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Veritas Prep GMAT Instructor
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Veritas Prep PS Forum Expert  Karishma  Ask Me Anything about Math
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03 Oct 2018, 17:42
Ask me Anything about GMAT Quant and Math in General Hello and welcome to my PS Forum Expert Topic. Let me know if you have any Problem Solving questions I can help with  strategy, specific ones, etc.
You may know me from forum discussion  I am one of the resident Veritas Prep Experts on GMAT Club. I have over 8,000 posts and 22,000 Kudos. I hope you find my replies and explanations helpful. My most helpful reply to this OG Question received over 100 Kudos.
If you have any specific questions about PS or Math in general such as strategy, approach, etc, please feel free to post them here and I will be happy to address them. I intend to have this thread be as a "Everything You Need to Know about PS" type of thread and will include some FAQ's over time.
Thank you all  good luck on the GMAT and look forward to seeing you in the PS forum! Karishma.
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Veritas Prep PS Forum Expert  Karishma  Ask Me Anything about Math
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20 Nov 2018, 05:15
tilak123  I am kicking off this post as per your request. This is a compilation of all links to the "Made Easy" series. Bunuel has already compiled links to all my posts on specific topics. I will provide links to those compilations: Statistics Made EasyInequalities Made EasySequences Made EasyCombinatorics Made EasyWeighted Avgs and Mixtures Made Easy
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Re: Veritas Prep PS Forum Expert  Karishma  Ask Me Anything about Math
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03 Oct 2018, 19:47
ok Karishma I have read your posts and found out that you are better at understanding the internal working of mathematics (QUANT) in connection with GMAT then anybody else in this forum. The problem with me is that this is my first ever CAT test in life so I went head on brute force with GMAT which is to "know all to solve all" but I think GMAT is ocean and this strategy is taking me nowhere. I have gone thru all the basic quant requirement from reputable resources and my concepts are fine. so here is the problem i gave the GMAT club test and scored 8/31 correct and wrote a furious review about the club test but later when I reviewed where I went wrong I figured out that, it is not the theory where I am missing the problem is something else. I want to give you an analogy to understand what that is. Suppose an amateur starts to play chess what he will see is the pieces and how to move them but he will not know all the tactics. Maybe he will even lose the sight of pieces where they are placed amid game due to extreme concentration on some other part of the board. But it does not mean that his brain is dull it means that his brain is still not wired for that. what does wired means here is that he can not spot the common patterns quickly, yet. The problem what I am facing is I am doing well in 600700 level range but when it comes to 700+ I think I am not wired and I think one cannot be wired for the 700+ since each question is a standalone question and requires some cognitive thinking which takes time. Maybe after going through 100s of 700+, I could say there is a pattern too but for time being I have to stand at 700+ and invest some brain there to find the pattern which costs time in the actual test. I don't have time to go thru 100s of 700+ to wire my brain so what I have decided is I want Q49 for which best range to practice questions is 600700. I have gone thru all OG tags 600700 here is where I want your help I want you to spot me what type of question bank I should practice to know all common pattern in Q49 range so that I don't have to lose time in making the mental picture and doing the cognitive thinking. Side note. I am not running away from nor I am afraid of 700+ given more time I could crack them easily but I am being smart here by saving time, rather than getting the punch on the face and learn from it "I want to float like a butterfly and sting like a bee".



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Re: Veritas Prep PS Forum Expert  Karishma  Ask Me Anything about Math
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04 Oct 2018, 05:47
KarishmaThank you for taking the time out to answering questions. I have been your follower of your solutions since many years and must say you are a star when it comes to GMAT. So here are my questions.
1. Can you share inputs on how to get to V44+ from V35/36? 2. How do I move from Q47/48 to Q51? 3. How do I get to 90100% accuracy both in verbal and quant?
Also, I am guessing you would be having a high score to your credit?
Thanks.



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04 Oct 2018, 22:42
KS15 wrote: KarishmaThank you for taking the time out to answering questions. I have been your follower of your solutions since many years and must say you are a star when it comes to GMAT. So here are my questions.
1. Can you share inputs on how to get to V44+ from V35/36? 2. How do I move from Q47/48 to Q51? 3. How do I get to 90100% accuracy both in verbal and quant?
Also, I am guessing you would be having a high score to your credit?
