It is currently 14 Dec 2017, 05:29

Decision(s) Day!:

CHAT Rooms | Wharton R1 | Stanford R1 | Tuck R1 | Ross R1 | Haas R1


Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of S

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 12 Apr 2015
Posts: 3

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 0

Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 31 Jul 2016, 15:50
DmitryFarber wrote:
The passage states that it was only in the early 1930's that this legislation allowed the Brotherhood to become recognized. We don't know exactly when the legislation passed, but it seems most likely that it was passed in the the early 1930's (sometime between 1930 and 1934). I suppose it is theoretically possible that the legislation was passed earlier, but there's no indication of that, nor any reason to suspect that the legislation was passed long before it went into effect.

Also, don't read too much into the present participle. It simply serves as a modifier. If the sentence said "legislation that prohibited," the meaning would be the same.


Hi Dmitry,

Thank you for the explanation.
I'm still a bit confused, but I guess that since the question stem says "The passage suggests", the argument doesn't have to deliver a clear fact.
Therefore, as you wrote, "theoretical possibility" is enough, right?

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 0

Expert Post
Manhattan Prep Instructor
User avatar
S
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 1148

Kudos [?]: 1263 [0], given: 30

Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 31 Jul 2016, 23:38
Yes, this is an inference question, so we are looking for an answer that is not directly stated in the passage. However, our answer should be more than a theoretical possibility. I was using that phrase to refer to the unlikely idea that the legislation was passed and took effect in 1920's, but only made the difference the author described until the 1930's. This is theoretically possible, but there is absolutely no reason to believe that it is true, and in fact it would be rather deceptive of the author to describe the situation the way they did if that was what happened. An inference should still be clearly supported by the passage, and this one is. If it wasn't until the 1930's that this change happened, then before the 1930's, things still ran the old way.
_________________


Dmitry Farber | Manhattan GMAT Instructor | New York


Manhattan GMAT Discount | Manhattan GMAT Course Reviews | View Instructor Profile |
Manhattan GMAT Reviews

Kudos [?]: 1263 [0], given: 30

Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 11 Jun 2017
Posts: 79

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 8

CAT Tests
Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of S [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 26 Nov 2017, 12:10
vscid wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 10th Edition, 2003

Practice Question
Question No.: RC 107 ~ 112
Page: 354

When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, he began a ten-year battle to win recognition from the Pullman Company, the largest private employer of Black people in the United States and the company that controlled the railroad industry's sleeping car and parlor service. In 1935 the Brotherhood became the first Black union recognized by a major corporation. Randolph's efforts in the battle helped transform the attitude of Black workers toward unions and toward themselves as an identifiable group; eventually, Randolph helped to weaken organized labor's antagonism toward Black workers.

In the Pullman contest Randolph faced formidable obstacles.The first was Black workers' understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership. An additional obstacle was the union that Pullman itself had formed, which weakened support among Black workers for an independent entity.

The Brotherhood possessed a number of advantages, however, including Randolph's own tactical abilities. In 1928 he took the bold step of threatening a strike against Pullman. Such a threat, on a national scale, under Black leadership, helped replace the stereotype of the Black worker as servant with the image of the Black worker as wage earner. In addition, the porters' very isolation aided the Brotherhood. Porters were scattered throughout the country, sleeping in dormitories in Black communities; their segregated life protected the union's internal communications from interception. That the porters were a homogeneous group working for a single employer with a single labor policy, thus sharing the same grievances from city to city, also strengthened the Brotherhood and encouraged racial identity and solidarity as well. But it was only in the early 1930's that federal legislation prohibiting a company from maintaining its own unions with company money eventually allowed the Brotherhood to become recognized as the porters' representative.

Not content with this triumph, Randolph brought the Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor, where it became the equal of the Federation's 105 other unions. He reasoned that as a member union, the Brotherhood would be in a better position to exert pressure on member unions that practiced race restrictions. Such restrictions were eventually found unconstitutional in 1944.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

1. According to the passage, by 1935 the skepticism of Black workers toward unions was

(A) unchanged except among Black employees of railroad-related industries
(B) reinforced by the actions of the Pullman Company’s union
(C) mitigated by the efforts of Randolph
(D) weakened by the opening up of many unions to Black workers
(E) largely alleviated because of the policies of the American Federation of Labor


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

2. In using the word “understandable” (line 14), the author most clearly conveys

(A) sympathy with attempts by the Brotherhood between 1925 and 1935 to establish an independent union
(B) concern that the obstacles faced by Randolph between 1925 and 1935 were indeed formidable
(C) ambivalence about the significance of unions to most Black workers in the 1920’s
(D) appreciation of the attitude of many Black workers in the 1920’s toward unions
(E) regret at the historical attitude of unions toward Black workers


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the response of porters to the Pullman Company’s own union?

