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# Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election

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Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2009, 04:40
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Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election and voters blame the scandal on all parties about equally, virtually all incumbents, from whatever party, seeking reelection are returned to office. However, when voters blame such a scandal on only one party, incumbents from that party are likely to be defeated by challengers from other parties. The proportion of incumbents who seek reelection is high and remarkably constant from election to election.

If the voters’ reactions are guided by a principle, which one of the following principles would best account for the contrast in reactions described above?

(A) Whenever one incumbent is responsible for one major political scandal and another incumbent is responsible for another, the consequences for the two incumbents should be the same.
(B) When a major political scandal is blamed on incumbents from all parties, that judgment is more accurate than any judgment that incumbents from only on party are to blame.
(C) Incumbents who are rightly blamed for a major political scandal should not seek reelection, but if they do, they should not be returned to office.
(D) Major political scandals can practically always be blamed on incumbents, but whether those incumbents should be voted out of office depends on who their challengers are.
(E) When major political scandals are less the responsibility of individual incumbents than of the parties to which they belong, whatever party was responsible must be penalized when possible.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by MacFauz on 16 Mar 2014, 06:14, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: CR : voters’ reactions [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2009, 04:43
IMO E.

Other options go beyond the scope.
Could someone please explain the meaning of below phrases. I did not know the meaning and initially felt that the question was very difficult.

to seek reelection - does this mean that the incumbent seeks for reelection after he has lost one?
returned to office -
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Re: CR : voters’ reactions [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2009, 12:12
amolsk11 wrote:
IMO E.

Other options go beyond the scope.
Could someone please explain the meaning of below phrases. I did not know the meaning and initially felt that the question was very difficult.

to seek reelection - does this mean that the incumbent seeks for reelection after he has lost one?
returned to office -

Seeking reelection means the incumbent who is currently in office wants to serve another term.

Returned to office means that they have been re-elected.

I also agree with you that the answer is E.
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Re: CR : voters’ reactions [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2009, 00:42
Thanks a lot for the explanation Lincfucious.
OA is E.
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Re: CR : voters’ reactions [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2009, 17:00
D>eliminate.Dependence on challengers.
C>goes against.Eliminate.

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Re: CR : voters’ reactions [#permalink]

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10 May 2011, 04:31
Made a judgement error in this.
Between D and E,picked up D instead since all the incumbents were involved in scandal was an assumption I made.
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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21 May 2012, 06:17
I picked A and could not quite understand why it was E. Can anyone explain, please
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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21 May 2012, 06:31
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gmatfighter12 wrote:
I picked A and could not quite understand why it was E. Can anyone explain, please

'Parts of the Whole' method is used to test on many different question types. If you spot it fast enough, the answers are very straightforward. The spotting here is that an incumbent is member (part) of a party (whole). If you've done this, just ask yourself these 2 questions:

If a certain Part has an attribute, is it necessary that the Whole has it?
If the Whole has a quality, is it necessary that each part has it?

Since the stimulus is a principle q, voters seem to adhere to q1 above and hence answer E.

You can use sports as a 'Parts of the Whole' analogy to see this: Phillies is the best team in the MLB. Therefore all its pitchers are the best pitchers in MLB. Is that logically right?
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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21 May 2012, 08:01
narangvaibhav - Thank you very much for the explanation. It is extremely useful.
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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21 May 2012, 08:50
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Thanks for the answer. The reason why I had a hard time was the meaning of E. I could not quite understand what it is saying. And I found this

(E) When major political scandals are less the responsibility of individual incumbents than of the parties to which they belong,(scandal is blamed on the party, not the incumbent) whatever party was responsible must be penalized when possible (but if both are responsible then the incumbent will not necessarily be penalized).

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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2015, 04:57
Quote:
Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election and voters blame the scandal on all parties about equally, virtually all incumbents, from whatever party, seeking reelection are returned to office. However, when voters blame such a scandal on only one party, incumbents from that party are likely to be defeated by challengers from other parties. The proportion of incumbents who seek reelection is high and remarkably constant from election to election.

If the voters’ reactions are guided by a principle, which one of the following principles would best account for the contrast in reactions described above?

(A) Whenever one incumbent is responsible for one major political scandal and another incumbent is responsible for another, the consequences for the two incumbents should be the same.
(B) When a major political scandal is blamed on incumbents from all parties, that judgment is more accurate than any judgment that incumbents from only on party are to blame.
(C) Incumbents who are rightly blamed for a major political scandal should not seek reelection, but if they do, they should not be returned to office.
(D) Major political scandals can practically always be blamed on incumbents, but whether those incumbents should be voted out of office depends on who their challengers are.
(E) When major political scandals are less the responsibility of individual incumbents than of the parties to which they belong, whatever party was responsible must be penalized when possible.