Thanks. Thanks KS15! Much appreciated! Coming to your questions, For question no 1, let's move on to the Verbal forum. I would like to keep this thread strictly for Quant. 2. How do I move from Q47/48 to Q51? At Q 4748, one knows his/her fundamentals quite well. So a consistent higher score is an uphill battle of exposure and practice. It is about having a good holistic understanding and a mind trained to recognise "what is being tested?" I have a series of posts describing small things which take people from 48 to 51. Fortunately, Bunuel has compiled those here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/howtogofr ... 00999.htmlOne would need to practise a good many higher level questions to ensure that one understands the nitty gritty. First few questions will have a lot to teach and it will be while before it becomes banal, though to be honest, Q51 questions are rarely banal! They are always fun! 3. How do I get to 90100% accuracy both in verbal and quant? You don't need 90100% accuracy. You can get a great score even if you miss quite a few questions. Here is a post on that: https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2010/0 ... algorithm/As for answering your actual question, how to get 90100% accuracy, I don't really have a formula ready. Think about it  if it were easy, everyone would be getting it. It is a lot about studying hard, smart and sincerely  with an attitude to LEARN, not score! And yes, ALL Veritas Prep instructors have a 99%ile to their credit so no worries there!
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Veritas Prep PS Forum Expert  Karishma  Ask Me Anything about Math
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15 Jan 2019, 05:22
paulunso wrote: Hello Karishma,
I have a very general question on how to simplify arithmetic computations. I have to compute 0.17*(26.4/1.65). To simplify it I did rewrite it as: 17*264/1650
Now the solution I found to simplify this calculation further more is the following: (17)*(3*8*11)/(3*5*11*10)
Do you have any tips on how to quickly find these factors of the products I want to simplify? I tried it using prime factorization but it takes too long....
Thanks
Posted from my mobile device Usually, in actual application based GMAT questions, you will not be required to do such calculations. Sometimes, the lower level questions might have a direct calculation such as this one in which approximation would work just fine. It will be a rare question in which you actually need an exact value of this. To approximate: \(0.17 * \frac{26.4}{1.65} = 1.7 * \frac{2.64}{1.65}\) Double of 1.65 is a bit more than 3 so 2.64 is about 1.5 times of 1.65. So we get 1.7 * 1.5 1.7 is a bit less than 2 so our answer will be a bit less than double of 1.5 i.e. a bit less than 3. If you do the actual calculation you get 2.72 so you are close. I prefer to stick to smaller numbers rather than make them larger. That is why instead of changing 26.4 to 264, I changed 26.4 to 2.64. That said, if you do need exact values, remove the decimals to get 17*264/1650. Looking at even numbers, my first instinct is to divide them by the highest power of 2 i.e. is it divisible by 2 or 4 or 8... The next obvious common factors are 5/3 then 11 etc...
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Re: Veritas Prep PS Forum Expert  Karishma  Ask Me Anything about Math
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25 Aug 2019, 20:16
pankajpatwari wrote: VeritasKarishma wrote: tilak123  I am kicking off this post as per your request. This is a compilation of all links to the "Made Easy" series. Bunuel has already compiled links to all my posts on specific topics. I will provide links to those compilations: Statistics Made EasyInequalities Made EasySequences Made EasyCombinatorics Made EasyWeighted Avgs and Mixtures Made Easy Hi Karishma.. I request reference to Question 1 in your post "A group of 8 friends sit together in a circle. If A refuses to sit beside B unless C sits on the other side of A as well, how many possible seating arrangements are possible?" Even though i understood your explanation, can u please tell me whats wrong in my approach? My Approach: There are 2 scenarios possible, One where A sits next to both B & C and the other wherein A doesn't sit next to both B & C . In the former the no.of arrangements are: 1*2*1*5*4*3*2*1= 2*5! In the latter the no. of arrangements are: 1*5*4*5*4*3*2*1= 20*5! Thus total no. of arrangements are: 5!(20+2)= 22*5! However your answer is 32*5! Where am i missing?? How about the case when A sits next to C but not to B. A does NOT refuse to sit beside C unless B sits next to him on the other side. We can have AC sitting together in 2 ways, one of the other 5 (except B) sitting next to A on the other side and the other 5 people arranged in 5! ways. This can be done in 2*5*5! = 10*5! ways
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30 May 2020, 12:05
nikitamaheshwari wrote: Hi karishmaDo you have articles on Work Rate and Speed, Distance time and Probability as well?. Will be very helpful if you can share the link. Also, if there's a list of collated articles of all the topics  Please let me know. Bunuel  incase you have a list, please share Thanks a lot! You can find everything in below two topics: Check below: ALL YOU NEED FOR QUANT ! ! !Ultimate GMAT Quantitative Megathread
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08 Jun 2020, 22:44
Montyyy95 wrote: HI karishma, i had a doubt in on question from Veritas prep book; 30% of consumers like only product A, and for every consumer that likes only product B, 3 also like product A. If 18% of consumers like neither product, what percentage likes both? Solution Again draw out the diagrams, paying special attention to the ratio wording (for every consumer that likes B only, 3 like both). Since 48 of the 100 consumers are accounted for by only A and NEITHER, then 3x + x must equal 52. 4x = 52 and x = 13, so 3x = 39. Both = 39% consumers. I didnt get the solution; how it inferred the bolded portion? Hey Montyyy95: "for every consumer that likes only product B, 3 also like product A" means for every 1 consumer that liked ONLY B, there are 3 consumers that liked A 'ALSO' which means that these 3 liked B as well as A. This means ratio of (ONLY B) : (B and A) = 1 : 3 Hope this clarifies! Let me know.
