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When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti

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When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 21 Jan 2019, 03:58
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Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproductive maturity early make up a larger proportion of the population, because they have a better chance of reproducing. When species face diminished food resources, on the other hand, individuals tend to take longer to reach reproductive maturity. These considerations may help settle whether the primary cause of the gradual disappearance of North America's mastodons, prehistoric animals related to elephants, was diminished food resources or human hunting, since __________.

(A) from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons.

(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods

(C) from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct

(D) from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about same age

(E) it is possible to determine whether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.

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Similar question from Verbal Review 2018 : [LINK]

Originally posted by idinuv on 19 Dec 2013, 01:19.
Last edited by Bunuel on 21 Jan 2019, 03:58, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2013, 06:15
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idinuv wrote:
When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproductive maturity early make up a larger proportion of the population, because they have a better chance of reproducing. When species face diminished food resources, on the other hand, individuals tend to take longer to reach reproductive maturity. These considerations may help settle whether the primary cause of the gradual disappearance of North America's mastodons, prehistoric animals related to elephants, was diminished food resources or human hunting, since __________.

Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

A. from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons.

B. the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods

C. from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct

D. from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about same age

E. it is possible to determine whether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.

The fact points to one aspect of comparison: age at which maturity is attained.
Option B provides relevant information to ascertain whether the decrease in population was due to hunting or starvation.
If reproductive maturity was found to be attained at a later age the cause is starvation - if not the cause is hunting.

Hope that helped,
Ajeeth
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Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2014, 16:19
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Reasoning: Blank space indicates that the answer can be inferred from the stimulus or is an underlying assumption.

A. from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons. Wrong - out of scope. This doesn't provide any justification or reasoning for "diminished food resources."

B. the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods Correct - Only if the age from reproductive maturity from mastodon tusks are established, then (conclusion) it may help settle the primary cause of the gradual disappearance.

C. from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct Wrong - We want the reason for extinction, not the time period.

D. from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about same age Wrong - we want the reason for extinction, not whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at the same age.

E. it is possible to determine whether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains. Wrong - whether or not the dwellings come from an earlier period than the ealiest hunting weapons, the question need reasoning for the mastodon's reproductive maturity.

IMO B
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Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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23 Mar 2018, 19:01
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GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

Can you explain why I faltered in PoE?

Quote:
When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproductive maturity early make up a larger proportion of the population, because they have a better chance of reproducing. When species face diminished food resources, on the other hand, individuals tend to take longer to reach reproductive maturity. These considerations may help settle whether the primary cause of the gradual disappearance of North America's mastodons, prehistoric animals related to elephants, was diminished food resources or human hunting, since __________.

(A) from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons.

(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods

(C) from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct

(D) from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about same age

(E) it is possible to determine whether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.

In Fill in the Blank questions we usually start with portion before the blank.

Here author is trying to find out of two possible causes wiz diminished food resources or extensive hunting for possible disappearance of mastodons, which of the answer options can help arrive at one of the concrete cause. The reason (ie answer option) that links the possible cause to the disappearance is the OA.

Quote:
(A) from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons.

I am not concerned with determining the purpose of weapons

Quote:
(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods

Still not able to link whether hunting or food shortage led to disappearance of the mastodons

Quote:
(C) from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated whenmastodons became extinct

I am not concerned with the timing, but the cause of disappearance.

Quote:
(D) from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reachedreproductive maturity at about same age

Highlighted text is irrelevant to argument.

Quote:
(E) it is possible to determinewhether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.

Highlighted text is irrelevant to argument.

Yes, there are two possibilities: diminished food resources or extensive hunting. According to the author, if we have extensive hunting, then we should see lots of individuals who reached maturity at a young age. If, on the other hand, we have diminished food resources, then we should see lots of individuals who reached maturity at a later age.

That information is USELESS if we cannot determine the age at which the mastodons reach maturity. The information in the passage tells us how to interpret the evidence, but without (B) we don't have any evidence in the first place!

