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Virtually everything astronomers known about objects

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Re: Virtually everything astronomers known about objects  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2009, 10:46
8/9 17 Min. I feel this one had many questions that were Specific to the passage type...no Main Idea, what did the author mean, etc

2. I missed...I had it down to C and E and went with E based on the understanding that the passage said it was discovered 25 years ago but with no real testing. So I interpreted the answer choice but I guess the answer choice is relative.

3. Was tricky and was down to A and C...but after POE I went with A
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New post 16 Aug 2011, 00:29
Hi,

Can anybody please explain answer for Q 9?

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New post 03 Aug 2013, 10:35
ACADEAEDC...IR:2:55..OA:12:22
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Re: Virtually everything astronomers known about objects  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Aug 2013, 18:28
need explanation for QUESTION 1
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New post 06 Aug 2013, 20:03
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Virtually everything astronomers known about objects outside the solar system is based on the detection of photons—quanta of electromagnetic radiation. Yet there is another form of radiation that permeates the universe: neutrinos. With (as its name implies) no electric charge, and negligible mass, the neutrino interacts with other particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire universe, even traversing substantial aggregations of matter, without being absorbed or even deflected. Neutrinos can thus escape from regions of space where light and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation are blocked by matter. Furthermore, neutrinos carry with them information about the site and circumstances of their production: therefore, the detection of cosmic neutrinos could provide new information about a wide variety of cosmic phenomena and about the history of the universe.

But how can scientists detect a particle that interacts so infrequently with other matter? Twenty-five years passed between Pauli’s hypothesis that the neutrino existed and its actual detection: since then virtually all research with neutrinos has been with neutrinos created artificially in large particle accelerators and studied under neutrino microscopes. But a neutrino telescope, capable of detecting cosmic neutrinos, is difficult to construct. No apparatus can detect neutrinos unless it is extremely massive, because great mass is synonymous with huge numbers of nucleons (neutrons and protons), and the more massive the detector, the greater the probability of one of its nucleon’s reacting with a neutrino. In addition, the apparatus must be sufficiently shielded from the interfering effects of other particles.

Fortunately, a group of astrophysicists has proposed a means of detecting cosmic neutrinos by harnessing the mass of the ocean. Named DUMAND, for Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector, the project calls for placing an array of light sensors at a depth of five kilometers under the ocean surface. The detecting medium is the seawater itself: when a neutrino interacts with a particle in an atom of seawater, the result is a cascade of electrically charged particles and a flash of light that can be detected by the sensors. The five kilometers of seawater above the sensors will shield them from the interfering effects of other high-energy particles raining down through the atmosphere.

The strongest motivation for the DUMAND project is that it will exploit an important source of information about the universe. The extension of astronomy from visible light to radio waves to x-rays and gamma rays never failed to lead to the discovery of unusual objects such as radio galaxies, quasars, and pulsars. Each of these discoveries came as a surprise. Neutrino astronomy will doubtless bring its own share of surprises.
1. Which of the following titles best summarizes the passage as a whole?
(A) At the Threshold of Neutrino Astronomy
(B) Neutrinos and the History of the Universe
(C) The Creation and Study of Neutrinos
the passage is not about creation of Neutrino, but about detecting neutrino
(D) The DUMAND System and How It Works
it is the one that best summerizes the passage
(E) The Properties of the Neutrino
nothing about properties of neutrino


2. With which of the following statements regarding neutrino astronomy would the author be most likely to agree?
(A) Neutrino astronomy will supersede all present forms of astronomy.
(B) Neutrino astronomy will be abandoned if the DUMAND project fails.
(C) Neutrino astronomy can be expected to lead to major breakthroughs in astronomy.
the detection of cosmic neutrinos could provide new information about a wide variety of cosmic phenomena and about the history of the universe
therefore, its expected to lead to major breakthroughs in astronomy

(D) Neutrino astronomy will disclose phenomena that will be more surprising than past discoveries.
(E) Neutrino astronomy will always be characterized by a large time lag between hypothesis and experimental confirmation.


3. In the last paragraph, the author describes the development of astronomy in order to
(A) suggest that the potential findings of neutrino astronomy can be seen as part of a series of astronomical successes
Neutrino astronomy will doubtless bring its own share of surprises
correct!

