Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC) - Page 2
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# Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1

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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2012, 16:34
Can I think that

in E "evidence" performs "to support" and this is not logic

in D "evidence" dose not perform "for supporting" and this is logic. Other unknown would perform "for supporting"

Is my thinking correct?
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06 Jul 2012, 16:45
sorry, I post again.

in E, the meaning is "evidence provides support in order that the evidence would classify". This is not logic

in D, the meaing is "evidence provides support for someone to classify" .This is logic

can I say that

use "for doing" when the subject ("evidence") of the first verb (provide) dose not do the action of "for doing" (classifying)

pls, help.
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09 Jul 2012, 01:36
@ E-gmat: I thoroughly enjoyed reading this post. Kudos to you.
Can you please let me know by when other posts are expected? Also, do you have similar articles available for other grammatical points, such as pronouns, participles, gerunds, etc?
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09 Jul 2012, 02:05
Thanks .... very well written explanation
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10 Jul 2012, 09:25
can you please explain how present & past participles are constructed. I mean taking a clause and then removing the parts to show formation of participles. Thanks
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2012, 15:41
egmat wrote:
As mentioned earlier, verb-ing modifiers are made from “verbs” and they denote action. Now, any action needs a doer. In the same way, the verb-ing modifiers also associate with the subjects of the preceding clause. What we must keep in mind is that the action denoted by verb-ing must make sense with the subject of the clause. The use of verb-ing is correct only if it makes sense with the subject of the clause it is modifying.

For example:
Sachin Tendulkar played an exceptionally outstanding innings, making the team win gloriously.

The sentence means that Sachin played a superbly good innings. And the result of this action led to the victory of the team in a glorious manner. So, the verb-ing modifier “making” preceded by a comma is presenting the result of the preceding clause.

Now, “making” is an action that needs a subject. Per the rule, it will associate with the subject of the preceding clause. Now, the subject of the preceding clause “Sachin” did the action of playing a superb innings. So the subject is the doer. Hence, “making” will associate with the same subject and will suggest that that Sachin “made” the team win. This association perfectly makes sense. Because Sachin did make the team win by playing a superb innings. Hence, the usage of the verb-ing modifier is absolutely correct here.

Now let’s take this example:
Joe became the CFO of the company, increasing his pay significantly.

Here the verb-ing modifier “increasing” appears after the clause and is preceded by a comma. This means that this modifier will modify the preceding clause either by presenting additional information about the preceding clause or by presenting the result of the preceding clause.

Now, per the intended meaning of the sentence, Joe became the CFO of the company. This event led to increase in his salary. Now, the subject of the sentence is “Joe”. However, he is not the doer of the verb “became”. He did not make himself the CFO of the company. Now look at the verb-ing modifier “increasing”. Since verb-ing modifier denotes an action and hence associates with a verb, “increasing” associates with “Joe”. The sentence thus means that Joe became the CFO of the company and as a result he increased his salary. We know that this is not even a possibility. What resulted in Joe’s increased salary is the event of his becoming the CFO.
Hence, even if this sentence appears to be written in appropriate construction, it is incorrect since here the verb-ing modifier does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause.

I just want to make sure I got this right.

for OG12, SC30, AC-C (correct answer) reads:
"For members of the 17th century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears."

Using Joe's example above, wouldn't this be incorrect? In the example, Joe is not doing the action of increasing his salary. Similarly, the shields themselves are not doing the action of protecting, they are, as the sentence reads, just "items of military equipment." Am I stretching this a bit too much here? I can see how the shields' function is to protect so I kinda see your point also.

Applying your logic, would this sentence be correct?
"For the Ashanti warriors of Africa, shields with wooden frames were essential items, helping win battles."

The shields are protecting the warriors and therefore helping them win battles, therefore this sentence would be correct. However, if I were to get a bit technical, I would argue that the shields themselves are not DOING the action of protecting, but rather that the warriors are USING the shields to protect themselves and therefore winning the battles.

Which perspective is correct?
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 20:45
dpvtank wrote:
I just want to make sure I got this right.

for OG12, SC30, AC-C (correct answer) reads:
"For members of the 17th century Ashanti nation in Africa, animal-hide shields with wooden frames were essential items of military equipment, protecting warriors against enemy arrows and spears."

