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# Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food

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VP
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Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2008, 10:31
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Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food enthusiasts. In a recent large study, those who took large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for two years showed on average a 40 percent lower risk of heart disease than did members of a control groups. Researchers corrected for differences in relevant health habits, such as diet.

Which one of the following inference is most supported by the passage?

(A) Taking large amount of vitamins is probably worth risking the side effects.
(B) Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease.
(C) Li, who has taken large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for the past two years, has a 40 percent lower risk.
(D) Taking large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily over the course of one’s adult life should be recommended to most adults.
(E) Health food enthusiasts are probably correct in believing that large daily doses of multiple vitamins promote good health.

I dont have the OA
i found this question interesting !!! kindly let me know the Reasoning

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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2008, 10:43
I think E, using POE. A, B, C, D infers too much. I think E is the best.
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2008, 11:24
I'm hoping it's C
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2008, 11:28

It's in one of the LSAT books. Question #12.
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2008, 15:11
B is consistent with the language of the question. Daily dose for 2 years will reduce the risk---- same thing as increasing the likelihood of avoiding heart disease.
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2008, 20:35
when we are dealing with inference questions can we write about the future !!!like can we predict and extrapolate the current scenario !!!!

Between E and B thats why i opted E
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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31 May 2016, 01:22
Sometimes I come across inference passages where answers such as B are not correct because they state something obvious, not inferred i.e. we already know directly from the passage that the use of vitamin reduces the risk. How to know the difference in such situations?
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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31 May 2016, 03:08
In my opinion some of the answer choices are not complete in nature. Let me explain why:

(A) Taking large amount of vitamins is probably worth risking the side effects. - Incorrect as this is not supported by the passage.
(B) Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease - In my opinion avoiding is different from merely lowering heart disease by 40 percent hence the choice worded this way cannot be an inference unless it is worded in a different way. Though a very good contender.
(C) Li, who has taken large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for the past two years, has a 40 percent lower risk. - Good one and the closes to correct answer like B but again names a person that is not part of the passage hence this is where it falters to be the right inference.
(D) Taking large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily over the course of one’s adult life should be recommended to most adults. - This is a broad scope inference as it actually broadens the scope of the vitamin's benefits to all walks of health. Incorrect answer.
(E) Health food enthusiasts are probably correct in believing that large daily doses of multiple vitamins promote good health - Like (D) - This is a broad scope inference as it actually broadens the scope of the vitamin's benefits to all walks of health. Incorrect answer

I would select one between B and C but again either of them are not worded appropriately and I wonder if GMAT would throw such a question? If I were to choose 1 then I would choose B merely for the fact that it does not bring in outside information like C does by bringing in the name of an individual that the passage does not name.
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2016, 11:32
1
spriya wrote:
Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food enthusiasts. In a recent large study, those who took large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for two years showed on average a 40 percent lower risk of heart disease than did members of a control groups. Researchers corrected for differences in relevant health habits, such as diet.

Which one of the following inference is most supported by the passage?

(A) Taking large amount of vitamins is probably worth risking the side effects.
(B) Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease.
(C) Li, who has taken large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for the past two years, has a 40 percent lower risk.
(D) Taking large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily over the course of one’s adult life should be recommended to most adults.
(E) Health food enthusiasts are probably correct in believing that large daily doses of multiple vitamins promote good health.

We are given an argument with some facts:-
1) XYZ is favorite vitamin among heatl enthusiasts.
2) Taking high dosages for 2 years showed 40% lower AVERAGE risk of heart disease.
3) Researchers also corrected diet among participants.

Possible inference:-
1) Other than diet no change was done. And diet is not the only reason for decreased heart disease likelihood.
2) Vitamins have some essential ingredients known to improve heart health
3) There is a possibility of reducing the risk of heart disease further if the vitamins are taken for long.

(A) Taking large amount of vitamins is probably worth risking the side effects. We don't know if vitamins have side-effects.

(B) Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease. Possible answer choice as it says 'likelihood' and not 'surely'

(C) Li, who has taken large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for the past two years, has a 40 percent lower risk. May or may not be possible, because we know there is 40% AVERAGE reduction.

(D) Taking large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily over the course of one’s adult life should be recommended to most adults. Not sure if it should be recommended to all adults.

(E) Health food enthusiasts are probably correct in believing that large daily doses of multiple vitamins promote good health. Good health is not equivalent of Heart health
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Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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Updated on: 30 Jul 2016, 04:44
2
1
It doesn't get easier than this

Inference by definition is something that can be inferred or in terms of logic "deduced" from the premises. In other words it is a kind of a new belief or evidence that can be formed using already supplied evidences in the argument. Lets analyse 2 important properties of Inference

1) If you have red and blue paint then you can make numerous shades of purple by mixing red paint and blue paint. This individual red paint is a premise and the individual blue paint is another premise. The shades of purple produced by mixing red and blue in different ratios are inferences. Noteworthy is that since pure red or pure blue are not PURPLE, so you cannot call Red or blue as purple ; similarly you cannot call any explicitly defined premise as a inference. Inference can only either be a mixture of the premises or some derivative of it.