(B) illustrate the role of surprise in scientific discovery
(C) demonstrate the effectiveness of the DUMAND apparatus in detecting neutrinos
(D) name some cosmic phenomena that neutrino astronomy will illuminate
(E) contrast the motivation of earlier astronomers with that of the astrophysicists working on the DUMAND project


4. According to the passage, one advantage that neutrinos have for studies in astronomy is that they
(A) have been detected for the last twenty-five years
(B) possess a variable electric charge
(C) are usually extremely massive
(D) carry information about their history with them
neutrinos carry with them information about the site and circumstances of their production
correct!

(E) are very similar to other electromagnetic particles


5. According to the passage, the primary use of the apparatus mentioned in lines 24-32 would be to
(A) increase the mass of a neutrino
(B) interpret the information neutrinos carry with them
(C) study the internal structure of a neutrino
(D) see neutrinos in distant regions of space
(E) detect the presence of cosmic neutrinos
No apparatus can detect neutrinos unless it is extremely massive
correct!


6. The passage states that interactions between neutrinos and other matter are
(A) rare
the neutrino interacts with other particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire universe...
(B) artificial
(C) undetectable
(D) unpredictable
(E) hazardous


7. The passage mentions which of the following as a reason that neutrinos are hard to detect?
(A) Their pervasiveness in the universe
(B) Their ability to escape from different regions of space
(C) Their inability to penetrate dense matter
(D) The similarity of their structure to that of nucleons
(E) The infrequency of their interaction with other matter
the neutrino interacts with other particles so rarely that a neutrino can cross the entire universe., even traversing substantial aggregations of matter, without being absorbed or even deflected. .

a particle that interacts so infrequently with other matter?


8. According to the passage, the interaction of a neutrino with other matter can produce
(A) particles that are neutral and massive
(B) a form of radiation that permeates the universe
(C) inaccurate information about the site and circumstances of the neutrino’s production
(D) charged particles and light
when a neutrino interacts with a particle in an atom of seawater, the result is a cascade of electrically charged particles and a flash of light

(E) a situation in which light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation are blocked


9. According to the passage, one of the methods used to establish the properties of neutrinos was
(A) detection of photons
(B) observation of the interaction of neutrinos with gamma rays
(C) observation of neutrinos that were artificially created
since then virtually all research with neutrinos has been with neutrinos created artificially

(D) measurement of neutrinos that interacted with particles of seawater
(E) experiments with electromagnetic radiation
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New post 07 Mar 2014, 04:34
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Re: Virtually everything astronomers known about objects  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2015, 10:59
Answered all correctly except the first one. Easy one.
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Re: Virtually everything astronomers known about objects  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2016, 06:42
Can someone pls explain the OA for Q3 ?

3. In the last paragraph, the author describes the development of astronomy in order to
(A) suggest that the potential findings of neutrino astronomy can be seen as part of a series of astronomical successes
(B) illustrate the role of surprise in scientific discovery
(C) demonstrate the effectiveness of the DUMAND apparatus in detecting neutrinos
(D) name some cosmic phenomena that neutrino astronomy will illuminate
(E) contrast the motivation of earlier astronomers with that of the astrophysicists working on the DUMAND project

I marked it as B)

Thanks in advance

PS : This is the only Q i got wrong (solved it under 6 mins)
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New post 17 Sep 2016, 10:35
Can any one provide the explanation for the first problem. I choose C - The study and creation of Neutrinos. First paragraph provides the details of the Neutrinos with its introduction. Second talks about the artificial creation of Neutrinos. Why is this not the answer? Why A?
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Re: Virtually everything astronomers known about objects  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2016, 10:18
meetmba91 wrote:
Can any one provide the explanation for the first problem. I choose C - The study and creation of Neutrinos. First paragraph provides the details of the Neutrinos with its introduction. Second talks about the artificial creation of Neutrinos. Why is this not the answer? Why A?


Notice that all over the passage the author is trying to convey the importance of Neutrinos and the difficulties they are facing in detecting them. Then the author says if we are able to find a way to detect it, we will be able to see many more surprises.

