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Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST

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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2017, 10:05
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Chat Transcript: 10/11/17

Q:Geologist: The dominant view that petroleum formed from the fossilized remains of plants and animals deep in the earth’s crust has been challenged by scientists who hold that it formed, not from living material, but from deep carbon deposits dating from the formation of the earth. But their theory is refuted by the presence in petroleum of biomarkers, molecules indicating the past or present existence of a living organism.

Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the geologist’s argument?

(A) Fossils have been discovered that are devoid of biomarkers.
(B) Living organisms only emerged long after the earth’s formation.
(C) It would take many millions of years for organisms to become petroleum.
(D) Certain strains of bacteria thrive deep inside the earth’s crust.
(E) Some carbon deposits were formed from the fossilized remains of plants.

Source: LSAT


A:we have a weaken question, so job #1 is to find the conclusion. Basically, the conclusion is "their theory is refuted by the presence in petroleum of biomarkers, molecules indicating the past or present existence of a living organism."Next thing is probably to figure out what, exactly, is the theory that "is refuted". We’re basically talking about refuting the scientists’ theory at the end of the first sentence: "scientists who hold that it formed, not from living material, but from deep carbon deposits dating from the formation of the earth." And just to make this totally confusing: the scientists’ theory challenges the "dominant view that petroleum formed from the fossilized remains of plants and animals..."So this is a hot mess: dominant view is challenged by the scientists, and then the scientists’ view is "refuted" by the geologist.Basically, the geologist is supporting the dominant view: that petroleum formed from the fossilized remains of plants and animals. Evidence: petroleum contains biomarkers that indicate present or past existence of a living organism. And we’re trying to weaken the geologist’s argument -- or, equivalently, strengthen the scientists’ claim that petroleum is formed from deep carbon deposits dating from the formation of the earth.I think we can happily eliminate (A). The issue is that petroleum DOES contain biomarkers -- suggesting the presence of an organism. The fact that there are fossils without biomarkers certainly doesn’t help us weaken the conclusion.(B) is totally irrelevant. It doesn’t really matter when living organisms showed up on earth -- we’re interested in figuring out whether petroleum is made from the little buggers, not WHEN life began on this planet.(C) is also irrelevant. Sure, it would take millions of years. But that wouldn’t do anything to help us figure out whether petroleum is made from living things, or from carbon from the early days of the earth.(D) is tough, but it might actually weaken the argument. If the scientists -- with their theory that petroleum comes from carbon from the formation of the earth, not living creatures -- are right, then we have to find a way to explain why those biomarkers DON’T actually refute their theory. And (D) would do the trick: the petroleum from deep in the earth’s crust could be formed by carbon from the earth’s formation -- in contrast to the geologist’s argument -- and the bacteria are just some "pollution" that has nothing to do with how the petroleum was formed. It’s subtle, but (D) would weaken the geologist’s claim.(E) is irrelevant, because we’re not really concerned about the formation of "some carbon deposits." We’re trying to figure out how petroleum -- a very specific carbon-based substance -- is made. So the answer is (D).

Q: Pertaining to above argument, how can bacteria weaken the argument of biomarker?
A: bacteria are alive! Let’s come back to the scientists’ opinion: "scientists who hold that it formed, not from living material, but from deep carbon deposits dating from the formation of the earth." If there are bacteria "deep inside the earth’s crust", as (D) says, then it’s possible that the scientists are right: petroleum was formed from deep carbon deposits, and the bacteria down there had nothing to do with the formation of the petroleum. The bacteria are just hitching a ride with the petroleum -- and that would explain why there are biomarkers, without undermining the view that the petroleum isn’t actually formed from living things. In other words: (D) gives us a case in which the biomarkers are in the petroleum, but really don’t indicate what the geologist thinks they indicate.Option D definitely casts doubt on the geologist’s conclusion. Geologist draws a direct link from biomarkers to the origins of petroleum; if there’s an alternate explanation for the biomarkers, it weakens the geologist’s argument.

Q: are percentage questions frequent on GMAT. any tactics you advice for %tage and hard numbers together in argument
A: You’ll almost never see a verbal question that requires you to do any real thinking about percentages. Sure, you’ll occasionally see a number or a percentage in a CR question, but a lot of test-prep companies write very mathematical CR questions... and those don’t actually exist on the actual exam.

