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# VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing

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VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2012, 08:21
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VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2

In our first article on verb-ing modifiers, we discussed function of this modifier when used with a comma. In this article we will explain the function of the verb-ing modifier when the modifier is placed after the clause and is NOT preceded by a comma. To refresh your memory, in a sentence there are three general places where this modifier appears. In each placement, the modifier plays a specific role. These places are:

1. Placed after a clause PRECEDED by a comma (explained in the first article)
2. Placed after a clause NOT PRECEDED by a comma (explained in this article)
3. In the beginning of a clause followed by a comma (Please view the Verb-ing concept in the e-GMAT free trial)

RULE SET #2

The placement of the verb-ing modifier after a clause without a comma brings us to the second rule set for this modifier.
Let’s understand the application of this rule set through simple examples first.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE

Mary made a beautiful bouquet releasing divine aroma.

In this sentence “releasing…” is a verb-ing modifier that is not preceded by a comma. In this construction, “releasing…” modifies the preceding noun “bouquet”. The sentence means that Mary made a beautiful bouquet and that bouquet releases a divine aroma. So the modifier describes the noun "bouquet".

Understanding Intended meaning is the key: As you would have noticed, the key to deciding whether to use a verb-ing modifier, and if to use one, whether to use one with a comma depends on the intended meaning of the sentence. If the logical intended meaning is such that the verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun or noun phrase, then we should use the verb-ing modifier without a comma. On the other hand, use the verb-ing modifier with the comma if the author’s intention is to express additional information about the preceding clause or the result of the preceding clause. Either way, to make this distinction it’s important to understand the logical intended meaning. View the free concept on e-GMAT if you need further clarification (and audio visual representation).

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE

Let’s now take an official example and apply the tools that we have learned so far. Note that in this example we will only analyze the sentence with regards to the verb-ing modifier. The sentence construction for choices A and B is same as it pertains to the usage of verb-ing modifier.

OG 12#133 – Choice B

Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp's ridley turtle, saying that their compliance with laws requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting adult sea turtles.

To decide whether the usage of verb-ing modifier make sense, let’s understand the author’s Intended Meaning.

Intended meaning:
To understand the intended meaning, we will split the sentence into clauses to understand its structure. Take the Sentence Structure concepts in the free trial if you have trouble in splitting the sentence into clauses and phrases. Let’s continue.

• Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp's ridley turtle, saying
• that their compliance with laws requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting adult sea turtles.

This sentence says that last week local shrimpers called for a news conference. They did so to take come credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp’s ridley turtle. They informed in the conference that they comply with laws that require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets. This action is protecting adult sea turtles.

The verb-ing modifier “requiring” is not preceded by a comma and hence correctly modifies the preceding noun “laws”. The meaning is clear - these laws require the shrimpers to use turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets. Therefore, the sentence is correct as it is.

AN INSTANCE IN WHICH VERB-ING IS NOT CORRECT

We will now take an example in which Verb-ing is not correct. This example is from the exercise of the previous article.

In three months, biologist Glauco Machado gathered enough information about large numbers of a relatively unstudied order of arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish his first scientific paper.

A. arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish
B. arachnids, persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing
C. arachnids persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing

Let’s use the tools to determine whether verb-ing modifier makes sense.

STEP 1: (Intended) MEANING ANALYSIS

The sentence says that in three months Machado gathered enough information about a huge number of comparatively unstudied order of arachnids. He gathered all information with two purposes in mind:

a. he wanted to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him
b. he wanted to publish his first scientific paper

STEP 2: ERROR ANALYSIS

• In three months, biologist Glauco Machado gathered enough information about large numbers of a relatively unstudied order of arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish his first scientific paper.

This sentence has just one subject-verb pair, meaning it has only one clause. The SV pair is accounted for. The purposes of gathering all the information have been correctly written in “to verb” form. These two purposes are also correctly joined with “and”. Hence, there is no error in this sentence. The sentence is correct as is.

STEP 3: POE

Let us now do the POE to see what makes the other two choices incorrect.

A. arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish: Correct as we discussed during error analysis.

B. arachnids, persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing: Incorrect. Here both the verb-ing modifiers are preceded by comma, implying that they modify the entire preceding clause. Hence, now the sentence means that Machado gathered all the information and this action resulted into two things:
a. he persuaded the ant specialist, and
b. he published his first scientific papers.
This is certainly not the intended meaning of the original sentence. The original sentence talks about purpose. Per this choice, Machado’s gathering information actually led to the persuasion of the ant specialist and the publication of the first scientific paper. Hence, this choice is grammatically correct but certainly alters the intended meaning and is thus incorrect.

C. arachnids persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing: Incorrect. In this choice, the verb-ing modifiers appear without comma. Here, both “persuading” and “publishing” modify the preceding noun “arachnids”. Now, per this choice, the sentence means that Machado collected information on certain arachnids and these arachnids did the jobs of persuading the ant specialist and publishing first scientific paper. This is absolutely illogical. This is a case where verb-ing modifier without a comma does not make sense.

APPLYING THE RULE SET TO GMATPREP QUESTION

Ok, so now that we understand how to use the new tools that we have learnt, lets add them to our arsenal and use the e-GMAT 3 step process to solve a GMAT PREP question.

GMAT Prep Question:

In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.
A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle
B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling
C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

Let us now apply the e-gmat three-step process to solve this one. We will begin with the first step that is:

MEANING ANALYSIS:

The sentence says that in the past few years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets. These massive planets are either as large as Jupiter or larger than Jupiter. These massive planets also circle other stars.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter,
which circle other stars.

This sentence uses a mix of two idioms – “as X as” and “X larger than” – in the form of “as large or larger than”. This is incorrect. We must use the idiom correctly in its entirety to present the correct comparison.
Notice the modifier – “which circle…”. This relative pronoun modifier modifies the noun “80 massive planets”. Some of you may wonder that “which circle…” modifies the closest noun “Jupiter”. This is not correct. And this is where logical meaning and understanding the sentence structure comes to our aid.

Notice that “most of them as large or larger than Jupiter” is a modifier that provides additional information about the 80 massive planets. This modifier is encapsulated in a comma pair. So even if we remove this modifier from the sentence, the meaning will not be altered. So for the sake of our discussion, let’s remove this modifier:
• In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter,which circle other stars.

Now as you can see, “which circle…” modifies the noun phrase “80 massive planets”. Remember that the comma that precedes “which” does not separate “which” but is part of the comma pair that separates the modifier "most of them…" from the rest of the sentence.
We will now find the correct choice from the remaining 4 choices.

POE:

A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle: Incorrect for reasons discussed above.

B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling: Incorrect.
i. This choice repeats the idiom and parallelism errors of choice A.
ii. A modifier is not separated from the entity it modifies by using “and”.

C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling: Correct. This choice corrects the error of choice A by using the correct idiom “at least as large as Jupiter” to convey the intended meaning.
Furthermore, notice the use of modifier - “circling…” . This modifier modifies the noun entity that precedes it – “more than 80 massive planets”. As we discussed in the sentence structure discussion for choice A, this modifier does not modify the immediately preceding noun "Jupiter". This is a verb-ing modifier that is not separated from the preceding clause by a comma and hence modifies the preceding noun entity.
At this time we should also pay attention to the logical meaning of the sentence. We have determined already that “circling…” modifies “80 massive planets” from grammatical standpoint. From logical standpoint also, “circling” must modify “80 massive planets” because it is a universal fact that Jupiter revolves around the Sun and no other star. Hence, there is no logical way that “circling” can modify “Jupiter”. It should modify “80 massive planets”.

D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle: Incorrect. Use of “mostly” is incorrect here. Now it is an adverb that refers to the adjective following it “at least as large as”. This is non-sensical.

E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling: Incorrect.
i. Repeats the same “mostly” error of choice D.
ii. Repeats the idiom error of choice A.

Attachments

Verb-ing Modifier Article 2.pdf [438.05 KiB]

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Last edited by egmat on 25 Jun 2014, 05:58, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2012, 11:02
Wonderful article. Keep it up. Very helpful.

