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What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri

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What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting territories, and how did they come to be? The dominant view in recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians (a group of North American Indian tribes) before contact with Europeans but are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade, in combination with other factors such as ecological changes and consequent shifts in wildlife harvesting patterns. Another view claims that Algonquian family hunting territories predate contact with Europeans and are forms of private landownership by individuals and families. More recent fieldwork, however, has shown that individual and family rights to hunting territories form part of a larger land-use system of multifamilial hunting groups, that rights to hunting territories at this larger community level take precedence over those at the individual or family level, and that this system reflects a concept of spiritual and social reciprocity that conflicts with European concepts of private property. In short, there are now strong reasons to think that it was erroneous to claim that Algonquian family hunting territories ever were, or were becoming, a kind of private property system.
1. It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?

(A) They evolved from multifamilial hunting territories.
(B) They are an outgrowth of reciprocal land-use practices.
(C) They are based on certain spiritual beliefs.
(D) They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.
(E) They developed as a result of trade with non-Algonquian Indian tribes.



2. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) provide an explanation for an unexpected phenomenon
(B) suggest that a particular question has yet to be answered
(C) present a new perspective on an issue
(D) defend a traditional view from attack
(E) reconcile opposing sides of an argument



3. According to the passage, recent fieldwork has revealed which of the following about rights to hunting territories in Algonquian societies?

(A) Rights at the individual level take precedence over those at the family level.
(B) Rights at the multifamilial level take precedence over those at the family level.
(C) These rights developed as a result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by contact with Europeans.
(D) These rights developed in response to European challenges to Algonquian private land ownership.
(E) These rights developed in response to recent ecological changes that have negatively affected the availability of game.



Originally posted by AN225 on 20 Apr 2011, 13:20.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 18 Aug 2019, 21:47, edited 3 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (193).
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2011, 04:26
3
Vorskl wrote:
What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting territories, and how did they come to [highlight]be? The dominant view[/highlight] in recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians (a group of North American Indian tribes) before contact with Europeans but are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade, in combination with other factors such as ecological changes and consequent shifts in wildlife harvesting patterns. Another view claims that Algonquian family hunting territories predate contact with Europeans and are forms of private landownership by individuals and families. More recent fieldwork, however, has shown that individual and family rights to hunting territories form part of a larger land-use system of muitifamilial hunting groups, that rights to hunting territories at this larger community level take precedence over those at the individual or family level, and that this system reflects a concept of spiritual and social reciprocity that conflicts with European concepts of private property. In short, there are now strong reasons to think that it was erroneous to claim that Algonquian family hunting territories ever were, or were becoming, a kind of private property system.


1. It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?
(A) They evolved from multifamilial hunting territories.
(B) They are an outgrowth of reciprocal land-use practices.
(C) They are based on certain spiritual beliefs.
(D) They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.
(E) They developed as a result of trade with non-Algonquian Indian tribes.

2. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) provide an explanation for an unexpected phenomenon
(B) suggest that a particular question has yet to be answered
(C) present a new perspective on an issue
(D)defend a traditional view from attack
(E)reconcile opposing sides of an argument

3. According to the passage, recent fieldwork has revealed which of the following about rights to hunting territories in Algonquian societies?
(A) Rights at the individual level take precedence over those at the family level.
(B) Rights at the multifamilial level take precedence over those at the family level.
(C) These rights developed as a result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by contact with Europeans.
(D) These rights developed in response to European challenges to Algonquian private land ownership.
(E)These rights developed in response to recent ecological changes that have negatively affected the availability of game.

OA:
D, C, B


Hats off to GMATPrep for creating such nice passages and thanks to the authors for posting them.

Issue: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting territories.
Discuss:
How the hunting territories came into existence and presents two opposing views about its creation, however both the views agree that these properties are to be considered private property.
Author presents an information about recent studies regarding these properties. Those studies suggest that rights of these properties are dictated at a social level rather than a private level and needs some considerations before conforming them as private property.

1.
family hunting territories are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade.
D.

2.
(C) present a new perspective on an issue.
there are now strong reasons to think that it was erroneous to claim that Algonquian family hunting territories ever were, or were becoming, a kind of private property system.
The tone of the author suggests that she/he wants a revaluation before categorization of the property.

3.
rights to hunting territories at this larger community level take precedence over those at the individual or family level,
B.
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2014, 23:57
3
Time taken 5:30 mins.
1.The primary purpose of the passage is to
C. present a new perspective on an issue
"View 1 , View 2 and View 3. In short, there are now strong reasons to think that it was erroneous to claim that Algonquian family hunting territories ever were, or were becoming, a kind of private property system."

