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# VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing

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VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2012, 08:21
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VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2

In our first article on verb-ing modifiers, we discussed function of this modifier when used with a comma. In this article we will explain the function of the verb-ing modifier when the modifier is placed after the clause and is NOT preceded by a comma. To refresh your memory, in a sentence there are three general places where this modifier appears. In each placement, the modifier plays a specific role. These places are:

1. Placed after a clause PRECEDED by a comma (explained in the first article)
2. Placed after a clause NOT PRECEDED by a comma (explained in this article)
3. In the beginning of a clause followed by a comma (Please view the Verb-ing concept in the e-GMAT free trial)

RULE SET #2

The placement of the verb-ing modifier after a clause without a comma brings us to the second rule set for this modifier.
Let’s understand the application of this rule set through simple examples first.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE

Mary made a beautiful bouquet releasing divine aroma.

In this sentence “releasing…” is a verb-ing modifier that is not preceded by a comma. In this construction, “releasing…” modifies the preceding noun “bouquet”. The sentence means that Mary made a beautiful bouquet and that bouquet releases a divine aroma. So the modifier describes the noun "bouquet".

Understanding Intended meaning is the key: As you would have noticed, the key to deciding whether to use a verb-ing modifier, and if to use one, whether to use one with a comma depends on the intended meaning of the sentence. If the logical intended meaning is such that the verb-ing modifier should modify the preceding noun or noun phrase, then we should use the verb-ing modifier without a comma. On the other hand, use the verb-ing modifier with the comma if the author’s intention is to express additional information about the preceding clause or the result of the preceding clause. Either way, to make this distinction it’s important to understand the logical intended meaning. View the free concept on e-GMAT if you need further clarification (and audio visual representation).

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE

Let’s now take an official example and apply the tools that we have learned so far. Note that in this example we will only analyze the sentence with regards to the verb-ing modifier. The sentence construction for choices A and B is same as it pertains to the usage of verb-ing modifier.

OG 12#133 – Choice B

Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp's ridley turtle, saying that their compliance with laws requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting adult sea turtles.

To decide whether the usage of verb-ing modifier make sense, let’s understand the author’s Intended Meaning.

Intended meaning:
To understand the intended meaning, we will split the sentence into clauses to understand its structure. Take the Sentence Structure concepts in the free trial if you have trouble in splitting the sentence into clauses and phrases. Let’s continue.

• Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp's ridley turtle, saying
• that their compliance with laws requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting adult sea turtles.

This sentence says that last week local shrimpers called for a news conference. They did so to take come credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp’s ridley turtle. They informed in the conference that they comply with laws that require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets. This action is protecting adult sea turtles.

The verb-ing modifier “requiring” is not preceded by a comma and hence correctly modifies the preceding noun “laws”. The meaning is clear - these laws require the shrimpers to use turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets. Therefore, the sentence is correct as it is.

AN INSTANCE IN WHICH VERB-ING IS NOT CORRECT

We will now take an example in which Verb-ing is not correct. This example is from the exercise of the previous article.

In three months, biologist Glauco Machado gathered enough information about large numbers of a relatively unstudied order of arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish his first scientific paper.

A. arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish
B. arachnids, persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing
C. arachnids persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing

Let’s use the tools to determine whether verb-ing modifier makes sense.

STEP 1: (Intended) MEANING ANALYSIS

The sentence says that in three months Machado gathered enough information about a huge number of comparatively unstudied order of arachnids. He gathered all information with two purposes in mind:

a. he wanted to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him
b. he wanted to publish his first scientific paper

STEP 2: ERROR ANALYSIS

• In three months, biologist Glauco Machado gathered enough information about large numbers of a relatively unstudied order of arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish his first scientific paper.

This sentence has just one subject-verb pair, meaning it has only one clause. The SV pair is accounted for. The purposes of gathering all the information have been correctly written in “to verb” form. These two purposes are also correctly joined with “and”. Hence, there is no error in this sentence. The sentence is correct as is.