From the question what I understand is when both parties are involved, it is unlikely that the challenging party will be elected. But if only one party is involved in the scandal, then the likelihood of other party winning is more. Question stem is asking “best account for the contrast in reactions described above?” . How E is substantiating that contrast.
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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23 Dec 2015, 14:26
E supports the 2nd part.... if only one party is involved in the scandal, then the likelihood of other party winning is more

but does it support the 1st part also ???? when both parties are involved, it is unlikely that the challenging party will be elected.
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2015, 22:23
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The argument says that when all parties are involved in the scandal no particular member of any party suffers the consequences but when a single party is involved the incumbents belonging to that party suffers defeat in the hand of the challengers."E" says that an incumbent is the member of a party. If the party is scandalised it does not imply each and every single incumbent is involved in the scandal or vice versa if the incumbent is to be blamed for the scandal then since the incumbent is the part of a party the whole party takes the responsibility.
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2017, 14:14
It seems this question should be rated at <700
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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26 Mar 2017, 22:04
hello experts,

kindly help us with the above question
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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27 Mar 2017, 22:47
can somebody explain the question ?
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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11 May 2017, 21:16
My 2 cents:
Whole (party scandal) ----x---> Party’s individual members
Individual member (scandal) ---> Party’s ALL members
So what happens to whole DOES NOT impact the part i.e. individual members BUT what happens to part DOES impact the whole i.e. ALL the members of party.
ONLY E resembles this condition!!!
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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13 May 2017, 14:35
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Quote:
can somebody explain the question ?

Let's say that the mayor of a town always belongs to one of three political parties: X, Y, or Z. The town holds an election every year, voting either to keep the incumbent mayor (if that mayor runs for reelection) or to elect a new mayor.
Quote:
Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election and voters blame the scandal on all parties about equally, virtually all incumbents, from whatever party, seeking reelection are returned to office.

(Scenario 1): According to this statement, if a major political scandal erupts before one of the annual elections and voters blame the scandal on all three parties about equally, then the incumbent mayor, if seeking reelection, will almost certainly win the election, regardless of the mayor's political party affiliation. In other words, even though the incumbent belongs to a party that is equally blamed for the scandal, the incumbent and his/her party do not suffer negative political consequences.
Quote:
However, when voters blame such a scandal on only one party, incumbents from that party are likely to be defeated by challengers from other parties.

(Scenario 2): If the current mayor belongs to Party X, and voters blame the scandal on Party X, the current mayor, if seeking reelection, is likely to be defeated by a challenger from Party Y or Party Z. In other words, when the incumbent's party is the ONLY party blamed, the incumbent and his/her party DO suffer negative political consequences.

Now on to the question stem:
Quote:
If the voters’ reactions are guided by a principle, which one of the following principles would best account for the contrast in reactions described above?

The "voters' reactions" are described in the first two sentences: scenario 1) when voters blame a pre-election scandal on all parties equally, the incumbent usually wins, and scenario 2) when voters blame a pre-election scandal on the party of the incumbent, the incumbent usually loses. If we are told that those reactions are guided by a principle, which principle would best account for the contrast in those reactions?
Quote:
(A) Whenever one incumbent is responsible for one major political scandal and another incumbent is responsible for another, the consequences for the two incumbents should be the same.

The argument in the passage does not discuss how the voters would react if one incumbent were responsible for one major scandal and another incumbent were responsible for another. Choice (A) can be eliminated.
Quote:
(B) When a major political scandal is blamed on incumbents from all parties, that judgment is more accurate than any judgment that incumbents from only on party are to blame.

We are looking for a principle that accounts for the contrast in the voters' reactions (scenario 1 vs scenario 2), and we don't care whether the judgment on which one reaction is based is more accurate than the judgment on which the other is based. Choice (B) can be eliminated.
Quote:
(C) Incumbents who are rightly blamed for a major political scandal should not seek reelection, but if they do, they should not be returned to office.

First, the passage does not consider whether incumbents blamed for a major political scandal should or should not seek reelection. Second, choice (C) only explains the voters' reaction in scenario 2 and does NOT explain the contrast in those reactions. Choice (C) can be eliminated.
Quote:
(D) Major political scandals can practically always be blamed on incumbents, but whether those incumbents should be voted out of office depends on who their challengers are.

This statement does not align with the information in the passage. According to the passage, if incumbents (and hence their parties) are blamed for a pre-election scandal, those incumbents will most likely lose the election, regardless of "who their challengers are." Choice (D) can be eliminated.
Quote:
(E) When major political scandals are less the responsibility of individual incumbents than of the parties to which they belong, whatever party was responsible must be penalized when possible.