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Re: Veritas Prep PS Forum Expert  Karishma  Ask Me Anything about Math
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04 Oct 2018, 03:53
alitariquet wrote: ok Karishma I have read your posts and found out that you are better at understanding the internal working of mathematics (QUANT) in connection with GMAT then anybody else in this forum. The problem with me is that this is my first ever CAT test in life so I went head on brute force with GMAT which is to "know all to solve all" but I think GMAT is ocean and this strategy is taking me nowhere. I have gone thru all the basic quant requirement from reputable resources and my concepts are fine. so here is the problem i gave the GMAT club test and scored 8/31 correct and wrote a furious review about the club test but later when I reviewed where I went wrong I figured out that, it is not the theory where I am missing the problem is something else. I want to give you an analogy to understand what that is. Suppose an amateur starts to play chess what he will see is the pieces and how to move them but he will not know all the tactics. Maybe he will even lose the sight of pieces where they are placed amid game due to extreme concentration on some other part of the board. But it does not mean that his brain is dull it means that his brain is still not wired for that. what does wired means here is that he can not spot the common patterns quickly, yet. The problem what I am facing is I am doing well in 600700 level range but when it comes to 700+ I think I am not wired and I think one cannot be wired for the 700+ since each question is a standalone question and requires some cognitive thinking which takes time. Maybe after going through 100s of 700+, I could say there is a pattern too but for time being I have to stand at 700+ and invest some brain there to find the pattern which costs time in the actual test. I don't have time to go thru 100s of 700+ to wire my brain so what I have decided is I want Q49 for which best range to practice questions is 600700. I have gone thru all OG tags 600700 here is where I want your help I want you to spot me what type of question bank I should practice to know all common pattern in Q49 range so that I don't have to lose time in making the mental picture and doing the cognitive thinking. Side note. I am not running away from nor I am afraid of 700+ given more time I could crack them easily but I am being smart here by saving time, rather than getting the punch on the face and learn from it "I want to float like a butterfly and sting like a bee". Ah! The first query on my thread is a challenge! What I get from your post is that you are looking to cover all patterns (or at least as many as you can) of mediumdifficult level. For that, OG doesn't really give an accurate picture. GMAT Official practice exams will do a much better job (though not exhaustive). Also, standard test prep companies take care of introducing most patterns over their coursework. But if I am to be honest, I don't really believe in "questions are made keeping a finite number of patterns in mind" theory. I believe in concepts. After that, give me a question of any new pattern and I will solve it. 700+ level question are harder only because it is more difficult to recognise the concept being tested in them. Application of the same may not be troublesome at all. This is the reason I focus a lot more on discussion of concepts on my blog here: http://www.veritasprep.com/blog/categor ... erwisdom/
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10 Oct 2018, 17:08
A greater number of newspapers are sold in Town S than in Town T. Therefore, the citizens of Town S are better informed about major world events than are the citizens of Town T.
Each of the following, if true, weakens the conclusion above EXCEPT:
(A) Town S has a larger population than Town T.
(B) Most citizens of Town T work in Town S and buy their newspapers there.
(C) The average citizen of Town S spends less time reading newspapers than does the average citizen of Town T.
(D) A weekly newspaper restricted to the coverage of local events is published in Town S.
