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When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2016, 07:05
cledgard wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.


I have nothing to add to the discussion; nevertheless, the argument has an error: where it says “The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase” it should say “The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not decrease.”

As it is written, there is the possibility that “the area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained” will decrease. Then the city could make up the tax revenue lost by reducing expenses in police protection and water line maintenance, without deteriorating them. So A would not be the answer.

So please, make the correction.



I got the question right exactly by asssuming that, otherwise it would not make sense. I actually think if this correction was made, the question would be much easier than the current 95% level shown here.
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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2016, 08:32
Ilomelin wrote:
cledgard wrote:
Vineetk wrote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.


I have nothing to add to the discussion; nevertheless, the argument has an error: where it says “The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase” it should say “The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not decrease.”

As it is written, there is the possibility that “the area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained” will decrease. Then the city could make up the tax revenue lost by reducing expenses in police protection and water line maintenance, without deteriorating them. So A would not be the answer.

So please, make the correction.



I got the question right exactly by asssuming that, otherwise it would not make sense. I actually think if this correction was made, the question would be much easier than the current 95% level shown here.


Yes, it seems to be a typographical error.... corrected. Thank you.

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2016, 02:40
I guess the question and answer is not clear enough. what is theory behind the answer regardless the details.

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 01 Dec 2016, 05:47
hatemnag wrote:
I guess the question and answer is not clear enough. what is theory behind the answer regardless the details.


Population decrease. So tax collected decrease. This collected tax is used for maintenance of various services in the city. However maintenance cost for police and water service does not decrease. So, if the police and water service does not deteriorate ( i.e. the expenditures in these services remain the same), then some other service would deteriorate ( i.e. expense in some other service would decrease).

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2016, 03:28
sayantanc2k wrote:
hatemnag wrote:
I guess the question and answer is not clear enough. what is theory behind the answer regardless the details.


Population decrease. So tax collected decrease. This collected tax is used for maintenance of various services in the city. However maintenance cost for police and water service does not decrease. So, if the police and water service does not deteriorate ( i.e. the expenditures in these services remain the same), then some other service would deteriorate ( i.e. expense in some other service would decrease).



Dear Sayantanc2k,

what type of question is this? Assumption? or Strengthen?

Thank you!

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2016, 01:48
Liza99 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
hatemnag wrote:
I guess the question and answer is not clear enough. what is theory behind the answer regardless the details.


Population decrease. So tax collected decrease. This collected tax is used for maintenance of various services in the city. However maintenance cost for police and water service does not decrease. So, if the police and water service does not deteriorate ( i.e. the expenditures in these services remain the same), then some other service would deteriorate ( i.e. expense in some other service would decrease).



Dear Sayantanc2k,

what type of question is this? Assumption? or Strengthen?

Thank you!


Neither - it is an inference type question.

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2017, 04:36
tk1tez7777 wrote:
gmatter0913 wrote:
Found this very tough. I am still not sure what is wrong in B and D. Can somebody explain in detail?


When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not increase. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

Lets have a look at B and D.
B first says that If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period….now be careful of these statement. If A happens B will happen. It doesn't mean that if B happens then A will also happen. The argument says that if the city's population declines than tax revenue declines…but it doesn't say other way. Option B says other way around. Just take a parallel example for better understanding…..If it rains 7 days continuously then city will be flooded( this is what argument says)…..it hasn't flooded so obviously it hasn't rained for continuously 7 days (this is option B says)…..it could be possible that city government made good arrangement to cope up with the rain….Flood is the consequence of the rain and rain is one of the reason for the flood it is not other way around.

D is very easy to eliminate. No where in the argument "other cities" are mentioned but option D does the comparison with other cities it is just out of scope. D is not supported by the argument either…we don't know whether the revenue loss can be covered with the raised taxes…its not mentioned in the argument…


Hi, Nice explanation for B and D as wrong choice. But I am not sure why A is necessarily to be true. Argument says, when population declines, then tax revenue declines. But, in that case number of people to be serviced will also be decreased. So in that case, Other services, which were initially given to 1000 people (for exp), are now given to 200 people (for exp). So even if, city council may have less funds and it needs to provide police and water services to the whole city area, it may cope up with the lost revenue by servicing(other services in this case) a very less number of people without even deteriorating the quality of service and eliminating the service.

I think A is too strong. A 'may be' or 'can be' like statement in case of option A would have been better. Are you sure that the source is correct?

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2017, 04:38
sayantanc2k wrote:
hatemnag wrote:
I guess the question and answer is not clear enough. what is theory behind the answer regardless the details.


Population decrease. So tax collected decrease. This collected tax is used for maintenance of various services in the city. However maintenance cost for police and water service does not decrease. So, if the police and water service does not deteriorate ( i.e. the expenditures in these services remain the same), then some other service would deteriorate ( i.e. expense in some other service would decrease).


Hi Sayantan,

I am not sure why A is necessarily to be true. Argument says, when population declines, then tax revenue declines. But, in that case number of people to be serviced will also be decreased. So in that case, Other services, which were initially given to 1000 people (for exp), are now given to 200 people (for exp). So even if, city council may have less funds and it needs to provide police and water services to the whole city area, it may cope up with the lost revenue by servicing(other services in this case) a very less number of people without even deteriorating the quality of service and eliminating the service.

I think A is too strong. A 'may be' or 'can be' like statement in case of option A would have been better. Are you sure that the source is correct?

