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# When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec

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When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2013, 02:37
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Question 1
00:00

Question Stats:

60% (01:40) correct 40% (00:38) wrong based on 121

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Question 2
00:00

Question Stats:

37% (01:17) correct 63% (00:14) wrong based on 133

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Question 3
00:00

Question Stats:

73% (01:15) correct 27% (00:09) wrong based on 115

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When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejected, thereby creating a hole in the planet and a local deficit of mass. This deficit shows up as a gravity anomaly: the removal of material that has been ejected to make the hole results in an area in slightly lower gravity than surrounding areas. One would therefore expect that all of the large multi-ring impact basins on the surface of earth's moon would show such negative gravity anomalies, since they are, essentially, large holes in lunar surface. Yet data collected in 1994 by the Clemenstine spacecraft show that many of these Clementine basins have no anomalously low gravity and some even have anomalously high gravity. Scientists speculate that early in lunar history, when large impactors struck the moon's surface, causing millions of cubic kilometers of crustal debris to be ejected, denser material from the moon's mantle rose up beneath the impactors almost immediately, compensating for the ejected material and thus leaving no gravity anomaly in the resulting basin. Later, however, as moon grew cooler and less elastic, rebound from large impactors would have been only partial and incomplete. Thus today such gravitational compensation probably would not occur: the outer layer of moon is too cold and stiff.

1. According to the passage, the gravitational compensation referred to in the highlighted text is caused by which of the following?
A) A deficit of mass resulting from the creation of hole in lunar surface
B) The presence of material from the impactor in the debris created by its impact
C) The gradual cooling and stiffening of the Moon's outer surface
D) The ejection of massive amounts of debris from the moon's crust
E) The rapid upwelling of material from the lunar mantle

OA:

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

2. The Passage suggests that if the scientists mentioned in the highlighted text are correct in their speculations, the large multi-ring impact basins on the Moon with the most significant negative gravity anomalies probably
A) were not formed early in the Moon's history
B) were not formed by the massive ejection of crustal debris
C) are closely surrounded by other impact basins with anomalously low gravity
D) were created by the impact of multiple large impactors
E) were formed when the moon was relatively elastic

OA:

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

3. The passage is primarily concerned with
A) analyzing data from a 1994 exploration of lunar surface
B) reconciling two opposing theories about the origin of lunar impact basins
C) presenting a possible explanation of a puzzling finding about lunar impact basins
D) discussing how impact basins on the Moon's surface are formed
E) examining the claim that the moon's impact basins show negative gravity anomalies

OA:

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

Kindly provide explanations for 3rd Question. I selected E.
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA

Last edited by Skywalker18 on 30 Aug 2016, 01:01, edited 2 times in total.
Highlighted appropriate text
If you have any questions
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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20 Dec 2013, 04:46
Hello idinuv,
The passage starts by discussing how impacted bodies in space show gravitational anomalies.
It then discusses the moon and its many craters - it then delves into explaining WHY the moon does not exhibit these negative anomalies.

Option C is correct as the passage does provide possible explanation of a puzzling finding about lunar impact basins (puzzling because the moon has lot of impacted areas, which should ideally show negative gravity anomalies, yet does not show any negative lunar anomalies)

Option E is wrong since the Moon DOES NOT show negative gravity anomalies.

Hope that clarifies things!

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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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24 Dec 2013, 20:28
Can anyone explain the answers for first and second question?
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2014, 02:31
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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13 Jan 2014, 06:44
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vijayann wrote:
Can anyone explain the answers for first and second question?

The Scope for Question 1 rests here " Scientists speculate that early in lunar history, when large impactors struck the moon's surface, causing millions of cubic kilometers of crustal debris to be ejected...."
This says that huge amounts of dense debris is ejected upwards. Option E is therefore correct.

Question 2
From the information (scientist's speculation) in the passage we know that if large impacts happened in the early stages, the impact areas would have quickly been covered with mass ejected from the mantle. Therefore the inference that can be made is that these ring shaped craters were formed much later.
Therefore Option A is correct.
Hope that helps,
Ajeeth
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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30 Mar 2014, 08:02
Since I marked answer option for Q3 wrong , I want to discuss it.

I marked (C) and in my opinion it is wrong because of the words 'origin of lunar impact basins', when the author is concentrated on the gravity of the holes created in the impact and not the origin.

Please correct me if I am wrong.

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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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29 Sep 2014, 03:06
1. According to the passage, the gravitational compensation referred to in the highlighted text is caused by which of the following?
A) A deficit of mass resulting from the creation of hole in lunar surface
E) The rapid upwelling of material from the lunar mantle

IMO: Upwelling of the material itself is gravitational compensation. So what caused this is because of deficit of mass.
hole caused deficit -> deficit caused upwelling -> upwelling of material (Gravitational compensation)

CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
vijayann wrote:
Can anyone explain the answers for first and second question?

The Scope for Question 1 rests here " Scientists speculate that early in lunar history, when large impactors struck the moon's surface, causing millions of cubic kilometers of crustal debris to be ejected...."
This says that huge amounts of dense debris is ejected upwards. Option E is therefore correct.

Question 2
From the information (scientist's speculation) in the passage we know that if large impacts happened in the early stages, the impact areas would have quickly been covered with mass ejected from the mantle. Therefore the inference that can be made is that these ring shaped craters were formed much later.
Therefore Option A is correct.
Hope that helps,
Ajeeth
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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30 Sep 2014, 06:54
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Hey!
Passages like these are tricky because they are so full of details that keeping track of the main idea can become disorienting.
And if you rely on memory of the passage from the first phase of reading alone - while answering the questions, chances are that you will probably pick some option that "sounds good" or "looks good" rather than the option that IS substantiated by the passage!