Cheers,
Der alte Fritz.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2012, 05:20
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egmat wrote:

In three months, biologist Glauco Machado gathered enough information about large numbers of a relatively unstudied order of arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him, and to publsh his first scientific paper.

A. arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish
B. arachnids, persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing
C. arachnids persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing

I believe, COMMA shouldn't be there in the original sentence. However Option A is written correct.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2012, 06:03
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Hi Himanshu,

You are absolutely correct. Thanks for bringing our attention to this typographical error. There should NOT be any comma before "and to publish". As such choice A in the answer choices does not show a comma but definitely the original sentence was originally written with a comma. This error will be rectified.

Thanks,

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2012, 12:13
E-Gmat.. your detailed explanation just awesome.

Kudos to you..

here i would like to suggest you, if you will post some ( around 10) relevant question after the detailed explanation of each article. it will be really helpful from practice perspective.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 04:54
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Hi!! In view of the above article, could you please advice how the following is correct:

The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose members made monthly payments on their share subscriptions and then took turns drawing on the funds for home mortgages.

According to your article, "drawing on the funds for home mortgages" should modify "turns", but that does not seem to be the case.

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 06:10
As a GMAT service provider, I doubt if they implement your suggestion.

321kumarsushant wrote:
E-Gmat.. your detailed explanation just awesome.

Kudos to you..

here i would like to suggest you, if you will post some ( around 10) relevant question after the detailed explanation of each article. it will be really helpful from practice perspective.

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 08:22

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

A having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
B having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
C with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
D with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
E with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

I know, that the comma + ing should modify the previous clause. Here, we don't have a clause before comma+ing modifier, hence the usage is incorrect, however OG says that the wording suggests that the intricate structure has miniature eyes. Could you please help me out. Also, does comma+ with modifier modifies closest noun or it can modify clause as well.

Thanks
Himanshu
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 08:51
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mohish wrote:
Hi!! In view of the above article, could you please advice how the following is correct:

The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose members made monthly payments on their share subscriptions and then took turns drawing on the funds for home mortgages.

According to your article, "drawing on the funds for home mortgages" should modify "turns", but that does not seem to be the case.

Hi Mohish,

First of all thanks for posting this question. It is a great question that exemplifies yet again that we should understand the context first and then apply our knowledge of grammar rules accordingly. Let’s see this in action on this question:

The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose members made monthly payments on their share subscriptions and then took turns drawing on the funds for home mortgages.

This is officially correct choice of Og12#114. The context of the sentence tells us that the members made monthly payments on something and they also took turns in doing something. So the context actually associates “drawing” to “turns”. i.e. the members took turns in drawing on the funds for home mortgages.

However, “drawing” is not a verb-ing modifier here. Why? Because “turns” are not drawing anything. We cannot say: …turns that drew on the funds… This is illogical. From the context we know that the members took turns in doing something.

So here, verb-ing form of word “draw” - “drawing” is actually functioning as a noun. This noun with an “ing” form is called gerund.

For what action did members take turns? Members took turns in drawing funds. The expression here means that one by one the members drew on funds. Take this sentence for example:

Before the competition, the contestants take turns swimming in the pool.

This sentence clearly says that before the swimming competition, the contestants swim in the pool one by one. They take turns swimming in the pool. Use of “swimming” is correct here. And here, “swimming” is not a modifier. It is a noun. Same is the case with the official sentence where “drawing” is not a verb-ing modifier (adjective) that modifies the preceding noun. It is a noun entity.

Take Away
1. Verb-ing word can play multiple roles
a. Act as a verb – continuous tense when preceded by ‘is/are/am/was/were’ (not discussed here)
b. Act as a modifier – discussed in part 1 and 2 of articles.
usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html
udsage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-continued-135567.html
c. Act as a noun – also called as gerund – discussed in this post.

2. Always understand the meaning of the sentence to determine the function of each entity in the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 09:22
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imhimanshu wrote:

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

A having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
B having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
C with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
D with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
E with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

I know, that the comma + ing should modify the previous clause. Here, we don't have a clause before comma+ing modifier, hence the usage is incorrect, however OG says that the wording suggests that the intricate structure has miniature eyes. Could you please help me out. Also, does comma+ with modifier modifies closest noun or it can modify clause as well.