2. It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?
D. They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.
"The dominant viewin recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians (a group of North American Indian tribes) before contact with Europeans but are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade"

3. According to the passage, proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and proponents of the view mentioned in the second highlighted portion of text ( see in "Another view claims...") both believe which of the following about Algonquian family hunting territories?
A They are a form of private landownership.
"The dominant viewin recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership....
.....
Another view claims that Algonquian family hunting territories predate contact with Europeans and are forms of private landownership"
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2014, 01:19
1
1.The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. provide an explanation for an unexpected phenomenon
B. suggest that a particular question has yet to be answered
C. present a new perspective on an issue
D. defend a traditional view from attack
E. reconcile opposing sides of an argument


2. It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?
A. They evolved from multifamilial hunting territories.
B. They are an outgrowth of reciprocal land-use practices.
C. They are based on certain spiritual beliefs.
D. They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.
E. They developed as a result of trade with non-Algonquian Indian tribes.


3. According to the passage, proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and proponents of the view mentioned in the second highlighted portion of text ( see in "Another view claims...") both believe which of the following about Algonquian family hunting territories?
A They are a form of private landownership.
B They are a form of community, rather than individual, landownership.
C They were a form of private landownership prior to contact with Europeans.
D They became a form of private landownership due to contact with Europeans.
E They have replaced reciprocal practices relating to land use in Algonquian society
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2017, 21:54
1
1
What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting territories, and how did they come to be? The dominant view in recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians (a group of North American Indian tribes) before contact with Europeans but are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade, in combination with other factors such as ecological changes and consequent shifts in wildlife harvesting patterns. Another view claims that Algonquian family hunting territories predate contact with Europeans and are forms of private landownership by individuals and families. More recent fieldwork, however, has shown that individual and family rights to hunting territories form part of a larger land-use system of multifamilial hunting groups, that rights to hunting territories at this larger community level take precedence over those at the individual or family level, and that this system reflects a concept of spiritual and social reciprocity that conflicts with European concepts of private property. In short, there are now strong reasons to think that it was erroneous to claim that Algonquian family hunting territories ever were, or were becoming, a kind of private property system.

I think its important to organize & summarize the passage (as below):

Dominant view (of property rights for Algonquian family territories): family hunting territories (form of private landownership) were found AFTER contact w/ Europeans.

Another view (of property rights for Algonquian family territories): family hunting territories (form of private landownership) PREDATE contact w/ Europeans.

Recent Fieldwork: New system conflicts w/ European concepts of private property. Debatable whether Algonquian family hunting territories ever were/were becoming, a kind of private property system


-----

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. provide an explanation for an unexpected phenomenon
- what unexpected phenomenon? where is the explanation for this said phenomenon?

B. suggest that a particular question has yet to be answered
- what question has yet to be answered?

C. present a new perspective on an issue
- yes. the new perspective is: was this land ever private?

D. defend a traditional view from attack
- there are multiple views, none really being attacked. 2 are introduced and 1 is said to question both those concepts.

E. reconcile opposing sides of an argument
- not attempting to reconcile opposing sides of an argument...instead, suggesting something else entirely.

-----

2. It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?

A. They evolved from multifamilial hunting territories.
- wrong. not mentioned until later.

B. They are an outgrowth of reciprocal land-use practices.
- same as "A".

C. They are based on certain spiritual beliefs.
- same as "A"

D. They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.
- yes, first highlighted text = dominant view which says exactly this.

E. They developed as a result of trade with non-Algonquian Indian tribes.
- never said in passage.

-----

3. According to the passage, proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and proponents of the view mentioned in the second highlighted portion of text ( see in "Another view claims...") both believe which of the following about Algonquian family hunting territories?

A. They are a form of private landownership.
- both only differ WHEN private landownership was actually "a thing" (before or after Europeans came into contact with them)

B. They are a form of community, rather than individual, landownership.
- neither view agrees with this

C. They were a form of private landownership prior to contact with Europeans.
- only one view agrees with this

D. They became a form of private landownership due to contact with Europeans.
- only one view agrees with this (opposite group who agrees with C)

E. They have replaced reciprocal practices relating to land use in Algonquian society
- never mentioned in the passage

Kudos please if you find this helpful :)
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2017, 21:43
JarvisR wrote:
Time taken 5:30 mins.
1.The primary purpose of the passage is to
C. present a new perspective on an issue
"View 1 , View 2 and View 3. In short, there are now strong reasons to think that it was erroneous to claim that Algonquian family hunting territories ever were, or were becoming, a kind of private property system."

