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# We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are

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VP
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We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are [#permalink]

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06 Apr 2005, 08:59
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We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.

(A) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.
(B) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent.
(C) in which children are recalcitrant, in which change is the only constant, and in which uncertainty is prevalent.
(D) where children are recalcitrant, where change is the only constant and where uncertainty is prevalent.
(E) where children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent

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Director
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06 Apr 2005, 09:40
B. D and E are out

C is out because of the redundant "in which"

A is not as parallel as B thus B

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06 Apr 2005, 10:53
m mmm
I prefer A because:
1. A) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.
That is not parallel in itself, because "the only constant" is not an adjective, so why should it be "uncertainty is prevalent"? In a certain sense, it is more parallel if you use three different constructions:
b. to be+ noun
c. verb

there is a second reason:
2. why banerjeea, who is not stupid, would have posted such a normal question, if it had not been tricky?

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06 Apr 2005, 11:08
thearch wrote:

there is a second reason:
2. why banerjeea, who is not stupid, would have posted such a normal question, if it had not been tricky?

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06 Apr 2005, 11:21
...so if it is not B) it must be C). maybe it is necessary to maintain "in which" before every phrase to avoid confusion, so its clear that every phrase refers to "world".
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06 Apr 2005, 12:07
good one banerjee

I think it is C here is why.

We live in a world is a noun clause followed by prepositional modifier/s

in A in addition to uncertainty prevails being not only not parallel but also lacks proper modifing structure to convey proper meaning.

in C you have a prepositional phrase "in which" to tie all non-restrictive phrases to the main clause (We live in a world).

So, what we learnt here is that when you have non essential clauses separated by commas you need to make sure non essential parts have proper modifying structure to link them to the main clause.
Hope this helps.
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Last edited by praveen_rao7 on 06 Apr 2005, 12:44, edited 2 times in total.

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06 Apr 2005, 12:12
praveen_rao7 wrote:
good one banerjee

I think it is C here is why.

We live in a world is a noun clause followed by prepositional modifier/s

in A in addition to uncertainty prevails being not parallel setence lacks proper modifier structure to convey the meaning.

in C you have a prepositional phrase "in which" to tie all non-restrictive phrases to the main clause.

So, what we learnt here is that when you have non essential clauses separated by commas you need to make sure non essential parts have proper modifying structure to link them to the main clause.
Hope this helps.

"C" it is as explained by Praveen

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06 Apr 2005, 12:20
Nah
I still would have picked B on the test. The redundancy of in which throws me off and I have never seen any grammarian write like that.
With the endless pool of various practice questions out there, anything goes so I canâ€™t be bothered as to why the answer is C

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06 Apr 2005, 12:42
this sentence is a MONSTER

A sort of GMAT Gollum

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06 Apr 2005, 14:16
thearch wrote:
m mmm
I prefer A because:
1. A) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.
That is not parallel in itself, because "the only constant" is not an adjective, so why should it be "uncertainty is prevalent"? In a certain sense, it is more parallel if you use three different constructions:
b. to be+ noun
c. verb

there is a second reason:
2. why banerjeea, who is not stupid, would have posted such a normal question, if it had not been tricky?

can you explain this a bit more. I think OG has a question like this one.

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06 Apr 2005, 14:17
praveen_rao7 wrote:
good one banerjee

I think it is C here is why.

We live in a world is a noun clause followed by prepositional modifier/s

in A in addition to uncertainty prevails being not only not parallel but also lacks proper modifing structure to convey proper meaning.

in C you have a prepositional phrase "in which" to tie all non-restrictive phrases to the main clause (We live in a world).

So, what we learnt here is that when you have non essential clauses separated by commas you need to make sure non essential parts have proper modifying structure to link them to the main clause.
Hope this helps.

Praveen

I think OG has one just like this question. Can you explain how we can better identify and tackle this type of question. Thanks

P

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06 Apr 2005, 14:48
patrickpui wrote:
praveen_rao7 wrote:
good one banerjee

I think it is C here is why.

