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# When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s,

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When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2012, 00:06
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When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s,
Africans joined a society that was divided between master
and white servants brought from Europe. In most parts
of the South, some of these first African slaves became
free either through escape or through emancipation by
their owners. It is therefore a misconception that all African
Americans in the pre-Civil War South were slaves. Many
researchers have also assumed that these free African
Americans were the offspring of white slave owners who
took advantage of their female slaves. However, these
cases represent only a small minority of free African
Americans in the South. Most free African Americans were
actually the descendants of African American men and
white servant women.
In fact, despite the efforts of the various colonial
legislatures, white servant women continued to bear
children by African American fathers through the late
seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century.
It appears that such births were the primary source of
the increase in the free African American population for
this period. Over two hundred African American families
in Virginia descended from white women. Forty-six
families descended from freed slaves, twenty-nine from
Indians, and sixteen from white men who married or had
children by free African American women. It is likely that
the majority of the remaining families descended from
white women since they first appear in court records in
the mid-eighteenth century, when slaves could not be freed
without legislative approval, and there is no record of
legislative approval for their emancipations.
The history of free African Americans families in colonial
New York and New Jersey, by contrast, is quite different
from that of free African Americans in the South. Most
were descended from slaves freed by the Dutch West
India Company between 1644 and 1664 or by individual
owners. Researchers have studied these families,
especially a group of fourteen families that scholars have
traced through at least three generations. None of the
fourteen families appears to be descended from a white
servant woman and an African American man. However,
Lutheran church records from the eighteenth century show
that a few such couples had children baptized.
1. Which of the following can be inferred from the
passage?
< No free African Americans in the American colonies
were the offspring of white slave owners.
< Some colonial legislatures passed laws to prevent
interbreeding between white colonists and African
Americans.
< White servants were not as numerous as African
American slaves in early America.
< Most African Americans in the South were born into
slavery.
< Records exist to document all births of free African
Americans in colonial America.
2. The passage suggests which of the following about
African American slaves in the late 1700s?
< They could not own land without consent of local white
landowners.
< They were barred from practicing certain trades.
< They could buy their freedom from their owners.
< They sometimes had children with white women even
while enslaved.
< There were none in colonial New York or New Jersey.
3. The passage suggests which of the following about
African American families in colonial New York and
New Jersey?
< They were not descended from white servant women
and African American men.
< They were less numerous than African American
families in the colonial South.
< Most of them were started between 1644 and 1664.
< They began with an initial group of fourteen families.
< Some of them may have descended from white
servant women.
4. The author of the passage is primarily interested in
< defending an accepted position on colonial history
< analyzing an unproven hypothesis regarding slavery
< presenting an alternate view of a historical period
< critiquing an outdated theory of colonial development
< describing the culmination of a historical trend.
5. According to the passage, which of the following is a
difference between free African Americans in colonial
New York and New Jersey and free African Americans
in the colonial South?
< Those in New York and New Jersey were primarily
descended from freed slaves while those in the South
were primarily descended from white women.
< Those in New York and New Jersey were primarily
descended from white women while those in the
South were primarily descended from freed slaves
< Both groups of African Americans were primarily
descended from freed slaves, but those in the North
< Both groups of African Americans were primarily
descended from freed slaves, but those in the South
< Those in the South could be freed only with legislative
permission.
If you have any questions
New!
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s,.. [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2012, 00:08
[Reveal] Spoiler:
1.
On the GMAT, a correct inference is not a guess about what might be true, but rather
a statement of what must be true based on the facts presented in the passage. Be
(A) This statement is too extreme; we cannot infer that no free African Americans in
the American colonies were the offspring of white slave owners. In fact, the first
paragraph states that “these cases [offspring of white slave owners] represent only a
small minority of free African Americans in the South,” and a small minority is
certainly more than none.
(B) CORRECT. The second paragraph begins with "despite the efforts of the various
colonial legislatures, white servant women continued to bear children by African
American fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth
century." This implies that the legislatures took action to prevent these births.
(C) The first sentence of the passage states that “Africans joined a society that was
divided between master and white servants brought from Europe,” but the number of
people in each group was never discussed.
(D) The second paragraph focuses on the history of a number of free African
