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# When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s,

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When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2009, 10:40
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When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans joined a society that was divided between master and white servants brought from Europe. In most parts of the South, some of these first African slaves became free either through escape or through emancipation by their owners. It is therefore a misconception that all African Americans in the pre-Civil War South were slaves. Many researchers have also assumed that these free African Americans were the offspring of white slave owners who took advantage of their female slaves. However, these cases represent only a small minority of free African Americans in the South. Most free African Americans were actually the descendants of African American men and white servant women.
In fact, despite the efforts of the various colonial legislatures, white servant women continued to bear children by African American fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century. It appears that such births were the primary source of the increase in the free African American population for this period. Over two hundred African American families in Virginia descended from white women. Forty-six families descended from freed slaves, twenty-nine from Indians, and sixteen from white men who married or had children by free African American women. It is likely that the majority of the remaining families descended from white women since they first appear in court records in the mid-eighteenth century, when slaves could not be freed without legislative approval, and there is no record of legislative approval for their emancipations.
The history of free African Americans families in colonial New York and New Jersey, by contrast, is quite different from that of free African Americans in the South. Most were descended from slaves freed by the Dutch West India Company between 1644 and 1664 or by individual owners. Researchers have studied these families, especially a group of fourteen families that scholars have traced through at least three generations. None of the fourteen families appears to be descended from a white servant woman and an African American man. However, Lutheran church records from the eighteenth century show that a few such couples had children baptized.

[1] The author of the passage is primarily interested in

A) defending an accepted position on colonial history

B) analyzing an unproven hypothesis regarding slavery

C) presenting an alternate view of a historical period

D) critiquing an outdated theory of colonial development

E) describing the culmination of a historical trend.

[2] The passage suggests which of the following about African American families in colonial New York and New Jersey?

A) They were not descended from white servant women and African American men.

B) They were less numerous than African American families in the colonial South.

C) Most of them were started between 1644 and 1664.

D) They began with an initial group of fourteen families.

E) Some of them may have descended from white servant women.

[3]Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

A) No free African Americans in the American colonies were the offspring of white slave owners.

B) Some colonial legislatures passed laws to prevent interbreeding between white colonists and African Americans.

C) White servants were not as numerous as African American slaves in early America.

D) Most African Americans in the South were born into slavery.

E) Records exist to document all births of free African Americans in colonial America.

OA :
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C , E , B
If you have any questions
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10 Aug 2009, 11:22
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crejoc wrote:
When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, Africans joined a society that was divided between master and white servants brought from Europe. In most parts of the South, some of these first African slaves became free either through escape or through emancipation by their owners. It is therefore a misconception that all African Americans in the pre-Civil War South were slaves. Many researchers have also assumed that these free African Americans were the offspring of white slave owners who took advantage of their female slaves. However, these cases represent only a small minority of free African Americans in the South. Most free African Americans were actually the descendants of African American men and white servant women.
In fact, despite the efforts of the various colonial legislatures, white servant women continued to bear children by African American fathers through the late seventeenth century and well into the eighteenth century. It appears that such births were the primary source of the increase in the free African American population for this period. Over two hundred African American families in Virginia descended from white women. Forty-six families descended from freed slaves, twenty-nine from Indians, and sixteen from white men who married or had children by free African American women. It is likely that the majority of the remaining families descended from white women since they first appear in court records in the mid-eighteenth century, when slaves could not be freed without legislative approval, and there is no record of legislative approval for their emancipation.
The history of free African Americans families in colonial New York and New Jersey, by contrast, is quite different from that of free African Americans in the South. Most were descended from slaves freed by the Dutch West India Company between 1644 and 1664 or by individual owners. Researchers have studied these families, especially a group of fourteen families that scholars have traced through at least three generations. None of the fourteen families appears to be descended from a white servant woman and an African American man. However, Lutheran church records from the eighteenth century show that a few such couples had children baptized.

[1] The author of the passage is primarily interested in

A) defending an accepted position on colonial history

B) analyzing an unproven hypothesis regarding slavery

C) presenting an alternate view of a historical period refer to the boldface statement in para 1.. also, author presented the view but not defended(position), analyzed(hypothesis), critiqued(outdated theory), or described(the culmination of a historical trend)

D) critiquing an outdated theory of colonial development

E) describing the culmination of a historical trend.

[2] The passage suggests which of the following about African American families in colonial New York and New Jersey?

A) They were not descended from white servant women and African American men.

B) They were less numerous than African American families in the colonial South.

C) Most of them were started between 1644 and 1664. here by the statement mentioned in the 3rd para we cannot assume that they were started at the same time they were freed..

D) They began with an initial group of fourteen families.

E) Some of them may have descended from white servant women. refer to the boldface in the last para..it implies that none from those 14 families is descended from the white women but some from the families other than those 14 may be..

[3]Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

A) No free African Americans in the American colonies were the offspring of white slave owners.

B) Some colonial legislatures passed laws to prevent interbreeding between white colonists and African Americans. refer the boldfaced statement in 2nd para..

C) White servants were not as numerous as African American slaves in early America.

D) Most African Americans in the South were born into slavery.

E) Records exist to document all births of free African Americans in colonial America.

OA :
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C , E , B
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11 Aug 2009, 20:26
thanks for the explanations ... kudos..
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25 Aug 2009, 09:05
I don't fully understand why is B incorrect for [1]?
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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2016, 09:04
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s, [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2016, 08:12
mendelay wrote:
I don't fully understand why is B incorrect for [1]?

The author is not emphasizing on Slavery rather he is presenting the details about their spread across america.
Re: When they first arrived in America as slaves in the 1600s,   [#permalink] 13 Jun 2016, 08:12
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