We live in a world is a noun clause followed by prepositional modifier/s

in A in addition to uncertainty prevails being not only not parallel but also lacks proper modifing structure to convey proper meaning.

in C you have a prepositional phrase "in which" to tie all non-restrictive phrases to the main clause (We live in a world).

So, what we learnt here is that when you have non essential clauses separated by commas you need to make sure non essential parts have proper modifying structure to link them to the main clause.
Hope this helps.

Praveen

I think OG has one just like this question. Can you explain how we can better identify and tackle this type of question. Thanks

P

Let's start out with understanding what a sentence is?, how is it different from a clause. As you know sentence is used to express a complete thought. Most important characteristic of a sentence is that it needs to have an independent clause with modifiers to glorify or give more information on the thought you are trying to express. In other words an independent clause is a sentence minus all the modifiers.

Further, you also have essential modifiers and non essential modifiers. As the names suggests essential modifiers (they could appear in any of the forms mentioned above) are required to complete the meaning of the sentence and non essential modifiers just give additional information and are not necessary for the sentence to stand on its own.

While answering verbal questions you should always keep this concept in your mind. When you are split between two choices you are almost always find misplaced modifier in one of the two choices.

Now coming back to the orginal question, this question follows following pattern

<Independent Clause>, <modifying Phrase A>, <modifying Phrase B>, <modifying Phrase C>

Now remember our talk on essential and non essential modifiers?. now is the time to apply it. First you need to make sure independent clause can stand on its own, next do the same for non essential phrases. Lastly, make sure modifying phrases are modifying what they are supposed to modify.

Let's try another example, first a simple one

Joe has a red colored book in the shelf, at the house

Joe owns the house on the corner, across the blue building, near the city hall.

Birds like to fly on the mountains, above the clouds, under the sun

Does it make sense now? Thanks
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06 Apr 2005, 16:53
praveen_rao7 wrote:
patrickpui wrote:
praveen_rao7 wrote:
good one banerjee

I think it is C here is why.

We live in a world is a noun clause followed by prepositional modifier/s

in A in addition to uncertainty prevails being not only not parallel but also lacks proper modifing structure to convey proper meaning.

in C you have a prepositional phrase "in which" to tie all non-restrictive phrases to the main clause (We live in a world).

So, what we learnt here is that when you have non essential clauses separated by commas you need to make sure non essential parts have proper modifying structure to link them to the main clause.
Hope this helps.

Praveen

I think OG has one just like this question. Can you explain how we can better identify and tackle this type of question. Thanks

P

Let's start out with understanding what a sentence is?, how is it different from a clause. As you know sentence is used to express a complete thought. Most important characteristic of a sentence is that it needs to have an independent clause with modifiers to glorify or give more information on the thought you are trying to express. In other words an independent clause is a sentence minus all the modifiers.

Further, you also have essential modifiers and non essential modifiers. As the names suggests essential modifiers (they could appear in any of the forms mentioned above) are required to complete the meaning of the sentence and non essential modifiers just give additional information and are not necessary for the sentence to stand on its own.

While answering verbal questions you should always keep this concept in your mind. When you are split between two choices you are almost always find misplaced modifier in one of the two choices.

Now coming back to the orginal question, this question follows following pattern

<Independent Clause>, <modifying Phrase A>, <modifying Phrase B>, <modifying Phrase C>

Now remember our talk on essential and non essential modifiers?. now is the time to apply it. First you need to make sure independent clause can stand on its own, next do the same for non essential phrases. Lastly, make sure modifying phrases are modifying what they are supposed to modify.

Let's try another example, first a simple one

Joe has a red colored book in the shelf, at the house

Joe owns the house on the corner, across the blue building, near the city hall.