2) If you have red and blue paint , you can only make purple paint by mixing them , you cannot make orange paint. For orange paint you will need red and yellow paint. Similarly an inference cannot be made from facts that are absent in the original premises.

Using these two inherent qualities of Inference deduction we can find the answer

The premises of the argument are that vitamin xyz is popular amongst health conscious people and a recent study showed that consumption of large amount of vitamin xyz reduced risk the of diseases in people by an average of 40%.

A) Taking large amount of vitamins is probably worth risking the side effects.
WRONG:- When the original premise doesn't talk about side effect, we cannot create any inference about side effect.

(B) Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease.
CORRECT:- A beautiful shade of purple . Premise talks about DECREASE in risk of having diseases. Inference taks about INCREASED PROBABILITY OF NOT HAVING DISEASE.
This are essentially the same fact, said in a two different ways. IT's a derivative of premise and thus is the correct inference. BINGO !!

(C) Li, who has taken large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for the past two years, has a 40 percent lower risk.
WRONG:- so close, but wrong. First the option is kind of dicey .. 40 % lower risk of what ? getting mugged, getting kidnapped, getting cancer. The argument does not specifies the risk of" WHAT". Even if we assume that the argument is talking about diseases, then we have to keep in mind the the question- who Li is? The premise tells us that study concluded AVERAGE 40% decrease. Is it possible Li is one of the guy who only has 10 % decrease. Is it possible Li is one of the guys who 60 % decrease. Since taking vitamin XYZ results in a range of values that are then then averaged to get a mean value, we cannot take this option as an absolute certainty. In other words red and blue have been mixed randomly, even though you will get a purple you cannot predict what will be the exact saturation, hue and brightness of that purple. All you know that it will resemble some shade of purple.

(D) Taking large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily over the course of one’s adult life should be recommended to most adults.
WRONG:- Again since the premise does not talk about any sort of recommendation, we cannot take it as answer. Its like some saying red and blue were the most popular colours in renaissance painting . WE cannot say that , all we can say is that red + blue = purple.

(E) Health food enthusiasts are probably correct in believing that large daily doses of multiple vitamins promote good health.
WRONG :- Argument states that vitamin xyz is a favourite of health enthusiast. It does not talk about their beliefs.

spriya wrote:
Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food enthusiasts. In a recent large study, those who took large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for two years showed on average a 40 percent lower risk of heart disease than did members of a control groups. Researchers corrected for differences in relevant health habits, such as diet.

Which one of the following inference is most supported by the passage?

(A) Taking large amount of vitamins is probably worth risking the side effects.
(B) Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease.
(C) Li, who has taken large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for the past two years, has a 40 percent lower risk.
(D) Taking large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily over the course of one’s adult life should be recommended to most adults.
(E) Health food enthusiasts are probably correct in believing that large daily doses of multiple vitamins promote good health.

I dont have the OA
i found this question interesting !!! kindly let me know the Reasoning

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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 29 Jul 2016, 12:21.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 30 Jul 2016, 04:44, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2016, 02:10
LogicGuru1 wrote:
It doesn't get easier than this

Inference by definition is something that can be inferred or in terms of logic "deduced" from the premises. In other words it is a kind of a new belief or evidence that can be formed using already supplied evidences in the argument. Lets analyse 2 important properties of Inference

1) If you have red and blue paint then you can make numerous shades of purple by mixing red paint and blue paint. This individual red paint is a premise and the individual blue paint is another premise. The shades of purple produced by mixing red and blue in different ratios are inferences. Noteworthy is that since pure red or pure blue are not PURPLE, so you cannot called any explicitly defined premise as a inference. Inference can only either be a mixture of the premises or some derivative of it.

2) But If you have red and blue paint , you can only make purple , you cannot make orange paint. For orange paint you will need red and yellow paint. Similarly an inference cannot use properties that are absent in the original premises.

Using these two inherent qualities of Inference deduction we can find the answer

The premises of the argument are that vitamin xyz is popular amongst health conscious people and a recent study showed that consumption of large amount of vitamin xyz reduced risk the of diseases in people by an average of 40%.

A) Taking large amount of vitamins is probably worth risking the side effects.
WRONG:- When the original premise doesn't talk about side effect, we cannot create any inference about side effect.

(B) Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease.
CORRECT:- A beautiful shade of purple . Premise talks about DECREASE in risk of having diseases. Inference taks about INCREASED PROBABILITY OF NOT HAVING DISEASE.
This are essentially the same fact, said in a two different ways. IT's a derivative of premise and thus is the correct inference. BINGO !!