So (B) doesn't give us the final answer to the question, but it tells us that it is possible to apply the given information to the fossil evidence. Thus, (B) is the best answer.
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Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2018, 21:49
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hazelnut wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproductive maturity early make up a larger proportion of the population, because they have a better chance of reproducing. When species face diminished food resources, on the other hand, individuals tend to take longer to reach reproductive maturity. These considerations may help settle whether the primary cause of the gradual disappearance of North America's mastodons, prehistoric animals related to elephants, was diminished food resources or human hunting, since __________.

(A) from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons.

(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods

(C) from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct

(D) from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about same age

(E) it is possible to determine whether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.

Source : GMATPREP Default Exam Pack

Similar question from Verbal Review 2018 : [LINK]

Premises:
When species are hunted, there are more individuals that reach reproductive maturity early.
When species have insufficient food, individuals take longer to reach reproductive maturity.

These two considerations may help us find whether the mastodons disappeared because of hunting or insufficient food because ...
The correct option should help us establish the age of reproductive maturity. Then we will be able to use these two considerations to establish why they disappeared.

(A) from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons.
Doesn't help us establish the age of reproductive maturity.

(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods
We can find the reproductive maturity of mastodons from different periods. This means that we can establish whether the age of reproductive maturity increased or decreased in mastodons over the periods. If the age increased, there must have been food shortage. If the age decreased, extensive hunting must have taken place.

(C) from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct
Doesn't help us establish the age of reproductive maturity.

(D) from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about same age
Whether male and female mastodons reached maturity at the same age or different is irrelevant.

(E) it is possible to determine whether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.
Doesn't help us establish the age of reproductive maturity.
What this option means is we can possibly find whether the mastodon tusks and bones used in homes came from natural deaths of mastodons due to food shortage (if they date to a period before hunting weapons were made) or from hunting (if they came from a period after mastodon hunting weapons were made). The point is that we may get some idea about food vs hunting from this but the two considerations given above do not help us in figuring it out using this option. We need to link reproductive maturity to the two causes. Hence this option is incorrect.
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Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2017, 01:09
1
hazelnut wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproductive maturity early make up a larger proportion of the population, because they have a better chance of reproducing. When species face diminished food resources, on the other hand, individuals tend to take longer to reach reproductive maturity. These considerations may help settle whether the primary cause of the gradual disappearance of North America's mastodons, prehistoric animals related to elephants, was diminished food resources or human hunting, since __________.

(A) from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons.

(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods

(C) from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct

(D) from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about same age

(E) it is possible to determine whether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.

Source : GMATPREP Default Exam Pack

Similar question from Verbal Review 2018 : [LINK]

Passage is talking about the age when species reach the reproductive maturity, in this case specific to mastodons.
Option (B) and (D) has any information about establishing the age when mastodons reached reproductive maturity.

(D) talks about male female reproductive maturity----- (Not given in the passage - out of scope) -------- Incorrect.

(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods -------- Gives information about finding average age of reaching reproductive maturity of mastodon. -------------- Correct.

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Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2017, 08:23
1
Imo B
If the fossils can be found related to that period and can be dated we can determine the age of mastodon.
B is essentially saying this.
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When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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19 Mar 2018, 08:02
1
GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

Can you explain why I faltered in PoE?

Quote:
When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproductive maturity early make up a larger proportion of the population, because they have a better chance of reproducing. When species face diminished food resources, on the other hand, individuals tend to take longer to reach reproductive maturity. These considerations may help settle whether the primary cause of the gradual disappearance of North America's mastodons, prehistoric animals related to elephants, was diminished food resources or human hunting, since __________.

(A) from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons.

(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods

(C) from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct

(D) from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about same age

(E) it is possible to determine whether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.

In Fill in the Blank questions we usually start with portion before the blank.

Here author is trying to find out of two possible causes wiz diminished food resources or extensive hunting for possible disappearance of mastodons, which of the answer options can help arrive at one of the concrete cause. The reason (ie answer option) that links the possible cause to the disappearance is the OA.

Quote:
(A) from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons.

I am not concerned with determining the purpose of weapons

Quote:
(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods

Still not able to link whether hunting or food shortage led to disappearance of the mastodons

Quote:
(C) from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated whenmastodons became extinct

I am not concerned with the timing, but the cause of disappearance.