Q:The percentage of households with an annual income of more than $40,000 is higher in Merton county than in any other county. However, the percentage of households with an annual income of $60,000 or more is highest in Sommer county.

If the statements above are true, which of the following can properly be concluded on the basis of them?

A. No household in Merton county has an annual income of $60,000 or more.
B. Some households in Merton county have an annual income between $40,000 and $60,000.
C. The number of households with an annual income of more than $40,000 is greater in Merton than in Sommer county.
D. Average annual household income is higher in Sommer than in Merton county.
E. The percentage of households with an annual income of $80,000 is higher in
Sommer than in Merton county.

A: Basically, we’re trying to resolve a discrepancy of sorts: how is that Merton county has a higher percentage of households with annual income of $40,000+ than "any other county," but the percentage of households with $60,000+ incomes is higher in Sommer? The question asks us to find something that can be concluded based on these facts -- but the facts seem almost contradictory.You definitely can’t conclude (A): there certainly could be at least one household with an annual income of $60,000+(B) seems pretty good -- of course there would have to be some households in Merton with $40-$60,000 incomes, or else it would be impossible for Merton to be #1 in incomes over $40,000, but behind Sommer county in the percentage of households with $60,000+ incomes. And notice the deliberately weak language here: "SOME households..." Sure, that seems true enough.(C) switches us from percentage to NUMBER. The entire passage talks about the percentage of households, but we can’t make any sort of conclusions about the number of households unless we know something about the relative size of the counties.(D) We can’t conclude this one, either. Knowing something about the relative percentages of high-income households doesn’t allow us to say anything definitive about overall average incomes. A single Warren Buffet type can skew the whole thing pretty severely, for example(E) We don’t know anything about households over $80,000. So we’re left with (B). Key word: "some."

Q: do you always ’dislike’ extreme words in inference answer choices?
A: Does this strategy work good for assumption Qs too (esp word should in answer choices)" The answer is a very strong no. "Extreme" words should always catch your eye immediately, because they’re useful. It’s pretty easy to prove or disprove something if the language is extreme. But there’s no reason why extreme language is necessarily wrong. For example, extreme language can be exactly the BEST way to strengthen or weaken an argument.Put another way: extreme language is wrong about 80% of the time on CR. So is everything else

Q: Tip to handle EXCEPT Qs:
A: you’ll want to start by writing the following, with the blank filled in: "Cross out anything that _____________" The most common error I see on EXCEPT questions is that you’ll start out just fine. Let’s suppose that the question says "each of the following would strengthen the argument EXCEPT." You’ll knock down two or three answer choices that strengthen. And then when you start going back and forth between the last few choices, you’ll start racking your brain to figure out which one of the final answers strengthen. And you’ll go back and forth, and back and forth. And let’s say that you’re down to (B) and (D), and it’s really hard. And then you get it! (B) strengthens! So (B) is your answer! Except that it isn’t: (D) would be the winner in that case. So make sure that the phrase "cross out anything that _______" is looking you square in the eye
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Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Oct 2017, 21:45
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Hello GMATNinja,

I can't thank you enough for the help u have been to me and everyone over here.

My question is:

Problem I am facing is with comparison and concision.
How to know when is concision enough to bypass the comparison.

Here is one question from Gmat Prep.

How to know when to give more weight age to comparison and when to avoid it. It would be very helpful if you could add this question to the verbal chat.

Q: According to public health officials, in 1998 Massachusetts became the first state in which more babies were born to women over the age of thirty than under it.

Here is the link: https://gmatclub.com/forum/according-to ... 48434.html
Thanks in advance.
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2019, 16:28
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It has been suspended for a little while but there is a chat coming up with a tutor on Feb 25th:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/how-to-save- ... 89065.html

Thx.
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2017, 21:23
Amazing initiative.

I bet the chat room will be bursting.
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New post 26 Apr 2017, 21:27
Below is the question I want to discuss in the session scheduled next week.

Adoption agency representative: It is true that eight of our last ten babies have been placed with parents who were personally acquainted with at least one of our staff members before initiating the adoption process. However, there is no truth to the accusation against us of favoritism; our decisions have been guided solely by the best interests of the children. Indeed, all ten babies' new parents far surpassed the adoption criteria set both by the law and by our own policy.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the representative's argument depends?

