gmatclub.com/forum/5-strategies-that-gmat-uses-to-distort-meaning-124296.html contains the document with Strategies for Meaning Change and the questions with detailed solutions. Note that this is a "living" document. We add the strategies, questions, and explanations in this document as we add them on the forum. So be sure to download the latest version!
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Last edited by egmat on 24 Jul 2012, 08:10, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2011, 02:04
its the engine thrust that prevents dissipating, hence +1 for A

very nice Q!

Thank you...

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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2012, 03:28
Hi e-gmat,
I would like to how A is correct.
I feel A is a run.
Kindly help.

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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2013, 07:59
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keerthisaran wrote:
Hi e-gmat,
I would like to how A is correct.
I feel A is a run.
Kindly help.

Hi keerthisaran,

e-gmat team wishes you a very Happy New Year.

I guess you feel choice A is a run on because you think “prevented” is a verb. However, “prevented” is not a verb in this sentence. It is a verb-ed modifier.
DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.
Here “engine’s thrust” is not performing the action of preventing. This modifier presents a characteristic of this thrust. To learn how to distinguish between “ed” verb and “ed” modifier, please read the following article:

ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2013, 23:25
egmat wrote:
Quote:
egmat wrote:
DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.

A. its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design
B. preventing its engine’s thrust from dissipating in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design
C. preventing the dissipation of its engine’s thrust in the stratosphere due to its conical unibody design
D. prevented its engine’s thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design
E. its engine’s thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design

Here is the official explanation for this question:

Understand the Meaning of the Original Sentence

The sentence presents a fact about DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle (FHTV). It states that this vehicle can fly as fast as 6 times the speed of sound. It can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes. Then the sentence presents the reason why such performance is achievable. The engine’s thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere. This is because of the conical unibody design.

Find the Errors in the Original Sentence

DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.

This sentence contains a single clause with the SV pair highlighted. The underlined portion of the sentence contains a modifier – a noun + noun modifier structure. This modifier provides further information about how the vehicle can fly this fast and can attack this fast and this far away. The sentence has no grammatical errors and communicates the meaning very clearly.

Choice B – Even though grammatically correct, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence since now it uses “verb-ing modifier” in place of “noun + noun modifier”. Thus instead of now presenting a mechanism of how the vehicle is this fast, it presents the following two meanings, both of which are illogical:
1.The vehicle itself prevents its thrust from dissipating – Illogical.
2.The vehicle goes this fast and this results in preventing its thrust from dissipating. – Reversed causal relationship - hence illogical.

Choice C – Same errors as in Choice B. Furthermore, “due to” is not used correctly. Here it may illogically imply that the dissipation of thrust is due to conical design.

Choice D – Use of verb-ed modifier in this sentence is not correct. Typically these modifiers are used to modify the nouns. Even if they are used to modify the clauses, they associate with the subject of the clause, and this is non-sensical in the context of this sentence as discussed in choice B analysis.

Choice E – This choice connects two independent clauses using comma. Semicolon should be used. Furthermore, this choice is very wordy.

TAKE AWAYS

1. Understand the meaning of the original sentence and determine the role of each modifier.
2. Be cautious of change of structure of modifiers since such changes even though grammatically correct may distort the meaning of the sentence.

Note: The attachment at http://gmatclub.com/forum/5-strategies-that-gmat-uses-to-distort-meaning-124296.html contains the document with Strategies for Meaning Change and the questions with detailed solutions. Note that this is a "living" document. We add the strategies, questions, and explanations in this document as we add them on the forum. So be sure to download the latest version!

Hi egmat,

In option B,
B. preventing its engine’s thrust from dissipating in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design

It makes sense to describe the action of the first clause.
However, it does not connect with the subject because DARPA'S HFTV did not do the prevention.

I just need to confirm that Can't we say that 'verb-ing' in option B describes how the action in first clause was performed.
It does not show the result, but described the action that how it was performed.

Please revert at the earliest.

Thanks,
Jai
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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21 May 2014, 14:52
egmat wrote:
Quote:
egmat wrote:
Choice D – Use of verb-ed modifier in this sentence is not correct. Typically these modifiers are used to modify the nouns. Even if they are used to modify the clauses, they associate with the subject of the clause, and this is non-sensical in the context of this sentence as discussed in choice B analysis.