Birds like to fly on the mountains, above the clouds, under the sun

Does it make sense now? Thanks

Good explanation Praveen.....Baner thanks for a good question

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06 Apr 2005, 19:43
Tricky question indeed. My first hunch is for B although Praveen gave a nice example. However, I believe that his examples include prepositional phrases which require different prepositions. For example, you can't say "house on the corner, the blue building..." because the "house" cannot be "on" the building but instead will be "across" the building. In this question, all prepositions apply to "in which" so there is no need to repeat it. Thus, it is only an enumeration based on the same root "in which". B seems better than A due to parallellism in passive construction.
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Paul

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06 Apr 2005, 20:03
banerjeea_98 wrote:
We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.

(A) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty prevails.
(B) children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent.
(C) in which children are recalcitrant, in which change is the only constant, and in which uncertainty is prevalent.
(D) where children are recalcitrant, where change is the only constant and where uncertainty is prevalent.
(E) where children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant, and uncertainty is prevalent

Here is my explanation:

D, E is eliminated because you cannot use "where" in this context. Where is used to specify a location. Here we arent using "the world" to allude to a PHYSICAL location such as Chicago, or Austin or.....

C is wrong because what does the the 2nd "which" and 3rd "which" refer too? False parallelism

Independant Clause #1:

<We live in a world> --->

in which children are recalcitrant, change is the only constant ---> subordinate Clause.

Indedendant Clause #2:

UnCertainity is prevalent.

I'm torn between "A" and "B". Dunno why "A" is wrong. I cannot explain it because <uncertainty prevails> could also be an independant clause.

So my OA is B.

Although i CANNOT explain why A is wrong.

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07 Apr 2005, 06:05
Paul wrote:
Tricky question indeed. My first hunch is for B although Praveen gave a nice example. However, I believe that his examples include prepositional phrases which require different prepositions. For example, you can't say "house on the corner, the blue building..." because the "house" cannot be "on" the building but instead will be "across" the building. In this question, all prepositions apply to "in which" so there is no need to repeat it. Thus, it is only an enumeration based on the same root "in which". B seems better than A due to parallellism in passive construction.

Paul,
I agree with your explanation but Could you elaborate on "all prepositions apply to "in which" so there is no need to repeat it."

When you say "prepositions" I'm guessing you are referring to the subordinate clauses [in which] children are recalcitrant, [in which ---> this is implicit] change is the only constant.

Is my explanation correct? Could you tell me if the aforementioned explanation where i "break down" the sentence is accurate.

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07 Apr 2005, 12:07
Absolutely agree with Paul. The repeat of "in which" in C makes the sentence very cubernsome.
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07 Apr 2005, 16:24
Folaa3 wrote:
The more i read the more confused i get.

lol, same here, Folaa. Seems Paul believes B is right and Baner' OA is C.

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07 Apr 2005, 19:23
very confused,

A, B probably need relative pronoun to connect two independent clauses.

C may be the OA.

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07 Apr 2005, 19:52
Again my 2 cents,

Looking at this problem some more, this is what I think.
Let's simplify this sentence some more.
Can you tell what is wrong with following sentence?

Joe is very smart, I've learnt a lot from him

compare this to...

We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are recalcitrant
Both these sentences uses structure

IC, IC where IC = independent clause

which is a serious breach of grammar

we can fix the first sentence in any of the following ways:

Joe is very smart; I've learnt a lot from him
Joe is very smart, and I've learnt a lot from him
Because Joe is very smart, I've learnt a lot from him

another way to make this sentence work with a slight change in meaning is by using a prepositional phrase ""in him"
Joe is very smart, in him I found a great teacher.

In essence, all we are trying here is to obtain a sentence structure that looks like this

IC, DC where DC = dependent clause

Using the same concept to our original sentece
adding in which to each clause after comma gives us a structure

IC,DC,DC and DC

Eventhough we could fix the sentence "We live in a world in which crime is rampant, children are recalcitrant" in any of the ways mentioned above (for example, We live in a world in which crime is rampant, and children are recalcitrant is grammatically correct) it fails to convey the intended meaning. Hence
"We live in a world in which crime is rampant, in which children are recalcitrant would be more appropriate"

Therefore, choice C wins

Does this makes sense?
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