STEP 3: POE

Let us now do the POE to see what makes the other two choices incorrect.

A. arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish: Correct as we discussed during error analysis.

B. arachnids, persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing: Incorrect. Here both the verb-ing modifiers are preceded by comma, implying that they modify the entire preceding clause. Hence, now the sentence means that Machado gathered all the information and this action resulted into two things:
a. he persuaded the ant specialist, and
b. he published his first scientific papers.
This is certainly not the intended meaning of the original sentence. The original sentence talks about purpose. Per this choice, Machado’s gathering information actually led to the persuasion of the ant specialist and the publication of the first scientific paper. Hence, this choice is grammatically correct but certainly alters the intended meaning and is thus incorrect.

C. arachnids persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing: Incorrect. In this choice, the verb-ing modifiers appear without comma. Here, both “persuading” and “publishing” modify the preceding noun “arachnids”. Now, per this choice, the sentence means that Machado collected information on certain arachnids and these arachnids did the jobs of persuading the ant specialist and publishing first scientific paper. This is absolutely illogical. This is a case where verb-ing modifier without a comma does not make sense.

APPLYING THE RULE SET TO GMATPREP QUESTION

Ok, so now that we understand how to use the new tools that we have learnt, lets add them to our arsenal and use the e-GMAT 3 step process to solve a GMAT PREP question.

GMAT Prep Question:

In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.
A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle
B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling
C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

Let us now apply the e-gmat three-step process to solve this one. We will begin with the first step that is:

MEANING ANALYSIS:

The sentence says that in the past few years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets. These massive planets are either as large as Jupiter or larger than Jupiter. These massive planets also circle other stars.

ERROR ANALYSIS:

• In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter,
which circle other stars.

This sentence uses a mix of two idioms – “as X as” and “X larger than” – in the form of “as large or larger than”. This is incorrect. We must use the idiom correctly in its entirety to present the correct comparison.
Notice the modifier – “which circle…”. This relative pronoun modifier modifies the noun “80 massive planets”. Some of you may wonder that “which circle…” modifies the closest noun “Jupiter”. This is not correct. And this is where logical meaning and understanding the sentence structure comes to our aid.

Notice that “most of them as large or larger than Jupiter” is a modifier that provides additional information about the 80 massive planets. This modifier is encapsulated in a comma pair. So even if we remove this modifier from the sentence, the meaning will not be altered. So for the sake of our discussion, let’s remove this modifier:
• In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter,which circle other stars.

Now as you can see, “which circle…” modifies the noun phrase “80 massive planets”. Remember that the comma that precedes “which” does not separate “which” but is part of the comma pair that separates the modifier "most of them…" from the rest of the sentence.
We will now find the correct choice from the remaining 4 choices.

POE:

A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle: Incorrect for reasons discussed above.

B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling: Incorrect.
i. This choice repeats the idiom and parallelism errors of choice A.
ii. A modifier is not separated from the entity it modifies by using “and”.

C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling: Correct. This choice corrects the error of choice A by using the correct idiom “at least as large as Jupiter” to convey the intended meaning.
Furthermore, notice the use of modifier - “circling…” . This modifier modifies the noun entity that precedes it – “more than 80 massive planets”. As we discussed in the sentence structure discussion for choice A, this modifier does not modify the immediately preceding noun "Jupiter". This is a verb-ing modifier that is not separated from the preceding clause by a comma and hence modifies the preceding noun entity.
At this time we should also pay attention to the logical meaning of the sentence. We have determined already that “circling…” modifies “80 massive planets” from grammatical standpoint. From logical standpoint also, “circling” must modify “80 massive planets” because it is a universal fact that Jupiter revolves around the Sun and no other star. Hence, there is no logical way that “circling” can modify “Jupiter”. It should modify “80 massive planets”.

D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle: Incorrect. Use of “mostly” is incorrect here. Now it is an adverb that refers to the adjective following it “at least as large as”. This is non-sensical.