American families in the South. However, the passage did not provide any
information about the number of African American in the South who had been born
into slavery.
(E) This statement is too extreme; we cannot infer that all births of free African
Americans in colonial America were documented, or that all such records still exist.
The passage mentions some court records in the second paragraph, and some
Lutheran church records in the third paragraph, but these references do not provide
enough information to allow us to make this inference.
2.
The eighteenth century is mentioned in the second paragraph, primarily to discuss
the fact that “white servant women continued to bear children by African American
fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century.”
What this paragraph suggests about African American slaves at that time will be the
(A) The passage discusses the births and family histories of free African Americans,
not whether they were permitted to own land.
(B) The passage discusses the births and family histories of free African Americans,
not what trades they were or were not allowed to practice.
(C) In the first paragraph, the passage states that in the 1600s, “some of these first
African slaves became free, either through escape or through emancipation.” The
passage did not discuss how slaves could become free in the late 1700s, or whether
they could buy their freedom from their owners. In fact, the last sentence in the
second paragraph states that “slaves could not be freed without legislative approval,”
so even if slaves could buy freedom, additional legislative approval would have been
required.
(D) CORRECT. The end of the second paragraph states that "it is likely that the
majority of the remaining families descended from white women since they first
appear in court records in the mid-eighteenth century, when slaves could not be
freed without legislative approval, and there is no record of legislative approval for
their emancipations." This implies that the African American men were not free when
they fathered children with these white women.
(E) The statement that there were no African American slaves in colonial New York
or New Jersey is too extreme; it cannot be supported by the passage. In the third
paragraph, the passage discusses free African Americans in New York and New
Jersey, but we cannot say with certainty that there were no enslaved African
Americans in these states in the late 1700s.
3.
African American families in colonial New York and New Jersey are discussed in the
last paragraph of the passage. The correct answer will be the one that can be
supported by the facts presented in that paragraph.
(A) This statement is contradicted by the last sentence of the passage: “However,
Lutheran church records from the eighteenth century show that a few such couples
[white servant women and African American men] had children baptized."
(B) The topic sentence of the third paragraph states that “the history of free African
American families in colonial New York and New Jersey, by contrast, is quite
different from that of free African Americans in the South.” The focus is on the
different histories of the two groups, but there is no discussion of their relative
numbers.
(C) The dates 1644 and 1664 are mentioned in the paragraph as the years when the
Dutch West India Company freed slaves in the area. This does not suggest that the
families were started between 1644 and 1664.
(D) According to the last paragraph, researchers have studied fourteen families of
free African Americans in New York and New Jersey, but the passage does not
suggest that those fourteen families were the “initial group” from which the others
grew.
(E) CORRECT. The last two sentences of the passage read: "None of the fourteen
families appears to be descended from a white servant woman and an African
American man. However, Lutheran church records in the eighteenth century show
that a few such couples had children baptized." The last sentence especially
suggests that although none of the fourteen families studied by researchers
descended from white servant women, church records indicate that some such
families seem to have existed at that time.
4.
When answering any question about the author’s primary interest, purpose, or intent,
we must take the entirety of the passage into account without misrepresenting its
focus. Typically, the opening paragraph and the topic sentences of each paragraph
will reveal the focus of the passage. In the opening paragraph of this passage, the
author discusses some misconceptions and assumptions about African Americans in
the colonial and pre-Civil War periods, ending the paragraph with the statement that
“most free African Americans were actually the descendants of African American
men and white servant women.” The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to
discussing these descendants.
(A) The author does not defend an accepted position, but instead provides evidence
(B) The author presents historical facts about African Americans. The author does
not present or analyze an unproven hypothesis.
(C) CORRECT. The author presents facts, and the alternate view that can be drawn
from them, of a historical period.
(D) The author does not critique an outdated theory, but instead presents facts that
are contradictory to some stated misconceptions and assumptions. Also, the
passage does not focus on “colonial development,” but rather a certain segment of
the population in colonial times.
(E) The author does not discuss a “trend,” or describe its “culmination.”
5.
The correct answer is A. The last paragraph states: "The history of free African
Americans families in colonial New York and New Jersey, by contrast, is quite
different from that of free African Americans in the South. Most were descended from
slaves freed by the Dutch West India Company between 1644 and 1664 or by
individual owners." The first paragraph states: "However, these cases represent only
a small minority of free African Americans in the South. Most free African Americans
were actually the descendants of African American men and white servant women."
Taken together, these excepts support choice A.
post reserved for OE