(E) The average newsstand price of newspapers sold in Town S is lower than the average price of newspapers sold in Town T.



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Re: Veritas Prep PS Forum Expert  Karishma  Ask Me Anything about Math
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04 Dec 2018, 03:32
Staphyk wrote: Hello Karishma ,wana know why is I got this question wrong If Yury has been writing programming code for 14hrs at a rate of 5 lines of code per 20sec. How many lines of code has he written? I used the work rate formula =R*T so w=5/20*14hrs =3.5 and it was wrong where lies my reasoning? Thank you Sent from my iPhone using GMAT Club Forum mobile appThe units need to match. Rate = 5 lines/ 20 sec Time = 14 hrs = 14*60*60 sec \(Work = \frac{5 lines}{20 secs} * 14*60*60 secs = 12600 lines\)
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Re: Veritas Prep PS Forum Expert  Karishma  Ask Me Anything about Math
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04 Dec 2018, 04:18
Staphyk wrote: Hello Karishma is there a tag on GC which I can find your post or solutions only ,to questions,yours seems fast and sweet Also what is the efficient way to tackle any word problem? Is it 1.Read the question throughout without writing any thing and understand what is being asked before going back to the question to note each statement for creating equations 2.Go straight to what was asked? Noting it and coming back to read the question noting each statement with what was asked in mind 3.Right away note each statement you read and start creating equations before you get to what was asked . Please which is the best or if none is,Kindly suggest because am really struggling with word problems Sent from my iPhone using GMAT Club Forum mobile appStaphyk, You can put my name in the author field of the Advanced Search feature of GC and search for all my posts in whichever forum you wish to: https://gmatclub.com/forum/advancedsearch/Different word problems require different approaches. I do favour going one line at a time and evaluating each till I reach the question stem. Here are some recent solutions: https://gmatclub.com/forum/ofthestude ... l#p2182147https://gmatclub.com/forum/inorderto ... l#p2182154Sometimes, you will need to consider the entire question to form equations: https://gmatclub.com/forum/veritasprep ... l#p2182196
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Re: Veritas Prep PS Forum Expert  Karishma  Ask Me Anything about Math
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15 Jan 2019, 05:47
Akshit03 wrote: Hi,
I am facing this silly doubt which is bothering me in DS questions.
Is \(\sqrt{n}\) = n or +n or n?
To think of it \(\sqrt{81}\) , we can square 9 and 9 to get it. But after reading many sources and watching youtube videos, they say it can only be positive.
Secondly, if it is only positive then following is contradictory
\(\sqrt{X^2}\) = X Then X can take both positive and negative values, so this is contradictory.
I was solving a question and I struggled with this equation \(p^2\)= \((q+1)^2\) What would this give?
Thanks. Yes, this can be a source of confusion. That is why we have a post on it on our blog here: https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/2016/0 ... ootsgmat/It discusses the cases you have brought up and the 'why' behind each. Let me know if you still have doubts. Now that you are familiar with principal square root concept. \(\sqrt{X^2} = X\) \(\sqrt{X^2}\) is the principal square root of X^2. So whatever you get after finding square root, it will be positive. But what if X is negative? To ensure that you still get a positive value, you take X. Let's look at an example. \(\sqrt{5^2} = \sqrt{25} = 5 = 5\) This is fine. What we get is a positive number. Since we are talking about principal square root, this is what is expected. \(\sqrt{(5)^2} = \sqrt{25}\) Now what is the answer? It is still 5, right? Still the principal square root. But if I say that \(\sqrt{X^2} = X\), that gives me 5 as answer because X = 5. But the principal square root cannot be negative. So I say \(\sqrt{X^2} = X\) \(p^2 = (q+1)^2\) All you can say in this case is that their absolute values are the same. p = q + 1 Why? Taking square root both sides, you get \(\sqrt{p^2} = \sqrt{(q+1)^2}\) \(p = q + 1\)
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20 Feb 2019, 01:36
pankajpatwari wrote: Hi Karishma. I have read ur post on weighted averages and simply loved it. However when m applying ur method for the following question the answer comse out incorrect.
Last year, all registered voters in Kumannia voted either for the Revolutionary Party or for the Status Quo Party. This year, the number of Revolutionary voters increased 10%, while the number of Status Quo voters increased 5%. No other votes were cast. If the number of total voters increased 8%, what fraction of voters voted Revolutionary this year?