E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling: Incorrect.
i. Repeats the same “mostly” error of choice D.
ii. Repeats the idiom error of choice A.

Attachments

Verb-ing Modifier Article 2.pdf [438.05 KiB]

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Last edited by egmat on 25 Jun 2014, 05:58, edited 4 times in total.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 08:51
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mohish wrote:
Hi!! In view of the above article, could you please advice how the following is correct:

The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose members made monthly payments on their share subscriptions and then took turns drawing on the funds for home mortgages.

According to your article, "drawing on the funds for home mortgages" should modify "turns", but that does not seem to be the case.

Hi Mohish,

First of all thanks for posting this question. It is a great question that exemplifies yet again that we should understand the context first and then apply our knowledge of grammar rules accordingly. Let’s see this in action on this question:

The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose members made monthly payments on their share subscriptions and then took turns drawing on the funds for home mortgages.

This is officially correct choice of Og12#114. The context of the sentence tells us that the members made monthly payments on something and they also took turns in doing something. So the context actually associates “drawing” to “turns”. i.e. the members took turns in drawing on the funds for home mortgages.

However, “drawing” is not a verb-ing modifier here. Why? Because “turns” are not drawing anything. We cannot say: …turns that drew on the funds… This is illogical. From the context we know that the members took turns in doing something.

So here, verb-ing form of word “draw” - “drawing” is actually functioning as a noun. This noun with an “ing” form is called gerund.

For what action did members take turns? Members took turns in drawing funds. The expression here means that one by one the members drew on funds. Take this sentence for example:

Before the competition, the contestants take turns swimming in the pool.

This sentence clearly says that before the swimming competition, the contestants swim in the pool one by one. They take turns swimming in the pool. Use of “swimming” is correct here. And here, “swimming” is not a modifier. It is a noun. Same is the case with the official sentence where “drawing” is not a verb-ing modifier (adjective) that modifies the preceding noun. It is a noun entity.

Take Away
1. Verb-ing word can play multiple roles
a. Act as a verb – continuous tense when preceded by ‘is/are/am/was/were’ (not discussed here)
b. Act as a modifier – discussed in part 1 and 2 of articles.
usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html
udsage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-continued-135567.html
c. Act as a noun – also called as gerund – discussed in this post.

2. Always understand the meaning of the sentence to determine the function of each entity in the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 09:22
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imhimanshu wrote:

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

A having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
B having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
C with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
D with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
E with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

I know, that the comma + ing should modify the previous clause. Here, we don't have a clause before comma+ing modifier, hence the usage is incorrect, however OG says that the wording suggests that the intricate structure has miniature eyes. Could you please help me out. Also, does comma+ with modifier modifies closest noun or it can modify clause as well.

Thanks
Himanshu

Hi Himanshu,

• The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

It is true that comma + verb-ing modifies the preceding clause. But that happens when comma + verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause. There may be instances where you will see comma + verb-ing modifier is placed after the subject. In that case, the comma + verb-ing modifier modifies the subject.

Grammatically, in this OG 13#7 problem, “having” is modifying the subject “The intricate structure of the compound eye” after which it has been placed. However, this leads to illogical meaning. Now the sentence means that the intricate structure has hundreds of miniature eyes. Hence, we certainly have modifier error here.

Now, study the following OG 13#25 problem,

Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.

In this sentence, usage of “having” is absolutely correct. It is placed after the subject “neuroscientists” and hence correctly modifies that entity. The meaning here is that neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge… The modification conveys the logical meaning.

Now let’s talk about the comma + with modifiers. So here we are talking about prepositional phrases. “with” modifiers are very versatile modifiers. They can modify either the preceding clause or the preceding nouns. What they modify actually depends on the context of the sentence and the wording of the modifier itself.

• Bihar is India's poorest state, with an annual per capita income of $111. In this sentence, with modifier actually modifies the preceding noun. With modifier in this sentence has the following sense. Notice how “which has” can be understood to replace “with”. India’s poorest state, which has an annual per capita income of$111

However, this modifier can be understood to modify the subject of the clause as well because of the nature of the verb - is. This is a linking verb, which establishes the following relationship:
Bihar = India’s poorest state.

