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# When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway

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VP
Joined: 30 Oct 2003
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Location: NewJersey USA
When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2004, 13:16
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Difficulty:

75% (hard)

Question Stats:

63% (02:02) correct 37% (01:54) wrong based on 120 sessions

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When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway are issued, they are issued in terms of the number of pounds each chemical that can be discharged into the waterway per day. These figures, calculated separately for each chemical for which a permit is issued, are based on an estimate of the effect of the dilution of the chemical by the amount of water flowing through the waterway. The waterway is therefore protected against being adversely affected by chemicals discharged under the permits.

The argument depends on the assumption that

(A) relatively harmless chemicals do not interact with each other in the water to form harmful compounds

(B) there is a swift flow of water in the waterway that ensures rapid dispersion of chemicals discharged

(C) There are no chemicals for which discharge into waterways is entirely prohibited

(D) those who receive the permits do not always discharge the entire quantity of chemicals that the permits allow

(E) the danger of chemical pollution of waterways is to be evaluated in terms of human health only and not in terms of the health of both human beings and wildlife
Manager
Joined: 29 Aug 2003
Posts: 173
Location: MI
Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2004, 07:54
1
anandnk wrote:

As per the argument the pollution is kept under control by limiting the discharge to such an amount that it is diluted to an harmless extent. The question does not ask for weakening or strengthening. If the chemical is not diluted then it is not serving the purpose. This has to be the assumption to connect the conclusion and premise.
A is out of scope though it would sound logical for a question "which one of the following if true would weaken authors argument"

B tells that whatever the authorities expect is indeed happening.

The best way to find out an assumption is to negate it.

Lets negate B.
We get -
The flow of water is not enough to "disperse" the chemicals.

But the important point to note is that the argument is based on "dilution" not "dispersion". A chemical can be diluted in stagnant water. Can't it ?
So, even if you negate Option B the argument still stands.

Now, lets negate A.
We get -
The chemicals interact with each other and create other harmful chemicals.

Even if there is flow of water, or even if the chemicals are diluted, if the chemicals can potentially interact to form harmful compounds then the argument falls apart. Doesn't it ?
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Joined: 27 Sep 2019
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Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2019, 22:59
1
Dilution will happen only if the quantity of water is continuously increased with the discharge of chemicals in the waterway. It means that the concentration of water should always be high in the mixture.

Senior Manager
Joined: 05 May 2003
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Location: Aus
Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2004, 15:03
I am also getting A by process of elimination.
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Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2004, 15:10
anandnk wrote:
19. When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway are issued, they are issued in terms of the number of pounds each chemical that can be discharged into the waterway per day. These figures, calculated separately for each chemical for which a permit is issued, are based on an estimate of the effect of the dilution of the chemical by the amount of water flowing through the waterway. The waterway is therefore protected against being adversely affected by chemicals discharged under the permits.

The argument depends on the assumption that

(A) relatively harmless chemicals do not interact with each other in the water to form harmful compounds

(B) there is a swift flow of water in the waterway that ensures rapid dispersion of chemicals discharged

(C) those who receive the permits do not always discharge the entire quantity of chemicals that the permits allow

(D) the danger of chemical pollution of waterways is to be evaluated in terms of human health only and not in terms of the health of both human beings and wildlife

I get A

B was tempting but it was already stated in the passage so it is not an assumption.
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Joined: 23 Aug 2003
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Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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07 Jan 2004, 17:44
Agree with the group ...A

Vivek
VP
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Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2004, 07:15

As per the argument the pollution is kept under control by limiting the discharge to such an amount that it is diluted to an harmless extent. The question does not ask for weakening or strengthening. If the chemical is not diluted then it is not serving the purpose. This has to be the assumption to connect the conclusion and premise.
A is out of scope though it would sound logical for a question "which one of the following if true would weaken authors argument"

B tells that whatever the authorities expect is indeed happening.
VP
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Posts: 1345
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Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2004, 08:07
:bang:
You are right. I confused dispersion with dilution.
A is correct.
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Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2016, 04:07
I think A is the right answer here.
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Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2019, 06:55
OA added and bumping for further discussion
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Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2019, 13:40
B. IMO. A does not attack the argument as much as be does when negated
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26 Nov 2019, 21:36
I don't agree with B as the answer. Please provide detailed explanation.
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Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway  [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2019, 05:46
GMAT Aspirant wrote:
I don't agree with B as the answer. Please provide detailed explanation.

That's because the OA is A. You should disagree with it.
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Re: When permits for the discharge of chemicals into a waterway   [#permalink] 27 Nov 2019, 05:46
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