Thanks
Himanshu

Hi Himanshu,

• The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

It is true that comma + verb-ing modifies the preceding clause. But that happens when comma + verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause. There may be instances where you will see comma + verb-ing modifier is placed after the subject. In that case, the comma + verb-ing modifier modifies the subject.

Grammatically, in this OG 13#7 problem, “having” is modifying the subject “The intricate structure of the compound eye” after which it has been placed. However, this leads to illogical meaning. Now the sentence means that the intricate structure has hundreds of miniature eyes. Hence, we certainly have modifier error here.

Now, study the following OG 13#25 problem,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

In this sentence, usage of “having” is absolutely correct. It is placed after the subject “neuroscientists” and hence correctly modifies that entity. The meaning here is that neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge… The modification conveys the logical meaning.

Now let’s talk about the comma + with modifiers. So here we are talking about prepositional phrases. “with” modifiers are very versatile modifiers. They can modify either the preceding clause or the preceding nouns. What they modify actually depends on the context of the sentence and the wording of the modifier itself.

• Bihar is India's poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111. In this sentence, with modifier actually modifies the preceding noun. With modifier in this sentence has the following sense. Notice how “which has” can be understood to replace “with”. India’s poorest state, which has an annual per capita income of$111

However, this modifier can be understood to modify the subject of the clause as well because of the nature of the verb - is. This is a linking verb, which establishes the following relationship:
Bihar = India’s poorest state.

Now lets consider a scenario in which “with” modifier modifies the preceding clause. This is a GMATPrep Question. You can find the detailed solution of this question at this link.

Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

The comma +with modifier above modifies the preceding clause. In essence this sentence can be written as two separate sentences:

1. Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches.
2. Their arms and legs are hung like socks on a clothesline.

So sentence 2 has been converted into with modifier. This modifier extends the thought of the preceding clause by providing a detail supporting it.

Now if the above sounds very complicated, then do not worry about it. As long as you know that these modifiers are versatile and hence can modify preceding clause and preceding nouns, you would be fine. Let the meaning of the sentence guide you. You should understand the meaning of the sentence and ensure that one of these roles fit well.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 10:49
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Also, take the free trial and go through the Verb-ing modifier concept. You will get additional examples that will help clarify your doubts.

-Rajat
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 06:10

Your inputs on this question, will be of great help!

There are numerous products in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

A. in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

B. that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

C. so as they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

D. so that there could be used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

E. such that they could use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

In the Question above, though I got the right answer, I would like to understand what is "including" modifying here? In other words, is it used as a modifier? Yes/No.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 05:32

Thanks for the detailed response.

I think, you forgot to attach the link, but thats OK. I have seen the reasoning on eGmat blogs.

Just one more doubt, could you please explain the Sentence Structure of the correct option i.e option e

Clause 1 :The intricate structure - helps
Clause 2: scientists - have
Clasue 3: it - evolved

Clause 2 and Clause 3 are connected by connector "That"; However, Clause 1 and Clause 2 have not used any connector.

Thanks
Himanshu

egmat wrote:
Now lets consider a scenario in which “with” modifier modifies the preceding clause. This is a GMATPrep Question. You can find the detailed solution of this question at this link.

Thanks.

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 11:03
imhimanshu wrote:

Thanks for the detailed response.

I think, you forgot to attach the link, but thats OK. I have seen the reasoning on eGmat blogs.

Just one more doubt, could you please explain the Sentence Structure of the correct option i.e option e

Clause 1 :The intricate structure - helps
Clause 2: scientists - have
Clasue 3: it - evolved

Clause 2 and Clause 3 are connected by connector "That"; However, Clause 1 and Clause 2 have not used any connector.

Thanks
Himanshu

Hi Himanshu,

First of all, apologies for not mentioning the link. I just missed it somehow.

Let's come to your doubt now.