Now lets consider a scenario in which “with” modifier modifies the preceding clause. This is a GMATPrep Question. You can find the detailed solution of this question at this link.

Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches, with arms and legs hanging like socks on a clothesline.

The comma +with modifier above modifies the preceding clause. In essence this sentence can be written as two separate sentences:

1. Visitors to the park have often looked up into the leafy canopy and seen monkeys sleeping on the branches.
2. Their arms and legs are hung like socks on a clothesline.

So sentence 2 has been converted into with modifier. This modifier extends the thought of the preceding clause by providing a detail supporting it.

Now if the above sounds very complicated, then do not worry about it. As long as you know that these modifiers are versatile and hence can modify preceding clause and preceding nouns, you would be fine. Let the meaning of the sentence guide you. You should understand the meaning of the sentence and ensure that one of these roles fit well.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2012, 06:03
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Hi Himanshu,

You are absolutely correct. Thanks for bringing our attention to this typographical error. There should NOT be any comma before "and to publish". As such choice A in the answer choices does not show a comma but definitely the original sentence was originally written with a comma. This error will be rectified.

Thanks,

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2012, 08:14
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pavanpuneet wrote:
In the Question above, though I got the right answer, I would like to understand what is "including" modifying here? In other words, is it used as a modifier? Yes/No.

Hi @pavanpuneet,

There are numerous products in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

A. in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

B. that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

C. so as they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

D. so that there could be used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

E. such that they could use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

Now let’s look at the sentence with the correct answer choice B:

There are numerous products that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

The first thing to notice is that “including” does not follow the rules of the verb-ing modifiers. “Including” always refers to a noun entity and needless to say a logical noun entity. Generally, “including” is placed next to the noun entity it refers to. But that is not the case always.

This sentence is an example of that scenario. In this sentence, “including” is correctly modifying “numerous products”. It is jumping over the “that clause modifier” that modifies the same entity. Now “that clauses” are always placed next to the entity that they modify. So here, it is not possible to change the placement of “that clause”. Since “including” is pretty flexible, it has been separated from “numerous products” by adding a modifier in between. This usage is absolutely correct.

Take a look at the following correct official sentences:

1. A study by the Ocean Wildlife Campaign urged states to undertake a number of remedies to reverse a decline in the shark population, including establishing size limits for shark catches, closing state waters for shark fishing during pupping season, and requiring commercial fishers to have federal shark permits. (GMAT Prep - Choice D).

“including” is jumping over the modifier “to reverse… population” to modify “remedies”.

2. The new image of Stone Age people as systematic hunters of large animals, rather than mere scavengers of meat, has emerged from the examination of tools found in Germany, including three wooden spears that archaeologists believe to be about 400,000 years old. (GMAT Prep - Choice E)

“including” here is skipping the verb-ed modifier “found in Germany” to modify “tools” because that modifier cannot be placed elsewhere.

3. Bluegrass musician Bill Monroe, whose repertory, views on musical collaboration, and vocal style influenced generations of bluegrass artists, also inspired many musicians, including Elvis Presley and Jerry Garcia, whose music differed significantly from his own. (GMAT Prep & Verbal 2nd Edition #107 – Choice B)

Here “including” is preceded by a comma. Still it does not modify the preceding clause but the preceding noun. SO here it is placed next to the entity it modifies.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2012, 05:20
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egmat wrote:

In three months, biologist Glauco Machado gathered enough information about large numbers of a relatively unstudied order of arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him, and to publsh his first scientific paper.

A. arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish
B. arachnids, persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing
C. arachnids persuading an ant specialist at the university to advise him and publishing

I believe, COMMA shouldn't be there in the original sentence. However Option A is written correct.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 04:54
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Hi!! In view of the above article, could you please advice how the following is correct:

The original building and loan associations were organized as limited life funds, whose members made monthly payments on their share subscriptions and then took turns drawing on the funds for home mortgages.