My answer is 3/5 however the actual answer is 11/18. Could u plzz guide? The 5% and 10% increase is on the initial number of R voters and S voters. wR/wS = (5  8)/(8  10) = 3/2 The initial numbers increased by 10% and 5%. So new ratio became [3*(11/10)] / [2*(21/20)] The new R/S = 3.3/2.1 = 11/7 Fraction of voters who voted R = 11/(11+7) = 11/18
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25 Feb 2019, 00:44
indu1954 wrote: Hi Karishma, A certain characteristic in a large population has a distribution that is symmetric about the mean m. 68 percent of the distribution lies within one standard deviation d of the mean and 95 percent of the distribution lies within two standard deviation d of the mean. When the students’ average score of a certain class is 80 pts and standard deviation is 5 pts, 90 pts lies in what percent? A. 68% B. 72% C. 84% D. 88% E. 97.5% The question is giving us a normal distribution. 68% lies within one SD and 95% distribution lies within 2 SDs (the blue region shown in the figure). The rest of the 5% will be equally distributed between the left and right side of the blue region under the curve (white part under the curve). So 2.5% of the distribution will lie on the left and 2.5% will lie on the right (because the distribution is symmetric about the mean). Attachment:
distribution_plot_hypothetical_standard_normal_distribution.png [ 2.8 KiB  Viewed 505 times ]
If mean is 80 and 1 SD is 5, 2SD will be at 80 + 2*5 = 90 points. So 90 points will be at 97.5% covering the 2.5% which is to the left of  2SD and the 95% lying between 2SD and 2SD. Attachment:
normal15.png [ 2.67 KiB  Viewed 504 times ]
In this figure, the highlighted region covers 97.5% considering a = 2SD Answer (E)
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25 Feb 2019, 03:03
indu1954 wrote: Hi Karishma, A rectangular solid has the dimension of 24 by 20 by 18. If John will wrap the rectangular solid in a heat reserving material with uniform width of 1, what is the volume of the heat reserving material? A. 2,600 B. 2,700 C. 2,800 D. 2,900 E. 3,000 Can you please send me the source of this question and a screenshot? When you wrap the solid in material of width 1, every dimension of the solid increases by 2. The dimensions become 26 by 22 by 20. The dimensions of the actual solid are 24 by 20 by 8. So volume of the material = 26*22*10  24*20*8 = 4*10*(13*11  12*8) = 1880
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27 Feb 2019, 08:05
rish2708 wrote: Hello VeritasKarishma Ma'am, I got this question in my practice test On Veritas: https://gmatclub.com/forum/anonprofit ... 64907.htmlAs per my solution I got the answer as E. Could you please explain my doubt as stated below: As per the given statement, the question says there are more directors than leaders. Does this mean that i) per group made directors are more than leaders OR ii) all over directors are more than leaders I interpreted second as true and if it so then for ii) DS statement we can infer two leaders or even 4 leaders making option B as false. Could you please help with the flaw in my understanding? Regards, Rishav The data given is for each local team. For each local team, number of Directors (LD) is greater than number of team leads (L). Since stmnt 2 tells us that LD = 5, we know that L=1, D = 5 or L = 5, D = 1. But since LD > L given, D must be 5 and L must be 1. Sufficient.
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03 Mar 2019, 20:34
bilaltariqakthar wrote: Hi Karishma,
I have been facing difficulty in doing quant questions using the logical approach. I usually get the answers correct but I often use long and time consuming algebraic methods. Is there any material I should go through to get better at applying a logical approach to solve quant questions?
Thanks. Hey bilaltariqakthar, You should check out our blog series: https://www.veritasprep.com/blog/catego ... om/page/9/Start from the last page. We discuss lots of strategies for solving questions holistically.
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05 Mar 2019, 01:42
bilaltariqakthar wrote: Thank you Karishma for your response. I have started going through the blog. It's really helpful.
I have a quick question:
For how many values of x, is x – 3 + 3x + 1 + x = 4?
In your blog, you have said that the answer is 0. Could you please explain why? If you have understood the method explained in the blog, then consider this: x is a point such that the sum of "distance of x from 3", "3 times the distance of x from 1" and "distance of x from 0" will be 4. We know that distance of x from 3 to 1 is already 4 so when you add in the distance from 0, it will increase. There is no way the sum can be 4. It must be more than 4 in every case. Hence, the equation has no solutions.
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