Only Option A is as per the Passage.
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New post 07 Dec 2016, 13:22
All correct in 12mins 21secs :) :D
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Re: Virtually everything astronomers known about objects  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2017, 09:02
11 min 8 seconds

1 incorrect .

Last one got wrong- but knew the answer from : "since then virtually all research with neutrinos has been with neutrinos created artificially in large particle accelerators "
D mentions process for detection not helpful for studying properties. according to passage.
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New post 07 Feb 2018, 11:45
Total 7 minutes

1. Which of the following titles best summarizes the passage as a whole?
(A) At the Threshold of Neutrino Astronomy -> correct, the passage talks about some details of neutrinos, including why neutrinos are important, how to detect them and the project involved in their detection.
(B) Neutrinos and the History of the Universe -> wrong, there's only a small detail about the history of the universe that is mentioned
(C) The Creation and Study of Neutrinos ->wrong, the passage doesn't speak about the creation of neutrinos
(D) The DUMAND System and How It Works -> wrong, mentioned as a detailed in the last paragraph
(E) The Properties of the Neutrino -> wrong, discussed only in the first paragraph

2. With which of the following statements regarding neutrino astronomy would the author be most likely to agree?
(A) Neutrino astronomy will supersede all present forms of astronomy. -> there's no such claim
(B) Neutrino astronomy will be abandoned if the DUMAND project fails. -> there's no such claim
(C) Neutrino astronomy can be expected to lead to major breakthroughs in astronomy. -> correct, "Neutrino astronomy will doubtless bring its own share of surprises."
(D) Neutrino astronomy will disclose phenomena that will be more surprising than past discoveries. -> there's no such distinction made
(E) Neutrino astronomy will always be characterized by a large time lag between hypothesis and experimental confirmation. -> may be true, but not mentioned

3. In the last paragraph, the author describes the development of astronomy in order to
(A) suggest that the potential findings of neutrino astronomy can be seen as part of a series of astronomical successes -> correct, "The extension of astronomy from visible light to radio waves to x-rays and gamma rays never failed to lead to the discovery of unusual objects such as radio galaxies, quasars, and pulsars. Each of these discoveries came as a surprise. Neutrino astronomy will doubtless bring its own share of surprises."
(B) illustrate the role of surprise in scientific discovery -> wrong, findings from the study of neutrinos are likely to cause surprise
(C) demonstrate the effectiveness of the DUMAND apparatus in detecting neutrinos -> wrong, the effectiveness is not discussed
(D) name some cosmic phenomena that neutrino astronomy will illuminate -> it is said that findings will bring a share of surprises, but it is not said what specific phenomena it will reveal
(E) contrast the motivation of earlier astronomers with that of the astrophysicists working on the DUMAND project -> no mention of this

4. According to the passage, one advantage that neutrinos have for studies in astronomy is that they
(A) have been detected for the last twenty-five years -> wrong, "Twenty-five years passed between Pauli's hypothesis that the neutrino existed and its actual detection"
(B) possess a variable electric charge -> on the contrary, they have no electric charge
(C) are usually extremely massive -> on the contrary, they are of negligible mass and their detection apparatus would have to be massive
(D) carry information about their history with them -> correct, "Furthermore, neutrinos carry with them information about the site and circumstances of their production: therefore, the detection of cosmic neutrinos could provide new information about a wide variety of cosmic phenomena and about the history of the universe."
(E) are very similar to other electromagnetic particles -> only electromagnetic radiation is mentioned

5. According to the passage, the primary use of the apparatus mentioned in the highlighted portion would be to
(A) increase the mass of a neutrino -> wrong
(B) interpret the information neutrinos carry with them -> wrong
(C) study the internal structure of a neutrino -> wrong
(D) see neutrinos in distant regions of space -> wrong
(E) detect the presence of cosmic neutrinos -> "But a neutrino telescope, capable of detecting cosmic neutrinos, is difficult to construct."
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Re: Virtually everything astronomers known about objects  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2018, 23:50
Got 8/9.Recently i started making short notes of the passage and i think it's working for me.Others can start doing so, if interested.
Re: Virtually everything astronomers known about objects &nbs [#permalink] 23 Aug 2018, 23:50

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