According to your article, "drawing on the funds for home mortgages" should modify "turns", but that does not seem to be the case.

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 10:49
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Also, take the free trial and go through the Verb-ing modifier concept. You will get additional examples that will help clarify your doubts.

-Rajat
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2012, 13:55
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debayan222 wrote:
In both the case, antecedent of pronoun "it" is The intricate structure of the compound insect eye... It's the structure of the insect eye that drives the game here I believe.

Hi debayan,

I kind of got it that you think that “it” refers to “The intricate structure of the compound insect eye”. So per your answer, the sentence says that the intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that “the structure” evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

Now, tell me does that make sense? Can a structure evolve? That to independently of the vertebrate eye?

So, pronoun “it” does not refer to “the structure”. This “it” refers to “the compound insect eye”. And the scientists now have the reason to explain why they assume that the compound insect eye evolved independently of the vertebrate eye. This is the logical meaning of the sentence.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2013, 07:41
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veenu08 wrote:

In three months, biologist Glauco Machado gathered enough information about large numbers of a relatively unstudied order of arachnids to persuade an ant specialist at the university to advise him and to publish his first scientific paper.

I have query regarding pronouns. Here referent of him and his is biologist but cant it be ant specialist. Can you please guide me regarding pronoun ambiguity.

Regards,
Veenu

Hi Veenu,

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2013, 06:37
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Hi Arunima,

Thanks for all your appreciation. I really appreciate it.

Now let’s come back to your doubt.

In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.

The modification of “which” is not the problem in this sentence. “which” in the original sentence modifies “more than 80 massive planets”. This is so because the information that follows the main clause – “most of them as large or larger than Jupiter” – is placed between two commas. This makes this information non-essential for the overall logical meaning of the sentence.

Notice that when we remove this information form the sentence, we also get rid of both the commas, in the beginning and at the end of the non-essential phrase.

In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.

In this case, “which” correctly refers to immediate preceding noun as mentioned above. This sentence is incorrect because the non-essential information is a mix of two idioms which is grammatically incorrect. We cannot write a combination of two idioms.

The correct answer choice corrects that error. Once again notice that both the commas belong to the information that comes between “more than 80 massive planets” and “circling”. The comma before the non-essential phrase is not the part of the main clause that will form “comma + circling”. This is will be a wrong modifier as it will modify the preceding clause. But the comma belong to the phrase that comes in between the main clause and “circling”. This is the reason why the correct answer choice is correct.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2013, 10:38
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Hi there,

As I said in my earlier post, "including" is an exception to the "comma + verb-ing modifiers". "Including" ALWAYS is a Noun Modifier. It does not matter if It is preceded by a comma and placed after a clause or not. "Including" is the exception to the rule of using "comma = verb-ing modifier".

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Missed that...

As always Thanks a Ton... any amount of gratitude is still less for your contribution in improving our English. I just wish I had got a teacher like you in schools
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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24 Mar 2014, 10:24
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egmat wrote:
Hi Himanshu,

You are absolutely correct. Thanks for bringing our attention to this typographical error. There should NOT be any comma before "and to publish". As such choice A in the answer choices does not show a comma but definitely the original sentence was originally written with a comma. This error will be rectified.

Thanks,

In the question
In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.
A. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle
B. most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling
C. most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
D. mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
E. mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

But my confusion arise on seeing COMMA with verb -ing word.
So ""Circling" should modify the Clause preceding the COMMA.
Then even it does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause
Astronomer detected more than 80 massive planets and he is circling other stars. Seems very awkward .

Iam referring Verb-ing modifiers part 1
"Now, per the intended meaning of the sentence, Joe became the CFO of the company. This event led to increase in his salary. Now, the subject of the sentence is “Joe”. However, he is not the doer of the verb “became”. He did not make himself the CFO of the company. Now look at the verb-ing modifier “increasing”. Since verb-ing modifier denotes an action and hence associates with a verb, “increasing” associates with “Joe”. The sentence thus means that Joe became the CFO of the company and as a result he increased his salary. We know that this is not even a possibility. What resulted in Joe’s increased salary is the event of his becoming the CFO.
Hence, even if this sentence appears to be written in appropriate construction, it is incorrect since here the verb-ing modifier does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause."