Using Joe's example above, wouldn't this be incorrect? In the example, Joe is not doing the action of increasing his salary. Similarly, the shields themselves are not doing the action of protecting, they are, as the sentence reads, just "items of military equipment." Am I stretching this a bit too much here? I can see how the shields' function is to protect so I kinda see your point also.

Applying your logic, would this sentence be correct?
"For the Ashanti warriors of Africa, shields with wooden frames were essential items, helping win battles."

The shields are protecting the warriors and therefore helping them win battles, therefore this sentence would be correct. However, if I were to get a bit technical, I would argue that the shields themselves are not DOING the action of protecting, but rather that the warriors are USING the shields to protect themselves and therefore winning the battles.

Which perspective is correct?

In retrospect, I was thinking too much writing this. The simplest way to figure this out is to simply say: are the shields protecting the warriors? yes! therefore - correct.
Is Joe increasing his salary? No. Therefore incorrect. I got too carried away with the whole "action" vs. "function" part. It really can be simpler.

For anyone in the future who similarly curdles his or her brain into mush and over-complicates everything: please take a break!
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17 Jul 2012, 04:24
I have learnt all the grammatical concepts from e-Gmat only... I am an ex Student of e-Gmat.
Thanks
Himanshu

egmat wrote:
Hi Himanshu,

Thanks for this addition. This point is covered in our concept og Verb-ing Modifiers.

I would just like to briefly explain why comma + verb-ing modifier takes the tense of the preceding modifying clause. It does so because the verb tense of the main clause defines the tense of the sentence. So that tense sets the context of the timeframe for that sentence.

Since the main verb sets the tense of the main action in the sentence, all the other actions by default takes the same timeframe. Now, verb-ing modifiers are not verbs but they certainly denotes some action and hence, take the same tense of the verb in clause modified by the verb-ing modifier.

Thanks.
Shraddha

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17 Jul 2012, 06:46
Hi @dpvtank,

I'm glad you could solve this riddle by yourself. The best way to find out what the modifier is modifying is ask the modifier the question the way you did. The answers if makes sense with the modifier then it is modifying the correct entity. If not then the modification is incorrect. Good job there.
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19 Jul 2012, 05:58
Shraddha, Can you explain the steps to arrive at the correct answer for this question? sc-law-44878.html

What does the modifier in the first sentence, making it possible modify?
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19 Jul 2012, 07:51
Thanks Sharaddha for the prompt response. Again really helpful exercise.

There is one more that I am confused with, though I could get the to the right option through POE, but I really could not get the right usage of modifiers in this sentence. for-the-farmer-who-takes-care-to-keep-them-cool-providing-99974.html

Based on POE, given that the sentence says them, it should modify plural subject, and are producing in other choice seemed inferior so went for E. However, I am not convinced how structure of the sentence plays the role in this. Can you explain this as well. Thanks.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2012, 20:11
i have great problem in -ing modifier. i am always stuck in it whether it plays role as an opening modifier or as a gerund. for example in OG 13 Q 14, "rising inventories", here rising plays the role of opening modifier. if i say "drinking coffee is good for health", here "drinking" is gerund right?? could you please elaborate the topic with GMATic example

thanks in advance
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16 Sep 2012, 23:49
Thanks for posting such good article. Really helped to set some demons straight. A good help indeed.
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18 Sep 2012, 11:11
Thanks, I am glad it helped. Do check out the free concept on the website. Click on the url below to register for free.

https://e-gmat.com/secure/register_gc.php
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04 Oct 2012, 06:28
Hi Payal/Shradha,

I'm very much adept with Verb ing modifier, but recently I have been getting confused while applying the comma+verb ing rule i.e. subject of the clause must makes sense with the modifier.

The below is the correct sentence from GMAT prep

The number of people flying first class on domestic flights rose sharply in 1990, doubling the increase of the the previous year.

Can you please shed some light as how the number of people is making sense with the verb double.?
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24 Oct 2012, 07:40
imhimanshu wrote:
Hi Payal/Shradha,

I'm very much adept with Verb ing modifier, but recently I have been getting confused while applying the comma+verb ing rule i.e. subject of the clause must makes sense with the modifier.