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

Let’s split this sentence into clauses:

Cl 1: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain
Cl 2: why scientists have assumed
Cl 3: that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

(blue = subjects, green = verbs)

You are absolutely correct in saying that Clause 3 is connected to Clause 2 by “that”. Notice that Clause 2 is connected with Clause 1 by relative pronoun “why”. This pronoun starts a dependent clause (DC) and connects this DC to an independent clause, which in this case is Clause 1. Hence, all the clauses are correctly connected to each other.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2012, 05:23
Thanks for the explanation.

Thanks
H
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Last edited by imhimanshu on 17 Jul 2012, 07:23, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2012, 06:34
Hi Himanshu,

Let me correct myself here. "Why" is not a relative pronoun. Apologies here.

"Why" is essentially an adverb because we generally present a reason for doing some action by using "why". Also, "why" acts as an conjunction in some cases and joins two clauses.

This sentence is an example of that scenario. Here "why" is working as a conjunction that is joining clause 2 with clause 1.

Take for example: He explained, "This is why I resigned from the job."

This is a sentence in direct speech. We can turn this sentence into an indirect speech sentence by saying:

He explained why he resigned from the job.

In such cases, use of "why" helps us keep the sentence concise and clear by joining two sentences and suggesting that reason is provided for some action.

Once again, I apologize for the error committed in the last post.

Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2012, 08:14
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pavanpuneet wrote:
In the Question above, though I got the right answer, I would like to understand what is "including" modifying here? In other words, is it used as a modifier? Yes/No.

Hi @pavanpuneet,

There are numerous products in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

A. in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

B. that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

C. so as they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

D. so that there could be used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

E. such that they could use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

Now let’s look at the sentence with the correct answer choice B:

There are numerous products that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

The first thing to notice is that “including” does not follow the rules of the verb-ing modifiers. “Including” always refers to a noun entity and needless to say a logical noun entity. Generally, “including” is placed next to the noun entity it refers to. But that is not the case always.

This sentence is an example of that scenario. In this sentence, “including” is correctly modifying “numerous products”. It is jumping over the “that clause modifier” that modifies the same entity. Now “that clauses” are always placed next to the entity that they modify. So here, it is not possible to change the placement of “that clause”. Since “including” is pretty flexible, it has been separated from “numerous products” by adding a modifier in between. This usage is absolutely correct.

Take a look at the following correct official sentences:

1. A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. (GMAT Prep - Choice D).

“including” is jumping over the modifier “to reverse… population” to modify “remedies”.

2. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old. (GMAT Prep - Choice E)

“including” here is skipping the verb-ed modifier “found in Germany” to modify “tools” because that modifier cannot be placed elsewhere.

3. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from his own. (GMAT Prep & Verbal 2nd Edition #107 – Choice B)

Here “including” is preceded by a comma. Still it does not modify the preceding clause but the preceding noun. SO here it is placed next to the entity it modifies.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2012, 03:01
Thanks Shraddha. This is strange, I never got an email response to this in my inbox, stating that you have responded. I generally to came back to review something on this page and I found that you have replied. Thanks. Makes me wonder, if I missed other updates.

GMAT club moderators, any specific reason I did not get an email update that the some changes were made to this page, given that I had my comment on this question?
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2012, 00:59

Can you please provide link to the part-3 of the verb-ing modifiers.
I search but no success

Thanks!
Rah
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CR notes
http://gmatclub.com/forum/massive-collection-of-verbal-questions-sc-rc-and-cr-106195.html#p832142
http://gmatclub.com/forum/1001-ds-questions-file-106193.html#p832133
http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-prep-critical-reasoning-collection-106783.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html
http://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-get-6-0-awa-my-guide-64327.html?hilit=chineseburned

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2012, 07:31
Hi there,
Well, we don't have Part 3 of this series. The two parts cover the majority of this topic. For more on the usage of Verb-ing Modifiers, you can log on to e-gmat.com, register for free and review the concept named Modifiers - Verb-ing in the Level 1 preview level concepts. Registration is free and you can learn a few more important concepts listed in our preview level concepts.

Let us know if you need any help.
Thanks
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing   [#permalink] 24 Aug 2012, 07:31

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# VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing

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