Rrsnathan.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2012, 11:02
Wonderful article. Keep it up. Very helpful.

Cheers,
Der alte Fritz.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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12 Jul 2012, 12:13
E-Gmat.. your detailed explanation just awesome.

Kudos to you..

here i would like to suggest you, if you will post some ( around 10) relevant question after the detailed explanation of each article. it will be really helpful from practice perspective.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 06:10
As a GMAT service provider, I doubt if they implement your suggestion.

321kumarsushant wrote:
E-Gmat.. your detailed explanation just awesome.

Kudos to you..

here i would like to suggest you, if you will post some ( around 10) relevant question after the detailed explanation of each article. it will be really helpful from practice perspective.

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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13 Jul 2012, 08:22

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

A having hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain why scientists have assumed that it
B having hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that they
C with its hundreds of miniature eyes that are called ommatidia, helps explain scientists' assuming that they
D with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, help explain scientists' assuming that it
E with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it

I know, that the comma + ing should modify the previous clause. Here, we don't have a clause before comma+ing modifier, hence the usage is incorrect, however OG says that the wording suggests that the intricate structure has miniature eyes. Could you please help me out. Also, does comma+ with modifier modifies closest noun or it can modify clause as well.

Thanks
Himanshu
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2012, 06:10

Your inputs on this question, will be of great help!

There are numerous products in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a newly released item called the Vino-Lok that combines the elegance of a cork with the practicality of a screwcap.

A. in order that they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

B. that are used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

C. so as they might use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

D. so that there could be used to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

E. such that they could use to seal a bottle of wine including a cork, a screwcap, and a

In the Question above, though I got the right answer, I would like to understand what is "including" modifying here? In other words, is it used as a modifier? Yes/No.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 05:32

Thanks for the detailed response.

I think, you forgot to attach the link, but thats OK. I have seen the reasoning on eGmat blogs.

Just one more doubt, could you please explain the Sentence Structure of the correct option i.e option e

Clause 1 :The intricate structure - helps
Clause 2: scientists - have
Clasue 3: it - evolved

Clause 2 and Clause 3 are connected by connector "That"; However, Clause 1 and Clause 2 have not used any connector.

Thanks
Himanshu

egmat wrote:
Now lets consider a scenario in which “with” modifier modifies the preceding clause. This is a GMATPrep Question. You can find the detailed solution of this question at this link.

Thanks.

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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2012, 11:03
imhimanshu wrote:

Thanks for the detailed response.

I think, you forgot to attach the link, but thats OK. I have seen the reasoning on eGmat blogs.

Just one more doubt, could you please explain the Sentence Structure of the correct option i.e option e

Clause 1 :The intricate structure - helps
Clause 2: scientists - have
Clasue 3: it - evolved

Clause 2 and Clause 3 are connected by connector "That"; However, Clause 1 and Clause 2 have not used any connector.

Thanks
Himanshu

Hi Himanshu,

First of all, apologies for not mentioning the link. I just missed it somehow.

Let's come to your doubt now.

The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain why scientists have assumed that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

Let’s split this sentence into clauses:

Cl 1: The intricate structure of the compound insect eye, with its hundreds of miniature eyes called ommatidia, helps explain
Cl 2: why scientists have assumed
Cl 3: that it evolved independently of the vertebrate eye.

(blue = subjects, green = verbs)

You are absolutely correct in saying that Clause 3 is connected to Clause 2 by “that”. Notice that Clause 2 is connected with Clause 1 by relative pronoun “why”. This pronoun starts a dependent clause (DC) and connects this DC to an independent clause, which in this case is Clause 1. Hence, all the clauses are correctly connected to each other.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: VERB-ING MODIFIERS PART 2 In our first article on verb-ing   [#permalink] 16 Jul 2012, 11:03

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