2. It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?
D. They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.
"The dominant viewin recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians (a group of North American Indian tribes) before contact with Europeans but are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade"

3. According to the passage, proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and proponents of the view mentioned in the second highlighted portion of text ( see in "Another view claims...") both believe which of the following about Algonquian family hunting territories?
A They are a form of private landownership.
"The dominant viewin recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership....
.....
Another view claims that Algonquian family hunting territories predate contact with Europeans and are forms of private landownership"



Hi,
For 3) Isn't 1st view saying
The dominant view in recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians . Can you pls explain how A is correct? Am I missing something?
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2017, 06:26
LakerFan24 wrote:
What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting territories, and how did they come to be? The dominant view in recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians (a group of North American Indian tribes) before contact with Europeans but are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade, in combination with other factors such as ecological changes and consequent shifts in wildlife harvesting patterns. Another view claims that Algonquian family hunting territories predate contact with Europeans and are forms of private landownership by individuals and families. More recent fieldwork, however, has shown that individual and family rights to hunting territories form part of a larger land-use system of multifamilial hunting groups, that rights to hunting territories at this larger community level take precedence over those at the individual or family level, and that this system reflects a concept of spiritual and social reciprocity that conflicts with European concepts of private property. In short, there are now strong reasons to think that it was erroneous to claim that Algonquian family hunting territories ever were, or were becoming, a kind of private property system.

I think its important to organize & summarize the passage (as below):

Dominant view (of property rights for Algonquian family territories): family hunting territories (form of private landownership) were found AFTER contact w/ Europeans.

Another view (of property rights for Algonquian family territories): family hunting territories (form of private landownership) PREDATE contact w/ Europeans.

Recent Fieldwork: New system conflicts w/ European concepts of private property. Debatable whether Algonquian family hunting territories ever were/were becoming, a kind of private property system


-----

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. provide an explanation for an unexpected phenomenon
- what unexpected phenomenon? where is the explanation for this said phenomenon?

B. suggest that a particular question has yet to be answered
- what question has yet to be answered?

C. present a new perspective on an issue
- yes. the new perspective is: was this land ever private?

D. defend a traditional view from attack
- there are multiple views, none really being attacked. 2 are introduced and 1 is said to question both those concepts.

E. reconcile opposing sides of an argument
- not attempting to reconcile opposing sides of an argument...instead, suggesting something else entirely.

-----

2. It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?

A. They evolved from multifamilial hunting territories.
- wrong. not mentioned until later.

B. They are an outgrowth of reciprocal land-use practices.
- same as "A".

C. They are based on certain spiritual beliefs.
- same as "A"

D. They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.
- yes, first highlighted text = dominant view which says exactly this.

E. They developed as a result of trade with non-Algonquian Indian tribes.
- never said in passage.

-----

3. According to the passage, proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted portion of text and proponents of the view mentioned in the second highlighted portion of text ( see in "Another view claims...") both believe which of the following about Algonquian family hunting territories?

A. They are a form of private landownership.
- both only differ WHEN private landownership was actually "a thing" (before or after Europeans came into contact with them)

B. They are a form of community, rather than individual, landownership.
- neither view agrees with this

C. They were a form of private landownership prior to contact with Europeans.
- only one view agrees with this

D. They became a form of private landownership due to contact with Europeans.
- only one view agrees with this (opposite group who agrees with C)

E. They have replaced reciprocal practices relating to land use in Algonquian society
- never mentioned in the passage

Kudos please if you find this helpful :)

Hi,

For Q3, answer option C, the first view clearly says prior to contact with Europeans and the second view says "predate" contact with Europeans. So y is C the wrong answer ?

Thanks.

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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2017, 21:19
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Your explanations for these questions would be really helpful here. Got only one question correct. :(
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2017, 17:05
sadikabid27 wrote:
GMATNinja
GMATNinjaTwo
Your explanations for these questions would be really helpful here. Got only one question correct. :(

sadikabid27, we'd be happy to help, but can you let us know which two you missed and explain your thinking? The more information you give us the easier it will be for us to help.