The below is the correct sentence from GMAT prep

The number of people flying first class on domestic flights rose sharply in 1990, doubling the increase of the the previous year.

Can you please shed some light as how the number of people is making sense with the verb double.?

Hi Himanshu,

The number of people flying first class on domestic flights rose sharply in 1990, doubling the increase of the previous year.

In this sentence, “doubling” does make sense with the subject “the number of people” because this number of people doubles the increase by flying. It is due to this number of people that the number passengers doubled. The subject perfectly makes sense with the verb-ing modifier.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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02 Dec 2012, 08:14
Thanks e-GMAT for another great article...

Please keep us involved in getting through more of the critical and crucial verbal topics for GMAT.
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2013, 01:53
egmat wrote:

Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully raised since transplants from Norway began in 1975.

(A) bringing
(B) and brings
(C) and it brings
(D) and it brought
(E) and brought

We will solve this question, using e-gmat three-step process.

STEP 1: MEANING ANALYSIS
The sentence says that this summer, five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland. This action brought to 34 the total number of wild birds that have been successfully raised since transplants from Norway started in 1975.

As mentioned earlier, verb-ing modifiers are made from “verbs” and they denote action. Now, any action needs a doer. In the same way, the verb-ing modifiers also associate with the subjects of the preceding clause. What we must keep in mind is that the action denoted by verb-ing must make sense with the subject of the clause. The use of verb-ing is correct only if it makes sense with the subject of the clause it is modifying.

Now let’s take this example:
Joe became the CFO of the company, increasing his pay significantly.

Here the verb-ing modifier “increasing” appears after the clause and is preceded by a comma. This means that this modifier will modify the preceding clause either by presenting additional information about the preceding clause or by presenting the result of the preceding clause.

Now, per the intended meaning of the sentence, Joe became the CFO of the company. This event led to increase in his salary. Now, the subject of the sentence is “Joe”. However, he is not the doer of the verb “became”. He did not make himself the CFO of the company. Now look at the verb-ing modifier “increasing”. Since verb-ing modifier denotes an action and hence associates with a verb, “increasing” associates with “Joe”. The sentence thus means that Joe became the CFO of the company and as a result he increased his salary. We know that this is not even a possibility. What resulted in Joe’s increased salary is the event of his becoming the CFO.
Hence, even if this sentence appears to be written in appropriate construction, it is incorrect since here the verb-ing modifier does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause. This sentence can be written correctly as follows:

I am not clear with these two examples and with your explanations.

For the first example Eagles are not the doer of the "bringing" , as you said in your own explanation "The sentence says that this summer, five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland. This action brought"

similarly,

For the second example,

Joe became the CFO of the company, increasing his pay significantly.

action of "Joe's becoming the CFO" increases his pay.

As you said in the first example the action of (eagles left) makes the bringing, here again action (Joe became) makes the increasing

I think there is nothing wrong here with your explanations. So why is that second one is wrong? I understand the part Joe did not become CFO by himself, but it does not change anything. Still this action (becoming a CFO) makes the increase in his pay.

Shall you please explain?
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2013, 08:27
egmat wrote:
Hi Himanshu,

Thanks for this addition. This point is covered in our concept og Verb-ing Modifiers.

I would just like to briefly explain why comma + verb-ing modifier takes the tense of the preceding modifying clause. It does so because the verb tense of the main clause defines the tense of the sentence. So that tense sets the context of the timeframe for that sentence.

Since the main verb sets the tense of the main action in the sentence, all the other actions by default takes the same timeframe. Now, verb-ing modifiers are not verbs but they certainly denotes some action and hence, take the same tense of the verb in clause modified by the verb-ing modifier.

Thanks.
Shraddha

great , thank you e gmat.

if I remember correctly, comma+verbing can take the tense of one of the 2 previous verbs, depending on context if there are 2 verbs before "comma+doing" . can you give me an example of this situation
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Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1 [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2013, 02:42
Hi Shraddha/Payal,

Please provide explanations for the following question, in line with the Verb+ing modifiers concept.

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus
that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root-like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some
10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A. extending
B. extends
C. extended
D. it extended
E. is extending

Looking forward to your response.

TIA.
Re: Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1   [#permalink] 10 Feb 2013, 02:42

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# Usage of Verb-ing Modifiers - Part 1

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