First, apply this principle to scenario 2 (the incumbent's party--Party X, for example--receives all of the blame): in that case, Party X can easily be penalized by voting for someone in Party Y or Party Z. Now, consider scenario 1 (for example, the incumbent belongs to Party X but Parties X, Y, and Z all receive equal blame): if we follow the principle in statement (E), we should penalize ALL parties. If we vote for someone in Party Y or Z, one of those parties is rewarded while party X is penalized. There is no way to penalize all parties equally since a member of one of the parties has to win. In that case, the voters might just stick with the default option (the incumbent). Thus, choice (E) is the best choice.
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Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election [#permalink]

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14 May 2017, 13:11
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
can somebody explain the question ?

Let's say that the mayor of a town always belongs to one of three political parties: X, Y, or Z. The town holds an election every year, voting either to keep the incumbent mayor (if that mayor runs for reelection) or to elect a new mayor.
Quote:
Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election and voters blame the scandal on all parties about equally, virtually all incumbents, from whatever party, seeking reelection are returned to office.

(Scenario 1): According to this statement, if a major political scandal erupts before one of the annual elections and voters blame the scandal on all three parties about equally, then the incumbent mayor, if seeking reelection, will almost certainly win the election, regardless of the mayor's political party affiliation. In other words, even though the incumbent belongs to a party that is equally blamed for the scandal, the incumbent and his/her party do not suffer negative political consequences.
Quote:
However, when voters blame such a scandal on only one party, incumbents from that party are likely to be defeated by challengers from other parties.

(Scenario 2): If the current mayor belongs to Party X, and voters blame the scandal on Party X, the current mayor, if seeking reelection, is likely to be defeated by a challenger from Party Y or Party Z. In other words, when the incumbent's party is the ONLY party blamed, the incumbent and his/her party DO suffer negative political consequences.

Now on to the question stem:
Quote:
If the voters’ reactions are guided by a principle, which one of the following principles would best account for the contrast in reactions described above?

The "voters' reactions" are described in the first two sentences: scenario 1) when voters blame a pre-election scandal on all parties equally, the incumbent usually wins, and scenario 2) when voters blame a pre-election scandal on the party of the incumbent, the incumbent usually loses. If we are told that those reactions are guided by a principle, which principle would best account for the contrast in those reactions?
Quote:
(A) Whenever one incumbent is responsible for one major political scandal and another incumbent is responsible for another, the consequences for the two incumbents should be the same.

The argument in the passage does not discuss how the voters would react if one incumbent were responsible for one major scandal and another incumbent were responsible for another. Choice (A) can be eliminated.
Quote:
(B) When a major political scandal is blamed on incumbents from all parties, that judgment is more accurate than any judgment that incumbents from only on party are to blame.

We are looking for a principle that accounts for the contrast in the voters' reactions (scenario 1 vs scenario 2), and we don't care whether the judgment on which one reaction is based is more accurate than the judgment on which the other is based. Choice (B) can be eliminated.
Quote:
(C) Incumbents who are rightly blamed for a major political scandal should not seek reelection, but if they do, they should not be returned to office.

First, the passage does not consider whether incumbents blamed for a major political scandal should or should not seek reelection. Second, choice (C) only explains the voters' reaction in scenario 2 and does NOT explain the contrast in those reactions. Choice (C) can be eliminated.
Quote:
(D) Major political scandals can practically always be blamed on incumbents, but whether those incumbents should be voted out of office depends on who their challengers are.

This statement does not align with the information in the passage. According to the passage, if incumbents (and hence their parties) are blamed for a pre-election scandal, those incumbents will most likely lose the election, regardless of "who their challengers are." Choice (D) can be eliminated.
Quote:
(E) When major political scandals are less the responsibility of individual incumbents than of the parties to which they belong, whatever party was responsible must be penalized when possible.

First, apply this principle to scenario 2 (the incumbent's party--Party X, for example--receives all of the blame): in that case, Party X can easily be penalized by voting for someone in Party Y or Party Z. Now, consider scenario 1 (for example, the incumbent belongs to Party X but Parties X, Y, and Z all receive equal blame): if we follow the principle in statement (E), we should penalize ALL parties. If we vote for someone in Party Y or Z, one of those parties is rewarded while party X is penalized. There is no way to penalize all parties equally since a member of one of the parties has to win. In that case, the voters might just stick with the default option (the incumbent). Thus, choice (E) is the best choice.

hello, since you are verbal expert in Gmat, you definitely know how to interpret all the options in less than 2 mins. I really want to know how you do that. It would be great for me to master the skills in verbal section.
Re: Whenever a major political scandal erupts before an election   [#permalink] 14 May 2017, 13:11
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