Thanks!
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jan 2018, 00:04
In Q3, I didn't understand why A is the answer ?
It states that ' The dominant viewin recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians'
What I understood from this statement is Algonquians didn't have private landownership territories.
Please suggest where did I go wrong ?

Thanks in advance.
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jan 2018, 20:21
Shivikaa wrote:
In Q3, I didn't understand why A is the answer ?
It states that ' The dominant view in recent decades has been that family hunting territories, like other forms of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians'
What I understood from this statement is Algonquians didn't have private landownership territories.
Please suggest where did I go wrong ?

Thanks in advance.

We need to select an answer choice that would be believed by proponents of BOTH views. Let's start by looking at those two views:

1) Family hunting territories (FHTs), a form of private landownership, were not found among Algonquians before contact with Europeans. According to this view, FHTs "were the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade, in combination with other factors such as ecological changes and consequent shifts in wildlife harvesting patterns."
2) "Algonquian family hunting territories predate contact with Europeans and are forms of private landownership by individuals and families."

According to one view, FHTs came about AFTER contact with Europeans. According to the other view, FHTs PREDATE contact with Europeans. Choice (C) cannot be correct because only the second view says that FHTs PREDATE European contact. As for choice (D), proponents of both views might agree that FHTs are a form of private land ownership, but only the first view says that Algonquian FHTs resulted from European contact.

Choice (A), on the other hand, is consistent with both views. Even though Algonquians did not HAVE FHTs prior to European contact, proponents of the first view would still agree that FHTs are a form of private landownership. In other words, proponents of the first view would say that FHTs are a FORM of private landownership and that Algonquians did not have this form of private landownership prior to European contact.

I hope that helps!
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New post 28 Feb 2018, 08:43
Hi,

I have a doubt regarding Q.1. Although the 1st highlighted "view" does state that the territories developed as a result of contact with Europeans. but the second highlighted text clearly doesn't. Didn't understand why D is correct choice
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New post 01 Mar 2018, 15:38
prateek176 wrote:
Hi,

I have a doubt regarding Q.1. Although the 1st highlighted "view" does state that the territories developed as a result of contact with Europeans. but the second highlighted text clearly doesn't. Didn't understand why D is correct choice

This question is supposed to refer only to the first highlighted portion. Refer to this thread: https://gmatclub.com/forum/gmatprep-cha ... 76258.html
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2019, 03:39
GMATNinja

Can you please explain this question:

2. It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?
A. They evolved from multifamilial hunting territories.
B. They are an outgrowth of reciprocal land-use practices.
C. They are based on certain spiritual beliefs.
D. They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.
E. They developed as a result of trade with non-Algonquian Indian tribes.

I selected E --> "before contact with Europeans but are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade, in combination with other factors such as ecological changes and consequent shifts in wildlife harvesting patterns."

The change was more because of fur "TRADE".
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2019, 09:54
payalkhndlwl wrote:
GMATNinja

Can you please explain this question:

2. It can be inferred from the passage that proponents of the view mentioned in the first highlighted text believe which of the following about the origin of Algonquian family hunting territories?
A. They evolved from multifamilial hunting territories.
B. They are an outgrowth of reciprocal land-use practices.
C. They are based on certain spiritual beliefs.
D. They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.
E. They developed as a result of trade with non-Algonquian Indian tribes.

I selected E --> "before contact with Europeans but are the result of changes in Algonquian society brought about by the European-Algonquian fur trade, in combination with other factors such as ecological changes and consequent shifts in wildlife harvesting patterns."

The change was more because of fur "TRADE".

For question #1, take another look at the exact wording of (E):
Quote:
E. They developed as a result of trade with non-Algonquian Indian tribes.

This answer choice doesn't just focus on trade in general -- it makes a claim about trade between the Algonquian tribes and non-Algonquian Indian tribes.

The text that you've quoted talks about "European-Algonquian fur trade," or trade between the Algonquian tribe and Europeans. Proponents of the highlighted view believe that THIS trade led to the development of Algonquian family hunting areas.

Because (E) focuses on trade between the Algonquians and non-Algonquian tribes (which is not discussed at all in the passage), we cannot say that proponents of the highlighted view would believe the information in this answer choice. (E) is out.

Take another look at (D):
Quote:
D. They developed as a result of contact with Europeans.

This answer choice correctly identifies contact with Europeans as one factor cited in the highlighted view. (D) is the correct answer for question #1.

I hope that helps!
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Re: What kinds of property rights apply to Algonquian family hunting terri   [#permalink] 12 Jul 2019, 09:54
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