Quote:
(D) from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reachedreproductive maturity at about same age

Highlighted text is irrelevant to argument.

Quote:
(E) it is possible to determinewhether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.

Highlighted text is irrelevant to argument.
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When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2019, 21:16
1
The Crux of the problem lies in figuring out the clue that indicates whether mastodons died from extensive hunting or food scarcity. The stimulus doesn't give out this clue directly.
Consider the first sentence -> When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproductive maturity early make up a larger proportion of the population, because they have a better chance of reproducing. This is basically saying that if you have two species - one with reproductive maturity of 15 yrs and other with 20 yrs - the one with higher reproductive maturity had less chances of survival when they were hunted. So mastodons may had higher reproductive maturity age (say 20 yrs) compared to other species and were killed before they reached this age, leading to their extinction.
Consider the second sentence -> When species face diminished food resources, on the other hand, individuals tend to take longer to reach reproductive maturity. If this had been the case, then mastodons would have even higher reproductive age than normal (20 yrs), say 30 yrs. In this case, they would have died out of hunger before reaching reproductive maturity even when there was no hunting involved.
So, if we know whether the maturity was 20 yrs or 30 yrs, then we can determine the cause of their extinction. So choice B is correct.
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Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2018, 20:38

Can you please explain what actually the option E means I couldn't interpret it's meaning ?
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Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2019, 11:17
GMATNinja wrote:

That information is USELESS if we cannot determine the age at which the mastodons reach maturity. The information in the passage tells us how to interpret the evidence, but without (B) we don't have any evidence in the first place!

So (B) doesn't give us the final answer to the question, but it tells us that it is possible to apply the given information to the fossil evidence. Thus, (B) is the best answer.

Hi GMATNinja,
Could you explain a bit the highlighted part, please?
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Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2019, 02:33
GMATNinja wrote:

That information is USELESS if we cannot determine the age at which the mastodons reach maturity. The information in the passage tells us how to interpret the evidence, but without (B) we don't have any evidence in the first place!

So (B) doesn't give us the final answer to the question, but it tells us that it is possible to apply the given information to the fossil evidence. Thus, (B) is the best answer.

Hi GMATNinja,
Could you explain a bit the highlighted part, please?
Thanks__

The question raised by the passage is whether mastodons gradually died off due to human hunting, or due to diminished food resources. The evidence for one case over the other lies in the age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity during that gradual disappearance.

In the answer choices, we are looking for a statement that allows us to determine if they reached reproductive maturity at a younger age, or at an older age.

I hope that helps!
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Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2019, 06:55
idinuv wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the reasoning?

When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproductive maturity early make up a larger proportion of the population, because they have a better chance of reproducing. When species face diminished food resources, on the other hand, individuals tend to take longer to reach reproductive maturity. These considerations may help settle whether the primary cause of the gradual disappearance of North America's mastodons, prehistoric animals related to elephants, was diminished food resources or human hunting, since __________.

(A) from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons.

(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods

(C) from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct

(D) from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about same age

(E) it is possible to determine whether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.

Source : GMATPREP Default Exam Pack

Similar question from Verbal Review 2018 : [LINK]

(A) from the location of certain hunting weapons in juxtaposition with mastodon remains, it is possible to determine whether those weapons were used to hunt mastodons. - Wrong: Irrelevant

(B) the average age at which mastodons reached reproductive maturity can be established from mastodon tusks, of which there are many fossils dating from different periods - Correct

(C) from the remains of mastodons already discovered, it can be accurately estimated when mastodons became extinct - Wrong: Irrelevant

(D) from tusks and other bones, it is possible to determine whether male and female mastodons reached reproductive maturity at about same age - Wrong: Irrelevant comparison

(E) it is possible to determine whether earliest human dwellings constructed from mastodon tusks and bones come from an earlier period than the earliest hunting weapons unambiguously associated with mastodon remains.
- Wrong: Irrelevant comparison
Re: When species are extensively hunted, individuals that reach reproducti   [#permalink] 26 Jul 2019, 06:55