A. The agency's prior placements of babies with parents who were previously acquainted with its staff have not, in general, been more successful than those with parents unacquainted with the staff.
B.Of those prospective parents who substantially surpassed the criteria for adoption, most were personally acquainted with agency staff before beginning the application process.
C.For a time period equal in duration to that during which the data were collected, the average number of babies placed by the agency is close to ten.
D.Most prospective parents who apply to adopt babies do not meet the agency's criteria for adoption.
E.The agency will only place babies with parents who not only meet the legal and institutional criteria for adoption, but who in fact surpass those criteria.

GC Link: https://gmatclub.com/forum/adoption-age ... 39338.html
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2017, 22:11
carcass wrote:
stonecold wrote:
Tremendous initiative.
The Chatroom would be LIT UP..!!

My question would be regarding how to make an appropriate RC strategy.



Regards
Stone Cold


Although Sir Charles will be a plus, definitely, here you have all the necessary tools both theory and practice to boost your skills in RC.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/rc-verbal-qu ... l#p1509481

Regards


Thanks Carcass.
I will surely go through that.
I have an off topic question => How do you rate RC-99?
Someone has recommended that i combine Official Questions with RC-99 for a more comprehensive RC prep.

Any thoughts.?
Any Recommendations?

P.S-> I am an RC beginner.

Regards
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2017, 00:37
Top Contributor
bb wrote:

Join us on Wednesdays at 8 AM PST/8:30 PM IST for a Verbal-focused GMAT chat with GMATNinja (Charles).



Charles Tutors GMAT and GRE and has scored on the GMAT 780 and a perfect 800. He will available in the GMAT Club Chatroom to answer any questions you may have - whether you are struggling with a question or need help with your strategy or timing, do not hesitate to ask him personally. While Charles charges $200+ per hr for his services, he is offering his time and help on GMAT Club absolutely free.


Join us on Wednesdays at 8 AM PST/8:30 PM IST for a verbal chat with Charles!


P.S. If you want Charles to prep for any specific questions, feel free to post them here! He will do best to cover them in the session.


Wonderful initiative indeed.
I hope everyone makes best use of these sessions given that verbal is a tough nut to crack for many(including me. :) )
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2017, 01:07
Great Initiative bb :-)
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2017, 08:47
Great! Look forward to joining on Wed. Wish it was sooner (hate waiting).....
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2017, 05:54
carcass wrote:
Thanks Carcass.
I will surely go through that.
I have an off topic question => How do you rate RC-99?
Someone has recommended that i combine Official Questions with RC-99 for a more comprehensive RC prep.

Any thoughts.?
Any Recommendations?

P.S-> I am an RC beginner.

Regards
Stone Cold


Follow my directory. Especially, read very carefully the very first link in the theory section.

As for RC 99 it is good only to improve your grasp of inference questions. Overall it is not the best resource to improve your RC skills.

Not only that: in general tackle difficult passage is not only a question of main idea, inference or else; it is a more subtle way. Overall, what is all about depends on your English language level, whether or not is easy for you read complex lecture or article, your vocabulary poor or less.

Hope this helps.



Thanks Carcass.

Appreciate the response.


Regards
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2017, 06:48
Verbal Chat is starting in 15 mins! Please join us in the Chatroom

https://gmatclub.com/forum/mchat.php
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2017, 10:41
Thank you all who participated in the Verbal Chat! We had about 50 people show up and a great discussion that went on for 2 hours.
See you guys again next week - feel free to post your questions for Charles for next week!
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New post 08 May 2017, 00:30
Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(A) Even though Clovis points, spear points with longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces, have been found all over North America, they are named for the New Mexico site where they were first discovered in 1932.

(B) Although named for the New Mexico site where first discovered in 1932, Clovis points are spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto their faces and have been found all over North America.

(C) Named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932, Clovis points, spear points of longitudinal grooves chipped onto the faces, have been found all over North America.

(D) Spear points with longitudinal grooves that are chipped onto the faces, Clovis points, even though named for the New Mexico site where
first discovered in 1932, but were found all over North America.