Last edited by aditi1903 on 10 Oct 2012, 01:23, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s,.. [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2012, 00:42
My answers are - D, D, A, C, A.
Whats OA?
_________________

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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s,.. [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2012, 01:24
posted the OE above....Capricorn369
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2015, 00:17
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2015, 15:50
Hi,

For question 2. "The passage suggests which of the following about African American families in colonial New York and New Jersey? " I thought it was answer A:"They were not descended from white servant women and African American men. ". The correct answer is E: "Some of them may have descended from white servant women."

Why? The information is statet in the last two sentences of the passage: "None of the fourteen families appears to be descended from a white servant woman and an African American man. However, Lutheran church records from the eighteenth century show that a few such couples had children baptized."

Answer A is explicity stated in the reading. However, for answer E, it has to be inferred that women decide if their kids are baptized and/or that African American were not Lutheran and did not baptized their kids.

Where I am lost? Thank you
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2015, 01:54
For question 1
Option D feels more plausible as
" In most parts of the South, some of these first African slaves became
free either through escape or through emancipation by
their owners. It is therefore a misconception that all African
Americans in the pre-Civil War South were slaves."

This indicates most African american were slaves or were born to slavery.

What am I missing here.
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2015, 05:59
Hi Kangimat,

As you mentioned, I think is very easy to infer this answer. However, I think that this statement generalizes to much what the passage asserts.

The text says ¨In most parts of the South, some of these first African slaves became free either through escape or through emancipation by their owners¨and the answer is ¨Most African Americans in the South were born into slavery.¨

I think that you cannot infer that MOST of the African were born into slavery if the text says SOME OF THESE FIRST AFRICAN.

