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# When he had run for mayor of Cleveland in 1968, Carl Stokes

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When he had run for mayor of Cleveland in 1968, Carl Stokes [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2005, 03:19
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75% (01:31) correct 25% (01:05) wrong based on 3 sessions

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When he had run for mayor of Cleveland in 1968, Carl Stokes won the election, proving that an African American candidate can be elected in a city in which African Americans constitute a minority of the population.

(A) When he had run for mayor of Cleveland in 1968,

(B) He ran for mayor of Cleveland in 1968, and

(C) Running, in 1968, for mayor of Cleveland,

(D) When he ran for mayor of Cleveland in 1968,

(E) In 1968 he had run for mayor of Cleveland, and
If you have any questions
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08 Apr 2005, 04:26
I'd go with C.

Running and proving are the same form.
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08 Apr 2005, 05:46
I think the OA is A and here is why:

a past perfect tense is needed here because 2 things happened in the past

- he ran for Mayor
- Won the Election.

You want to show that "he ran for Mayor" happened BEFORE he "Won the Election".

All other sentences use simple past "RAN" [B, D]. Therefore B and D are eliminated.

C is eliminated because of misplaced modifier issues - Running, in 1968, Carl Stokes won the election?

E: is Wrong [althought not 100% percent sure]. Somehow "When" is needed for the sentence to make sense. Also the conjuction "and" isnt used correctly.

If someone could explain why E is wrong that would be great.
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08 Apr 2005, 05:49
A for me.
In C running can't be separated from "for Major"
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08 Apr 2005, 05:51
gmataquaguy wrote:
If someone could explain why E is wrong that would be great.

In 1968 he had run for mayor of Cleveland, and Carl Stokes won the election, proving that an African American candidate can be elected in a city in which African Americans constitute a minority of the population.

In my opinion, That's simply awful
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08 Apr 2005, 06:01
Well i realize E is a bad answer [by the way it sounds] but the Key is to understand why its a bad answer beyond "the way its sounds" bad.

Do you have a grammatical reason to boot out AC E?

I didnt.....besides saying it sounds awful. An explanation for why E is "grammatically" wrong would be nice.
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08 Apr 2005, 06:01
What is wrong with D?
He must have won the elections when he ran for it right?
Nothing states running for the elections and winning it occured at different times.
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08 Apr 2005, 06:11
Folaa3 wrote:
What is wrong with D?
He must have won the elections when he ran for it right?
Nothing states running for the elections and winning it occured at different times.

I had the same doubt on the usage of run (since I'm not a native speaker). However, I believe you can run for the elections but nonetheless you can lose them. So it is more likely that they are not happening at the same time.
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08 Apr 2005, 09:33
"A"

In "E", the first modifier shud modify the noun right after the comma, here the placement of the noun is incorrect. "He" here is ambigouos I beleive, the sentence seems to be saying that "X" ran for election and "Y"
won the election.
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08 Apr 2005, 09:48
banerjeea_98 wrote:
"A"

"He" here is ambigouos I beleive, the sentence seems to be saying that "X" ran for election and "Y"
won the election.

Good Call!!!

Could you elaborate on what you said here "In "E", the first modifier shud modify the noun right after the comma, here the placement of the noun is incorrect."

first modifier = In 1968 he had run for mayor of Cleveland??

Noun = <and> Carl Stokes --> Noun but "and" precedes the noun??
or

first modifier = In 1968?
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08 Apr 2005, 10:55
pb_india wrote:
When he had run for mayor of Cleveland in 1968, Carl Stokes won the election, proving that an African American candidate can be elected in a city in which African Americans constitute a minority of the population.

(A) When he had run for mayor of Cleveland in 1968,

(B) He ran for mayor of Cleveland in 1968, and

(C) Running, in 1968, for mayor of Cleveland,

(D) When he ran for mayor of Cleveland in 1968,

(E) In 1968 he had run for mayor of Cleveland, and

I go with D.

'he' and 'Carl Stokes ' are refer to the same person. Therefore, we wouldn't say like B and E.

(C) 'Running for' is split, so strange.
(A) perfect tense means continue for a while, there is no need for past perfect tense.
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08 Apr 2005, 13:02
Hong Hu - We expect an explanation from experts like you:) and not just agreement on a Letter.

Anyways, OA is "D" and this is from Kaplan. Although their explanation is lousy and hence I needed to know the reason of selecting D.
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08 Apr 2005, 13:22
hmm....doesn't "D" mean that the election was won at the same time as he ran for the office. One has to run for mayor before he gets elected, I think past perfect is better, but it's Kaplan, so never know.
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08 Apr 2005, 13:46
pb_india wrote:
Hong Hu - We expect an explanation from experts like you:) and not just agreement on a Letter.

I evaded the explanation part because I didn't know how to explain ...

I think when you see "in 1989" that almost always mean you need to use past tense, because it is refering to a specific time in the past, not a duration. Isn't it right?

Also, how can you win an election after it is over? You win a race when you run it, but you get your medals after you have won it. I ate an apple as a desert when I went to dinner yesterday. Eating the apple is part of the dinner, not after the dinner was over.
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08 Apr 2005, 15:52
HongHu, Could you elaborate on why not "past perfect" tense.

I mean in 1989 you could have 2 events happen: firstly - the mayor ran for office and secondly the won. However he ran first and then won. Therefore to show the fact that he ran first and then won woudlnt past perfect make sense here?
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08 Apr 2005, 16:12
HongHu wrote:
pb_india wrote:
Hong Hu - We expect an explanation from experts like you:) and not just agreement on a Letter.

I evaded the explanation part because I didn't know how to explain ...

I think when you see "in 1989" that almost always mean you need to use past tense, because it is refering to a specific time in the past, not a duration. Isn't it right?

Also, how can you win an election after it is over? You win a race when you run it, but you get your medals after you have won it. I ate an apple as a desert when I went to dinner yesterday. Eating the apple is part of the dinner, not after the dinner was over.

well, if you prefer "run for election" and "win" happen together, why not use participle? "when he was running for mayor...." ??
I am not convinced by D, I still think A is better choice.
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08 Apr 2005, 18:01
Here, running for Mayor and winning an election is happening in the same year 1968. I don't see any reason to use past participle as there is no sequence of events.
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08 Apr 2005, 20:53
The main point is that winning the election is part of running for Mayor (the end of it, actually), in my opinion, as eating the apple is part of my dinner in my example. There isn't an on-going process that needs to be stressed, nor a process that has already been completed. You don't nee to say "I ate an apple for desert when I was having my dinner yesterday", and you can't say "I ate an apple for desert when I had had my dinner yesterday".
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11 Apr 2005, 21:10
Hi,

the PAST PERFECT TENSE indicates that an action was completed at some point in the past before something else happened.

In this question, 'run for' and 'won' two actions happend at the same time.

There is no reason to use the past perfect tense. Therefore, A and E are inappropriate.
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11 Apr 2005, 21:49
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On the GMAT, you should only use the perfect tense (present/past) only when it's justified to do so (that is, you want to show 2 actions taking place at two distinct points on the time line).
Other than that, you should stick to basic tenses. (present,past,future)

Now look at the sentence again. Although its right to say he ran for mayorship, then won, thus proving that an African American candidate can win an election, it is not critical to seperate them here with the perfect tenses. In this sentence, all we want to do is say "Hey, here's an African American, he ran for an election and he won, so you can't say black americans can't win elections"
All these can be represented with the simple tense in (D).
11 Apr 2005, 21:49

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