(E) While Clovis points are spear points whose faces have longitudinal grooves chipped into them, they have been found all over North America, and named for the New Mexico site where they have been first discovered in 1932.

This SC question killing me instantly. How could we start to identify the mistakes if the question stem underlined the whole clause? I have no idea where to start.

https://gmatclub.com/forum/even-though-clovis-points-spear-points-with-longitudinal-36996.html
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New post 10 May 2017, 00:35
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warriorguy wrote:
Amazing session by GMATNinja.

Thank you bb for arranging these sessions.

Topic for next week: Difference between -ed/-ing modifiers and verbs


Crime has recently decreased in our neighbourhood, LEADING to a rise in property values. - Adverbial Modifier

HAVING finally PUT the pain behind her, Shilpa decided it was time to have a little fun. - Participle Clause

HAVING WON the match, Susan jumped for joy. - Participle Clause

HAVING SEEN an accident ahead, I stopped my car. - Participle Clause

Perhaps tonight we could discuss about "comma -ing" structures (adverbial modifiers which modified verbs and adverbs).
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2017, 07:07
Just a friendly reminder that we're in the chat room now, until 9:30 AM PST/10 PM IST. Bring your favorite verbal questions! And some cupcakes to share.
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New post 19 May 2017, 19:11
warriorguy wrote:
Amazing job Vyshak!

suggestions for --> Topic for next week: Difference between due to/ because of


The expression "due to" can only be used to MODIFY NOUN ONLY.

LINK Unlike the premiums for auto insurance, the premiums for personal property coverage are not affected by the frequency of claims, but if the insurance company is able to prove excessive loss due to owner negligence, it may decline to renew the policy.

LINK This is a good example to discuss.

In California, a lack of genetic variation in the Argentine ant has allowed the species to spread widely; due to their being so genetically similar to one another, the ants consider all their fellows to be a close relative and thus do not engage in the kind of fierce intercolony struggles that limits the spread of this species in its native Argentina.

(A) due to their being so genetically similar to one another, the ants consider all their fellows to be a close relative and thus do not engage in the kind of fierce intercolony struggles that limits

(B) due to its being so genetically similar the ant considers all its fellows to be a close relative and thus does not engage in the kind of fierce intercolony struggles that limit

(C) because it is so genetically similar, the ant considers all its fellows to be a close relative and thus does not engage in the kind of fierce intercolony struggles that limits

(D) because they are so genetically similar to one another, the ants consider all their fellows to be close relatives and thus do not engage in the kind of fierce intercolony struggles that limit

(E) because of being so genetically similar to one another, the ants consider all their fellows to be a close relative and thus do not engage in the kind of fierce intercolony struggles that limits
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2017, 07:00
And the verbal chat is underway! Come join us for the 90 most exciting minutes in the GMAT verbal world. We'll be here until 9:30 PST/10:00 IST.
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2017, 12:25
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST  [#permalink]

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New post 28 May 2017, 11:49
Boldfaced questions and inference questions sound great! If any of you have specific (preferably official) questions you'd like to cover, feel free to add them to the thread here, and we'll pick one or two of the best exemplars for Wednesday's chat.
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New post 28 May 2017, 18:04
GMATNinja Perhaps we could discuss the question as below for the coming verbal chat. [LINK]

Scientists typically do their most creative work before the age of forty. It is commonly thought that this happens because aging by itself brings about a loss of creative capacity. However, studies show that of scientists who produce highly creative work beyond the age of forty, a disproportionately large number entered their field at an older age than is usual. Since by the age of forty the large majority of scientists have been working in their field for at least fifteen years, the studies’ finding strongly suggests that the real reason why scientists over forty rarely produce highly creative work is not that they have aged but rather that scientists over forty have generally spent too long in their field.

In the argument given, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim, the accuracy of which is at issue in the argument; the second is a conclusion drawn on the basis of that claim.

(B) The first is an objection that has been raised against a position defended in the argument; the second is that position.

(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is that explanation.

(D) The first is evidence that has been used to support an explanation that the argument challenges; the second is a competing explanation that the argument favors.

(E) The first provides evidence to support an explanation that the argument favors; the second is that explanation.
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Re: Verbal Chat with a Tutor every Wednesday at 7:30 AM PST/8 PM IST   [#permalink] 28 May 2017, 18:04

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