(A) Few porters ever joined this union.
(B) Some porters supported this union before 1935.
(C) Porters, more than other Pullman employees, enthusiastically supported this union.
(D) The porters’ response was most positive after 1935.
(E) The porters’ response was unaffected by the general skepticism of Black workers concerning unions.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

4. The passage suggests that if the grievances of porters in one part of the United States had been different from those of porters in another part of the country, which of the following would have been the case?

(A) It would have been more difficult for the Pullman Company to have had a single labor policy.
(B) It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to control its channels of communication.
(C) It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to build its membership.
(D) It would have been easier for the Pullman Company's union to attract membership.
(E) It would have been easier for the Brotherhood to threaten strikes.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

5. The passage suggests that in the 1920's a company in the United States was able to

(A) use its own funds to set up a union
(B) require its employees to join the company's own union
(C) develop a single labor policy for all its employees with little employee dissent
(D) pressure its employees to contribute money to maintain the company's own union
(E) use its resources to prevent the passage of federal legislation that would have facilitated the formation of independent unions


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

6. The passage supplies information concerning which of the following matters related to Randolph?

(A) The steps he took to initiate the founding of the Brotherhood
(B) His motivation for bringing the Brotherhood into the American Federation of Labor
(C) The influence he had on the passage of legislation overturning race restrictions in 1944
(D) The influence he had on the passage of legislation to bar companies from financing their own unions
(E) The success he and the Brotherhood had in influencing the policies of the other unions in the American Federation of Labor




Hi mikemcgarry,

Request you to help with Q2 and 3 here.

Thanks :-)

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 8

Expert Post
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
B
Joined: 30 Oct 2017
Posts: 31

Kudos [?]: 21 [0], given: 4

Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of S [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 27 Nov 2017, 21:28
Poorvasha wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry,

Request you to help with Q2 and 3 here.

Thanks :-)


Hi Poorvasha! Carolyn from Magoosh here - I'll jump in for Mike :-)

Let's start with question 2. First, let's take a look at the context:

The first was Black workers' understandable skepticism toward unions, which had historically barred Black workers from membership.

Here, the author tells us that unions historically prevented Black workers from being members. And so, the Black workers were skeptical of the unions, for these reasons. The author says that this is understandable. So the author understands why the Black workers are skeptical of the unions -- or in other words, the author appreciates the skepticism of the Black workers. This matches with answer choice D.

Now, for question 3, the relevant part of the passage is here:

An additional obstacle was the union that Pullman itself had formed, which weakened support among Black workers for an independent entity.

If the union that Pullman formed weakened support among Black workers, that means that at least some of the workers supported this union. Otherwise, this wouldn't be an obstacle. So there had to be some workers who supported this union before 1935. This fits with option B.

Does that make sense? If you'd like more explanation about something here, let me know! :-)
_________________

Magoosh Test Prep

Image

Image

Kudos [?]: 21 [0], given: 4

Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 05 Dec 2014
Posts: 168

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 146

CAT Tests
Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of S [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Dec 2017, 11:39
DmitryFarber wrote:
pininfarina, watch out for the time frame. The question asks about the 1920's, but the legislation wasn't passed until the early 1930's. This allows us to know for sure that the practice of creating unions with company money was still legal throughout the 1920's.


Hi DmitryFarber,
Can you kindly explain the answer to the 4th question?
The passage suggests that if the grievances of porters in one part of the United States had been different from those of porters in another part of the country, which of the following would have been the case?

(A) It would have been more difficult for the Pullman Company to have had a single labor policy.
(B) It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to control its channels of communication.
(C) It would have been more difficult for the Brotherhood to build its membership.
(D) It would have been easier for the Pullman Company's union to attract membership.
(E) It would have been easier for the Brotherhood to threaten strikes.

I chose B instead of C as it is mentioned in the passage that their segregated life protected the union's internal communications from interception.
I did not get the concept of membership in option C.

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 146

Re: When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of S   [#permalink] 04 Dec 2017, 11:39

Go to page   Previous    1   2   3   [ 45 posts ] 

Display posts from previous: Sort by

When A. Philip Randolph assumed the leadership of the Brotherhood of S

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.