Hope it helps.
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When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2017, 20:19
[Reveal] Spoiler:
1.
On the GMAT, a correct inference is not a guess about what might be true, but rather
a statement of what must be true based on the facts presented in the passage. Be
(A) This statement is too extreme; we cannot infer that no free African Americans in
the American colonies were the offspring of white slave owners. In fact, the first
paragraph states that “these cases [offspring of white slave owners] represent only a
small minority of free African Americans in the South,” and a small minority is
certainly more than none.
(B) CORRECT. The second paragraph begins with "despite the efforts of the various
colonial legislatures, white servant women continued to bear children by African
American fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth
century." This implies that the legislatures took action to prevent these births.
(C) The first sentence of the passage states that “Africans joined a society that was
divided between master and white servants brought from Europe,” but the number of
people in each group was never discussed.
(D) The second paragraph focuses on the history of a number of free African
American families in the South. However, the passage did not provide any
information about the number of African American in the South who had been born
into slavery.
(E) This statement is too extreme; we cannot infer that all births of free African
Americans in colonial America were documented, or that all such records still exist.
The passage mentions some court records in the second paragraph, and some
Lutheran church records in the third paragraph, but these references do not provide
enough information to allow us to make this inference.
2.
The eighteenth century is mentioned in the second paragraph, primarily to discuss
the fact that “white servant women continued to bear children by African American
fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century.”
What this paragraph suggests about African American slaves at that time will be the
(A) The passage discusses the births and family histories of free African Americans,
not whether they were permitted to own land.
(B) The passage discusses the births and family histories of free African Americans,
not what trades they were or were not allowed to practice.
(C) In the first paragraph, the passage states that in the 1600s, “some of these first
African slaves became free, either through escape or through emancipation.” The
passage did not discuss how slaves could become free in the late 1700s, or whether
they could buy their freedom from their owners. In fact, the last sentence in the
second paragraph states that “slaves could not be freed without legislative approval,”
so even if slaves could buy freedom, additional legislative approval would have been
required.
(D) CORRECT. The end of the second paragraph states that "it is likely that the
majority of the remaining families descended from white women since they first
appear in court records in the mid-eighteenth century, when slaves could not be
freed without legislative approval, and there is no record of legislative approval for
their emancipations." This implies that the African American men were not free when
they fathered children with these white women.
(E) The statement that there were no African American slaves in colonial New York
or New Jersey is too extreme; it cannot be supported by the passage. In the third
paragraph, the passage discusses free African Americans in New York and New
Jersey, but we cannot say with certainty that there were no enslaved African
Americans in these states in the late 1700s.
3.
African American families in colonial New York and New Jersey are discussed in the
last paragraph of the passage. The correct answer will be the one that can be
supported by the facts presented in that paragraph.
(A) This statement is contradicted by the last sentence of the passage: “However,
Lutheran church records from the eighteenth century show that a few such couples
[white servant women and African American men] had children baptized."
(B) The topic sentence of the third paragraph states that “the history of free African
American families in colonial New York and New Jersey, by contrast, is quite
different from that of free African Americans in the South.” The focus is on the
different histories of the two groups, but there is no discussion of their relative
numbers.
(C) The dates 1644 and 1664 are mentioned in the paragraph as the years when the
Dutch West India Company freed slaves in the area. This does not suggest that the
families were started between 1644 and 1664.
(D) According to the last paragraph, researchers have studied fourteen families of
free African Americans in New York and New Jersey, but the passage does not
suggest that those fourteen families were the “initial group” from which the others
grew.
(E) CORRECT. The last two sentences of the passage read: "None of the fourteen
families appears to be descended from a white servant woman and an African
American man. However, Lutheran church records in the eighteenth century show
that a few such couples had children baptized." The last sentence especially
suggests that although none of the fourteen families studied by researchers
descended from white servant women, church records indicate that some such
families seem to have existed at that time.
4.
When answering any question about the author’s primary interest, purpose, or intent,
we must take the entirety of the passage into account without misrepresenting its
focus. Typically, the opening paragraph and the topic sentences of each paragraph
will reveal the focus of the passage. In the opening paragraph of this passage, the
author discusses some misconceptions and assumptions about African Americans in
the colonial and pre-Civil War periods, ending the paragraph with the statement that
“most free African Americans were actually the descendants of African American
men and white servant women.” The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to
discussing these descendants.
(A) The author does not defend an accepted position, but instead provides evidence
(B) The author presents historical facts about African Americans. The author does
not present or analyze an unproven hypothesis.
(C) CORRECT. The author presents facts, and the alternate view that can be drawn
from them, of a historical period.
(D) The author does not critique an outdated theory, but instead presents facts that
are contradictory to some stated misconceptions and assumptions. Also, the
passage does not focus on “colonial development,” but rather a certain segment of
the population in colonial times.
(E) The author does not discuss a “trend,” or describe its “culmination.”
5.
The correct answer is A. The last paragraph states: "The history of free African
Americans families in colonial New York and New Jersey, by contrast, is quite
different from that of free African Americans in the South. Most were descended from
slaves freed by the Dutch West India Company between 1644 and 1664 or by
individual owners." The first paragraph states: "However, these cases represent only
a small minority of free African Americans in the South. Most free African Americans
were actually the descendants of African American men and white servant women."
Taken together, these excepts support choice A.
post reserved for OE

Q3 answer says "Some of them (AA in NY, NJ) may have descended from white servant women" - So, how can this be a difference between 'free AA in colonial NY & NJ' and 'free AA in the colonial South'? Please let me know if I'm missing anything.

I picked 'A' as my answer but unable to convince myself with an explanation.

TIA
When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s,   [#permalink] 19 Apr 2017, 20:19
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# When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s,

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