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Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding

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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 18:21
srikanth9502 wrote:
Vyshak wrote:
In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding increases the number of attacks among the animals significantly. But in recent experiments in which rhesus monkeys were placed in crowded conditions, it was not such attacks that increased significantly, but rather instances of "coping" behavior, such as submissive gestures, avoidance of dominant individuals, and huddling with relatives. Therefore the evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the argument?

A. The rhesus monkeys is the species of monkey that is more prone to fighting

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

D. Some individual monkeys in the experiment were involved in more attacks than the others

E. Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiment were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances.



Conclusion -> "The evidence from rhesus monkeys makes it doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates"

C. All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

It states that the coping behaviour is observed in the normal conditions as well. This means that the crowding had no impact on the behaviour of the monkeys.
So this option indeed strengthens the argument by implying that the crowding does not increase the aggressive impulses.

B. Coping behavior was adopted by the crowded monkeys to forestall acts of aggression among them.

This option implies that there is indeed a possibility of aggression and the monkeys had to alter their behaviour inorder to forestall such effect.


Hi
I have a different POV.
C says that even in uncrowded condition, the monkeys are same. Hence it can be concluded that it their NATURE which is making them cope in all types of conditions. There is no information about rats but it may be the case that rats by nature were aggressive(in all environment).

B says that the coping behaviour in crowding(which has made them learn to cope) has made monkeys able to control aggressive impulses. Hence, it is actually strengthening.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2019, 07:28
How does option C strengthen the conclusion?
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2019, 02:21
mallya12 wrote:
How does option C strengthen the conclusion?

To eliminate (C), we don't need to prove that it strengthens the conclusion -- we only need to prove that it does not WEAKEN the conclusion.

Take another look at (C):
Quote:
(C) All the observed forms of coping behavior can be found among rhesus monkeys living in uncrowded conditions

The author uses evidence about rhesus monkey behavior in crowded conditions to make a claim about the aggressive impulses of primates in crowded conditions. So, how does this information about rhesus monkey behavior in uncrowded conditions affect the strength of that claim?

The answer is that we simply don't know. Maybe rhesus monkeys behave the same way in both crowded and uncrowded conditions, and maybe they don't. Because we have no way to know how the information in (C) impacts the author's conclusion, we can't say that it weakens the argument. (C) is out.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2019, 04:31
why is E incorrect?

(E) Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiment were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances.

i was thinking on the lines that if the monkeys were in their natural circumstances this would have led to fighting but since they were test subjects this led to coping behaviour instead of fighting...
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2019, 05:45
B is the correct answer while C seems like an out of scope statement. The conclusion is made for the crowded situations while C refers to uncrowded one.

With the weakening question on the conclusion, we might have the rephrasing of the negative conclusion as 'aggressive behavior might still appear in crowded monkeys because that..."

B is the only one fitting with the negative conclusion statement.
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 04:42
rnn wrote:
why is E incorrect?

(E) Some of the rhesus monkeys in the experiment were subjected to levels of crowding that are unlikely to occur in natural circumstances.

i was thinking on the lines that if the monkeys were in their natural circumstances this would have led to fighting but since they were test subjects this led to coping behaviour instead of fighting...

There are a couple of issues with answer choice (E). First, take another look at the conclusion of the argument from the passage:
Quote:
"it [is] doubtful that crowding significantly increases aggressive impulses in primates."

This conclusion makes a statement about how crowded conditions affect aggressive impulses in primates. It does not specific how these conditions came about, or if they are likely to occur in the wild. So, it is not relevant to consider whether the levels of crowding are likely to occur in natural circumstances -- it only matters what does happen to primates when they find themselves in crowded conditions.

Also, answer choice (E) tells us that "some" of the monkeys were subjected to unnaturally crowded conditions. Does "some" mean just a few of the monkeys, or a large minority, or half? We have no way of knowing what "some" really means in this context, so we cannot say how much it impacts the conclusion.

For these reasons, answer choice (E) does not "most seriously weaken" the argument.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Weaken: In 1960’s studies of rats, scientists found that crowding   [#permalink] 14 Apr 2019, 04:42

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