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V11-16

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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2018, 19:27
sumit411 wrote:
ArupRS wrote:
souvik101990 wrote:
Official Solution:

A cheetah can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, and augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.

A. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, and augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
B. augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage, can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart.
C. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart and augmenting it by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
D. can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, its acceleration augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.
E. can accelerate in three strides to a speed of 40 mph, augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage, its sudden blast of energy generated by its powerful, oversized heart.


A. The modifiers generating its ………. powerful heart and augmented by………flattened ribcage modify the subject cheetah. While the first (present participle –ing ) correctly modifies the subject, the second is problematic: Being a past participle –ed modifier, it is placed too far from the subject; moreover, the cheetah is not augmented, but its acceleration is.

B. The cheetah is not augmented, but its acceleration is. The modifier augmented by………flattened ribcage wrongly refers to the cheetah.

C. The antecedent of the pronoun it is vague. If it refers to cheetah, itself should be used. Even then the sentence would wrongly mean that the cheetah augments itself, rather than its acceleration.

D. Correct. All above errors are eliminated. An absolute phrase is correctly introduced.

E. The modifier augmented by………flattened ribcage refers to speed of 40mph. In the sentence it is not intended to express that the value 40mph itself is augmented, rather it is intended to be meant that the acceleration with which the cheetah reaches the speed of 40mph is augmented. Hence this placement of the modifier is incorrect.


Answer: D


In the correct answer choice, shouldn't be an and b/w powerful and oversized - by its powerful, oversized heart, - Please explain
Hi, I would like to help you with this.

They are called co-ordinating adjective.

Eg: I saw a big, black truck

Both the adjectives are modifying the truck. You don't need and between big and blue. A mere comma will suffice.

How to check if the adjectives are co-ordinate adjective?

There are three tests you can run:

–       Replace the comma with the word “and”

–       Reverse the order of the adjectives

–       Replace the comma with the word “and” then reverse the order of the adjectives

If the adjectives being used to describe a noun can satisfy these three conditions, then they are almost certainly coordinate adjectives and require a comma. Let’s look at an example:

–       He was a smart, cheerful man.

Is the comma here correct? First, let’s replace the comma with the word “and.”

–       He was a smart and cheerful man.

This sentence still seems to make sense (although it does sound a bit awkward). So, let’s try reversing the order of the adjectives:

–       He was a cheerful, smart man.

Again, everything seems to make sense. Finally, let’s try replacing the comma with the word “and” and then reversing the order of the adjectives:

–       He was a cheerful and smart man.

Once again, everything makes sense, so we can be confident that the comma was actually necessary.

( I have taken this explanation from Mr Ron Purewal)

Hope this helps. Consider kudos if that helped

Sent from my ONEPLUS A3003 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app


Hello Sumit,

Thanks a lot. I was not aware of this concept - cordinating adjectives.

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2018, 03:22
Hi experts,

I still can't understand the structure of answer D

A cheetah can accelerate to a speed of 40 mph in three strides, generating its sudden blast of energy by its powerful, oversized heart, its acceleration augmented by its aerodynamic body with a small head and flattened ribcage.

As I understood, the first modifier [generating its sudden blast... heart] is adverbial modifier which modifies the preceding action. The second modifier is an absolute phrase which is also a Noun-noun modifier that modifies acceleration. According to MGMAT, it is not a good approach to have two very different modifiers placed continously like in this scenario. The second modifier is placed too far away from the main clause, making it really hard to grasp. Therefore, it feels like this question should be done by POE method.

Please correct me if I am wrong.
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Re V11-16  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2018, 09:29
I think this is a poor-quality question and the explanation isn't clear enough, please elaborate.
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Re V11-16 &nbs [#permalink] 16 Oct 2018, 09:29

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