Let's look at the passage and see what parts were important and needed focus

When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejected, thereby creating a hole in the planet and a local deficit of mass. This deficit shows up as a gravity anomaly: the removal of material that has been ejected to make the hole results in an area in slightly lower gravity than surrounding areas. One would therefore expect that all of the large multi-ring impact basins on the surface of earth's moon would show such negative gravity anomalies, since they are, essentially, large holes in lunar surface. Yet data collected in 1994 by the Clemenstine spacecraft show that many of these Clementine basins have no anomalously low gravity and some even have anomalously high gravity. Scientists speculate that early in lunar history, when large impactors struck the moon's surface, causing millions of cubic kilometers of crustal debris to be ejected, denser material from the moon's mantle rose up beneath the impactors almost immediately, compensating for the ejected material and thus leaving no gravity anomaly in the resulting basin. Later, however, as moon grew cooler and less elastic, rebound from large impactors would have been only partial and incomplete. Thus today such gravitational compensation probably would not occur: the outer layer of moon is too cold and stiff.

The passage talks about a phenomenon ; shows an example where this does not hold good - and gives explanation for that.
That's pretty much all the passage is concerned about

Ajeeth
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2015, 04:10
CrackVerbalGMAT wrote:
Hey!
Passages like these are tricky because they are so full of details that keeping track of the main idea can become disorienting.
And if you rely on memory of the passage from the first phase of reading alone - while answering the questions, chances are that you will probably pick some option that "sounds good" or "looks good" rather than the option that IS substantiated by the passage!

Let's look at the passage and see what parts were important and needed focus

When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejected, thereby creating a hole in the planet and a local deficit of mass. This deficit shows up as a gravity anomaly: the removal of material that has been ejected to make the hole results in an area in slightly lower gravity than surrounding areas. One would therefore expect that all of the large multi-ring impact basins on the surface of earth's moon would show such negative gravity anomalies, since they are, essentially, large holes in lunar surface. Yet data collected in 1994 by the Clemenstine spacecraft show that many of these Clementine basins have no anomalously low gravity and some even have anomalously high gravity. Scientists speculate that early in lunar history, when large impactors struck the moon's surface, causing millions of cubic kilometers of crustal debris to be ejected, denser material from the moon's mantle rose up beneath the impactors almost immediately, compensating for the ejected material and thus leaving no gravity anomaly in the resulting basin. Later, however, as moon grew cooler and less elastic, rebound from large impactors would have been only partial and incomplete. Thus today such gravitational compensation probably would not occur: the outer layer of moon is too cold and stiff.

The passage talks about a phenomenon ; shows an example where this does not hold good - and gives explanation for that.
That's pretty much all the passage is concerned about

Ajeeth
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Thanks Crack Verbal. Can anyone of you CrackVerbalGMAT kinjiGC manishkhare Harley1980

1. According to the passage, the gravitational compensation referred to in the highlighted text is caused by which of the following?
A) A deficit of mass resulting from the creation of hole in lunar surface
B) The presence of material from the impactor in the debris created by its impact
C) The gradual cooling and stiffening of the Moon's outer surface
D) The ejection of massive amounts of debris from the moon's crust
E) The rapid upwelling of material from the lunar mantle

I always have an issue dealing with this problem.

Any help is appreciated
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2015, 05:42
Hello Steinbeck,
From the passage: "when large impactors struck the moon's surface, causing millions of cubic kilometers of crustal debris to be ejected, denser material from the moon's mantle rose up beneath the impactors almost immediately, compensating for the ejected material and thus leaving no gravity anomaly in the resulting basin."

Gravitational compensation refers to the above mentioned phenomenon.

Later, however, as moon grew cooler and less elastic, rebound from large impactors would have been only partial and incomplete. Thus today such gravitational compensation probably would not occur: the outer layer of moon is too cold and stiff.

So over a period of time rebounds from the Moon's surface ,did not cause huge debris to be ejected. Consequently ,denser material did not rose from the crust.

Look at the Options .Only Option E refers to it .
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2015, 05:45
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If you come across a dense passage ,avoid the technical jargon as much as possible. Focus more on the author's intent .Look at the question first and then read the passage .
Answering the question will be easier
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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22 Dec 2015, 16:37
could someone please explain Q3? I picked B... not sure why its incorrect
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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11 May 2016, 10:59
Hi,

Thank you for posting such a good question but no explanation of answer choices given . Please help me understand how 2E and 3D are incorrect. I marked E for Q.2 and D for Q.3 . Appreciate your help in advance.

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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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24 Jul 2016, 14:09
These passages are very hard with the time constraint. For detail inference questions, if you look too much before the highlighted sections then you may be over thinking however in other cases that is not the case. Purpose questions for technical passages such as this one is not necessary hard, but the detailed questions are really tricky. Sometimes you just have to take an educated guess and move on. These passages also takes a huge mental drain as well.
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2016, 01:06
Took 4 mins 30 seconds to answer , including 2 mins 10 seconds to read
-The author explains how local deficits of mass are created on planets or on the moon
- The author then explains why certain multi ring impacts on the moon do not show properties they are expected to show

1."denser material from the moon's mantle rose up beneath the impactors almost immediately, compensating for the ejected material and thus leaving no gravity anomaly in the resulting basin"

2.
"Scientists speculate that early in lunar history "....
"Thus today such gravitational compensation probably would not occur"

3.
The author clearly wants to present an explanation on why the lunar surface does not exhibit certain expected properties. Hence option C is the best answer.
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Re: When a large body strikes a planet or moon, material is ejec   [#permalink] 30 Aug 2016, 01:06
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