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So just to sum up the discussion above, A is strong because of the premise in the stimulus that states that higher tax revenue would just further the problem, and with less tax revenue there will be other services not provided if water and policing is not deteriorating?

D looks too good to be true on a problem like this. I still went with it although had a feeling it was wrong because we don't know the behavior to other cities.

Please clarify my reasoning if I am wrong.


D is wrong because the last sentence in the argument “Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.” tells us that raising taxes is NOT an option and we should take it as a premise namely that we can't question it.

yet in A, I can infer the funding for other survice must be reduced, but a reduce in funding doesn't neccessrily mean that other services will deteriorate or be eliminated. maybe the costs of the services just go down. plz clarify. :)


For the services for which the expenses are proportional to the no. of people, the expenses per person would not go down proportionally more than the tax received per person because of drop in population. If it did (illogical), only then your reasoning would be valid. Take the following hypothetical case for understanding:

Suppose there are 4 services and previously per person expenses were equal to per person taxes:
1. Service 1: expenses proportional to no. of people served
2. Service 2 : expenses proportional to no. of people served
3. Water line maintenance: fixed
4. Police protection: fixed

If the no. of people goes down, then the per person expense becomes higher than the per person taxes (because 3 and 4 are fixed expenses). Therefore if 3 and 4 do not deteriorate, 1 and 2 would.

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New post 05 Feb 2017, 07:18
Can anyone please explain over answer choice B.

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New post 06 Feb 2017, 05:43
techiesam wrote:
Can anyone please explain over answer choice B.


It is not stated in the passage that raising tax rates is the ONLY reason for population decrease. There could be other reasons that lead to decline in population. Hence Option B is wrong.

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2017, 17:21
The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
The correct answer as we are only assesing the current situation and and predict the possible outcome not making further plans like other choices.

B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
The services will certainly decline in quality as already mentioned in the argument.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
There may be other services apart from the police and water services but its not necessary that these services will be the once deteriorate the max.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
The planning is not discussed and the current situation is discussed.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.
The planning is not discused and the future effects of that planning is clearly out of scope and we need to assess the currnt situation only.

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2017, 21:44
hi
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please shed some light on answer option B , although i have chose A BUT NOT CONVINCED WITH OE PROVIDED ABOVE , I AM HAVING A DOUBT REGARDING OPTION A THAT HOW CAN WE ASSUME OUT OF THE STIMULUS AS IT IS AN INFERENCE QUE!
KINDLY EXPLAIN

THANKS

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New post 28 Feb 2017, 00:28
nks2611, are you referring to the explanation by sayantanc2k? There's no assumption involved there. The argument tells us that if tax rates go up, more people will be enticed to leave. But that doesn't mean that if tax rates DON'T go up, people WON'T leave. They may still leave for other reasons, as Sayantan points out. This doesn't rely an assumption, but rather shows that B relies on one! For B to be right, we have to assume that people only leave town to avoid higher taxes. In logic, this is know as an illegal negation: If we are told a-->b, we can't infer NOT a --> NOT b.
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By the way, if anyone is trying to make sense of this argument without looking at the original post, beware of the major typo! It appears that the original poster accidentally wrote "increase" at the end of the second sentence, when it should have said "decrease." This actually ruins the argument! The error was corrected, but subsequent posts quoting the question were not corrected. They still have the confusing "increase" at the end of the second sentence!
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New post 28 Feb 2017, 00:37
thanks sir , really convinced with your explanation

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New post 22 Apr 2017, 15:38
B,E are out for sure. It is because E distorts the meaning of the passage, and B gives information that we cannot infer from the passage.
In my opinion, D is wrong because the information can be right or wrong.
I chose C because A mentions "other services"

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New post 26 Apr 2017, 23:43
yup, the correct answer should be A. If ones read carefully, the word "such as" indicates that there are many services

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Re: When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2017, 17:38
Vineetk wrote:
When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not decrease. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.
B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period.
C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly.
D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities.
E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.

It is not D or E because by a lower tax rate it may not be possible to retain the population. The decline may be for other reasons and may continue regardless of the tax rate The tax rate only makes the problem worse. In the case of D, the tax rates are still higher and according to the argument any tax rate higher than what it was, will only make the situation worse.

A is correct because police protection and water line maintenance are something for which a constant amount need to be spent. So if they do not deteriorate or in other words the money spent on them are maintained, the other services will automatically suffer because of decline in tax revenue.
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When a city experiences a sharp decline in population, the city's tax revenues, which pay for such city services as police protection and maintenance of water lines, also decrease. The area to be policed and the number and length of the water lines to be maintained, however, do not decrease. Attempting to make up the tax revenue lost by raising tax rates is not feasible, since higher tax rates would cause even more residents to leave.

The information given most strongly supports which of the following general claims?

A. If, in a city with sharply declining population, police protection and water line maintenance do not deteriorate, some other service previously provided by the city will deteriorate or be eliminated.

B. If a city's tax rates are held stable over a period of time, neither the population nor the levels of city services provided will tend to decline over that period. Not relevant

C. If a city's population declines sharply, police protection and water line maintenance are the services that deteriorate most immediately and most markedly. Can not be inferred properly

D. A city that suffers revenue losses because of a sharp decline in population can make up some of the lost tax revenue by raising tax rates, provided the city's tax rates are low in relation to those of other cities. Out of scope

E. A city that is losing residents because tax rates are perceived as too high by those residents can reverse this population trend by bringing its tax rates down to a more moderate level.
Not necessarily true
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