(C) Li, who has taken large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for the past two years, has a 40 percent lower risk.
WRONG:- so close, but wrong. First the option is kind of dicey .. 40 % lower risk of what ? getting mugged, getting kidnapped, getting cancer. The argument does not specifies the risk of" WHAT". Even if we assume that the argument is talking about diseases, then we have to keep in mind the the question- who Li is? The premise tells us that study concluded AVERAGE 40% decrease. Is it possible Li is one of the guy who only has 10 % decrease. Is it possible Li is one of the guys who 60 % decrease. Since taking vitamin XYZ results in a range of values that are then then averaged to get a mean value, we cannot take this option as an absolute certainty. In other words red and blue have been mixed randomly, even though you will get a purple you cannot predict what will be the exact saturation, hue and brightness of that purple. All you know that it will resemble some shade of purple.

(D) Taking large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily over the course of one’s adult life should be recommended to most adults.
WRONG:- Again since the premise does not talk about any sort of recommendation, we cannot take it as answer. Its like some saying red and blue were the most popular colours in renaissance painting . WE cannot say that , all we can say is that red + blue = purple.

(E) Health food enthusiasts are probably correct in believing that large daily doses of multiple vitamins promote good health.
WRONG :- Argument states that vitamin xyz is a favourite of health enthusiast. It does not talk about their beliefs.

spriya wrote:
Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food enthusiasts. In a recent large study, those who took large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for two years showed on average a 40 percent lower risk of heart disease than did members of a control groups. Researchers corrected for differences in relevant health habits, such as diet.

Which one of the following inference is most supported by the passage?

(A) Taking large amount of vitamins is probably worth risking the side effects.
(B) Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease.
(C) Li, who has taken large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for the past two years, has a 40 percent lower risk.
(D) Taking large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily over the course of one’s adult life should be recommended to most adults.
(E) Health food enthusiasts are probably correct in believing that large daily doses of multiple vitamins promote good health.

I dont have the OA
i found this question interesting !!! kindly let me know the Reasoning

Very nice explanation LogicGuru1
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2017, 04:15
Its an inference question we can't bring an outside information - E and C eliminated leaving A B D = course of one's adult life . D eliminated . Side Effects - A eliminated leaving B
IMO its B
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2017, 00:57
1. Side effects are out of scope. - Eliminate
2. It's not just a pure restatement of the premises, but rather an inference based on the premises that if daily usage of XYZ vit lowered the risk by 40% of some group of people towards the control group, then it's 100% that any person taking XYZ vits on daily basis throughout 2-year period will have at least 1% less risk of heart diseases than average. - Corrrect.
3. IMO, first problem with this option is that it's too extreme. Li would have no less than 40% less risk than others, which is absolutely incorrect as long as stimulus doesn't give us such a confidence. Second problem is that this option doesn't tell us towards whom Li would have a lower risk, towards an average?or control group? - Eliminate.
4. completely out os scope. recommendations are off the topic. - Eliminate.
5. we cannot deduce what researchers believe is good for health or not. Passage only shares some findings of a particular observations that took place.
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Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2017, 09:52
Hi,

Option B looked good to me at first. But it states that person taking large doze of vitamin XYZ will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease.

But the passage says, person taking large doze of vitamin XYZ will have 40% lower risk than those who don't.
Say if those who don't have 70% risk, person taking this vitamin will have 30%, but person will not avoid as B says.
There is difference between reducing and avoiding. So i eliminated B.
Had it been, "Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of reducing heart disease.". I would have chosen B for sure.

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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2018, 11:53
Between B and E, it has to be B because the first rule of inference questions is to stay within the scope of the argument. Even though, B makes a pretty broad generalisation by extending the applicability of the findings from the study group to general applicability to almost anyone by using a generic "those", E talks about beliefs of health food enthusiasts regarding random multiple vitamins (and not about vitamin XYZ). Staying strictly within the scope of the argument, B makes better sense than E. Surely, not the best answer, but better than the rest of the options.
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food [#permalink]

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21 May 2018, 12:32
(A) Taking large amount of vitamins is probably worth risking the side effects.
Not relevant
(B) Those who take large doses of vitamin XYZ daily for the next two years will exhibit on average an increase in the likelihood of avoiding heart disease.
true.Inferred from passage.Correct
(C) Li, who has taken large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily for the past two years, has a 40 percent lower risk.
Passage says 40% on average.Cannot take individual case
(D) Taking large amounts of vitamin XYZ daily over the course of one’s adult life should be recommended to most adults.
Experiment was done for 2 years. Do not know about entire life
(E) Health food enthusiasts are probably correct in believing that large daily doses of multiple vitamins promote good health.
Might be true.But not from the passage
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Re: Vitamin XYZ has long been a favorite among health food   [#permalink] 21 May 2018, 12:32
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