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# Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2011, 15:46
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Hey Noburu,

Pronoun ambiguity is one of those irritating things that can sometimes be tolerated, depending on the circumstances. More often than not, a case in which pronoun ambiguity is tolerated has strong structural clues that point to the intended antecedent. Here "of synthetic fertilizers" is specifying a type of use, so even though the structure shifts slightly, the fact that the word "use" occurs again in the sentence points to "synthetic fertilizers" (the thing that was used in the first part of the sentence. It's not ideal, but that happens sometimes). In general, when I go through splits I try to save pronoun ambiguity for a later sweep.

As mentioned by the above posters, the like/such as split is a concrete error that is irrefutable by GMAT standards, so B and E are out.

That leaves A, C, and D.

Choice (C)
Whenever something has lots of modifiers or clauses, try to look at the underlying structure of the sentence. What is the skeleton here?

Whereas..the USE (of S.F)...has expanded productivity,
...if these fertilizers are used...they can create problems
...and if used....they may accelerate

Structurally, when we see "whereas" we *require* what follows to have a certain form-- "Whereas A does B, C does D"---dependent clause-comma-independent clause. But, as gmattiger points out above, we have a dependent clause (if these fertilizers are used) where we need that independent clause ("C does B"). C is out.

Choice (D)--
The beginning of choice D may at first glance appear more parallel to the non-underlined portion of the sentence than the beginning of choice A.

Whereas..the USE (of S.F)...has expanded productivity...the increased USAGE (of these fertilizers)....can create problems

...BUT the sentence keeps going! The clause beginning with "while if substituted" clearly *means* "if [synthetic fertilizers are] substituted, but nowhere in the sentence has "synthetic fertilizer" been the SUBJECT of a verb. That phrase only appears as a modifier (in the nonunderlined portion). D has a definable, structural grammar issue--so this choice is out.

Choice (A)
While A has potential pronoun ambiguity, the structural flaws present in the other choices have been weeded out:

Whereas..the USE (of S.F)...has expanded productivity,...an increase (in their use) can create problems...AND their substitution....may accelerate deterioration and erosion.

The structural requirements of "Whereas A does B, C does D" are fulfilled. And the final independent clause (about substitution accelerating deterioration) is appropriately tagged on with a conjunction. So we can tolerate the potential pronoun ambiguity here.

Remember always to go from wrong to right, and that certain things are "more wrong" than others. Hope this helps.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2011, 12:11
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Good explanations above. Received a PM for further clarification on (C):

Quote:
Can you please explain in detail why C is ruled out ?

Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world,if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

Whereas the use ...,if ...used ...,they..., and if used...they....

I am confused on where and how the X&Y consistency is missing in AND

With regards,
Krishna

Hi Krishna,

The problem lies in the first few words of your bolded portion: "if these fertilizers are used"

"Whereas the use of X expanded Y, the use of fertilizers blah blah blah"

You can use variations of "the use of fertilizers":
"an increase in their use" (choice A and B)
"the increased usage" (choice D and E)

Answer (C) uses "if these fertilizers are used."
The word "used" is a verb.
"An increase in their use"--"use" is a noun.
"The increased usage"--again, noun.

You can say "the usage of these fertilizers" but you cannot say "if these fertilizers are used."

Hope that helps.

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2011, 21:39
noboru wrote:
Could anybody explain why "their" in A is not ambigous?

For me, it can refer to both fertilizers and parts of the world.

ambiguous is not a crucial factor to eliminate options in sc especially when there is only one meaningful modifier and others possibilities are nonsense."their" here definitely modifies for "syns. fertilizers". Somebobdy may argue that 'their" may refer to "parts of the world" but the later posibility is absurb in meaning.
I think it is D which is wrong in dangling modifier. Look: (D) said:
" while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution..." --> what is substituted here?? "Fertilizers" or "this substitution"?
I hope my explanation can help
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2011, 03:08
sondenso wrote:
64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

This is little odd question as each and every alternate looks little odd so elimination approach is the best way to go. My approach is as below:
Remove all "like" used for example - B & E are out; If usage not required so C is out, D also but I ponder little bit more on this against A
Since first clause subject is use so it seems ok to continue with option D "the increased usage of these fertilizers" and these fertilizers is more clear than their

But when I double checked I found more clarity with A , "their" seems to directly matching with only plural noun - fertilizers.. So I go with A

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2011, 05:31
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sondenso wrote:
64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B,E - out for using "like" to show example
C- incorrectly uses "substitutions" instead of "substitutes" -- you can use something as substitute, not substitution.
D- "while if" is awkward. while also suggests that two actions are happening together, which is not the case here.

Ans: "A"
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2011, 04:21
the antecedent for their in A is the synthetic fertilizers since their is a possesive pronoun it can refer back to the subject in propositional phrase .
May be if it was some other pronoun(non possesive) it would be wrong.
Can some one pls confirm my understanding

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2011, 23:02
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fluke wrote:
sondenso wrote:
64. Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B,E - out for using "like" to show example
C- incorrectly uses "substitutions" instead of "substitutes" -- you can use something as substitute, not substitution.
D- "while if" is awkward. while also suggests that two actions are happening together, which is not the case here.