From your other article on VERB-ED modifiers what I understood was VERB-ED modifiers can never modify a clause (Your take on this in the article on verb-ed modifier: "Since Official Guides set up the rules here, we incorporate these rules in our course curriculum and questions. If down the line, OG modifies this question and changes the explanation, reflecting that comma + verb-ed modifiers modify preceding clause, then we will change our curriculum and questions based on this rule accordingly."). How come here you are saying "Even if they are used to modify the clauses"? Have you got some examples from OG?

DR

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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2017, 22:36
egmat wrote:
Quote:
egmat wrote:
DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.

A. its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design
B. preventing its engine’s thrust from dissipating in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design
C. preventing the dissipation of its engine’s thrust in the stratosphere due to its conical unibody design
D. prevented its engine’s thrust from being dissipated in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design
E. its engine’s thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere because of its conical unibody design

Here is the official explanation for this question:

Understand the Meaning of the Original Sentence

The sentence presents a fact about DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle (FHTV). It states that this vehicle can fly as fast as 6 times the speed of sound. It can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes. Then the sentence presents the reason why such performance is achievable. The engine’s thrust is prevented from being dissipated in the stratosphere. This is because of the conical unibody design.

Find the Errors in the Original Sentence

DARPA’s Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle can fly as fast as 6X the speed of sound and can attack a target 2000 miles away in 30 minutes, its engine’s thrust prevented from dissipating in the stratosphere by its conical unibody design.

This sentence contains a single clause with the SV pair highlighted. The underlined portion of the sentence contains a modifier – a noun + noun modifier structure. This modifier provides further information about how the vehicle can fly this fast and can attack this fast and this far away. The sentence has no grammatical errors and communicates the meaning very clearly.

Choice B – Even though grammatically correct, this choice distorts the meaning of the sentence since now it uses “verb-ing modifier” in place of “noun + noun modifier”. Thus instead of now presenting a mechanism of how the vehicle is this fast, it presents the following two meanings, both of which are illogical:
1.The vehicle itself prevents its thrust from dissipating – Illogical.
2.The vehicle goes this fast and this results in preventing its thrust from dissipating. – Reversed causal relationship - hence illogical.

Choice C – Same errors as in Choice B. Furthermore, “due to” is not used correctly. Here it may illogically imply that the dissipation of thrust is due to conical design.

Choice D – Use of verb-ed modifier in this sentence is not correct. Typically these modifiers are used to modify the nouns. Even if they are used to modify the clauses, they associate with the subject of the clause, and this is non-sensical in the context of this sentence as discussed in choice B analysis.

Choice E – This choice connects two independent clauses using comma. Semicolon should be used. Furthermore, this choice is very wordy.

TAKE AWAYS

1. Understand the meaning of the original sentence and determine the role of each modifier.
2. Be cautious of change of structure of modifiers since such changes even though grammatically correct may distort the meaning of the sentence.

Note: The attachment at http://gmatclub.com/forum/5-strategies-that-gmat-uses-to-distort-meaning-124296.html contains the document with Strategies for Meaning Change and the questions with detailed solutions. Note that this is a "living" document. We add the strategies, questions, and explanations in this document as we add them on the forum. So be sure to download the latest version!

Hello, egmat. I got the correct answer.
My doubt is regarding option C. You have mentioned 'incorrect usage of due to'
I have read that due to can not refer to a verb. But in this case, dissipation is not used as a verb right?
Could you elaborate on why due to is not used right?
Thank You

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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2017, 12:40
sarathgopinath wrote:
Hello, egmat. I got the correct answer.
My doubt is regarding option C. You have mentioned 'incorrect usage of due to'
I have read that due to can not refer to a verb. But in this case, dissipation is not used as a verb right?
Could you elaborate on why due to is not used right?
Thank You

Hello sarathgopinath,

Thank you for the query.

Per choice C, DARPA prevents the dissipation due to its design. So due to has been used to present the reason for the action denoted by preventing.

Use of due to in Choice C implies that dissipation happens because of the design. This is the just the opposite of what the original sentence intends to convey.

The sentence intends to convey that prevention of dissipation happens because of DARPA's design.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA   [#permalink] 28 Jul 2017, 12:40
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# Usage of Modifiers - Exercise Sentence 2 - DARPA

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