Ans: "A"

Hey Fluke,

Does isnt 'their' in A ambiguios ?
Does their refer to fertilizers or productivity ?? How do we know ?

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2013, 23:23
Their cannot logically refer to anything other than fertilisers; it cannot denote productivity, becos productivity is singular and their is plural; it cannot point to parts of the world,as no one can materially increase parts of the world and leave alone use them to create problems
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2013, 17:19
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain why option C and D is incorrect! Thanks

Hi fozzy.

Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
Correct. The use of "their" is quite ambiguous, so I don't think this sentence sounds smoothly. A, however is the best among all options.

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it
Wrong.
- "like" is incorrect, like = similar to. However, wee need examples here, thus "such as" is appropriate.
- We're talking about "fertilizers" (plural) ==> "it" is wrong.

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they
Wrong.
- Parallelism: The structure of C is: whereas the use of X has greatly expanded........, if X are used, and if ......
==> in order to make a sentence parallel, the structure should be: whereas the use of X greatly expanded......, in increase in their use.......
==> "the use of X" || "their use"
- Meaning: "an increase in the use of synthetic fertilizers" DIFFERS from "the fertilizers are used increasingly"
For example:
(1) The increase in the use of computers ==> computers become more popular, so many people use them. (horizontal)
(2) The Computers are used increasingly ==> These particular computers are exploited (vertical)

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution
Wrong.
- Modifier problem: "if substituted for more ..., this substitution may accelerate .........." Verb-ed modifier + COMMA ==> ALWAYS modify subject. The subject of the second part is "this substitution" ==> The meaning will be: if substitution are substituted for more...... ==> Does not make sense at all.
- "While" is subordinating conjunction ==> does not match the overall meaning of the structure. Coordinating conjunction "and" is more appropriate.

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
Wrong.
- "like" is wrong ==> "such as" should be correct.
- "while" changes meaning. ==> "and" should be correct

Hope it helps.
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2013, 00:13
The word THEIR in Option A makes it the correct answer.

B & E are out for us of LIKE and other reasons as discussed.

If you compare A with C & D-
The usage of COMMA + AND rule (,and) makes A the winner. When you have two clauses separated by a Comma you must have a subject in each one the clauses. By intrpcuding THEIR (subject pronoun for Fertilizers) A makes it clear what we are talking about.

Earl walked to school, and HE later ate his lunch (CORRECT)
Earl walked to school, and later ate his lunch (WRONG- since HE is missing).

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they (what is IF used as substitution)
D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution (what is if substitued)

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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28 May 2015, 21:17
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

The structure is Whereas X, Y -> X and Y should be parallel and should be clauses.

(A) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers -> Looks good. this option is parallel -> whereas the use of X, an increases in their use of Y

(B) an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

(C) if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers -> what is used?
The subject of the sentence is ellipsed. So we can repeat that subject as
if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they do X, and if these fertilizers are used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they do Y .
Instead of that, we can use "and if these fertilizers are substituted for more traditional fertilizers, they do Y" -> We can eliminate this option based on redundancy.

(D) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

while is used as but for contrast.
what is substituted?
Since we have a "while", we can repeat the subject which is "the increased usage of these fertilizers substituted for more traditional Fertilizers" -> Wrong sense.
this is pronoun and cannot refer to the clause.

(E) the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2015, 18:58
A: Contender
BE: Wrong; "like" should be "such as"
C: Wrong; For Whereas X, Y; X and Y must be clauses
A versus D:
D: Wrong; looked good, BUT it was wrong, because "if substituted...fertilizers" should not modify "substitution"

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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17 Feb 2016, 23:38
I strongly oppose to what has been written down till now.

GMAT prefers such as to like while writing about lists.

Here it's not a list but a single noun.

Like water pollution.

And in (A), the subject is the usage of fertilizers, not the fertilizer. So using their is not only pointing to a wrong subject, it is structurally wrong also,

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Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2016, 00:05
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sananoor wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

Hi,
what does this Q tests us on;-
1) such as vs like
such as is used to give examples and like to show similarity..
here 'such as' is appropriate

2) Contrast:-
usage of 'whereas' points towards CONTRAST between two clauses..

3) parallelism..
the two clauses in the second part of teh sentence should be parallel and so 'and' should be used to join them..
an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion

4) 'comma' preceding 'and'..
As 'and' is joining two independent clauses, it should be preceded by 'comma'..

ONLY A is left..
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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2016, 04:30
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B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

1. This option is incorrect not because it is wordy but because, as the previous post points out, LIKE cannot be used in the GMAT to exemplify. SUCH AS must be used for that purpose. LIKE has to to compare, but here no comparison is intended between environmental problems and water pollution.

2. The other reason that this option is incorrect is that the final IT has no logical antecedent. Grammatically speaking, IT would have to refer to POLLUTION or to INCREASE. Logically speaking, however, it cannot refer to either. This is because IT is preceded here by a clause of condition: if substituted for more traditional fertilizers. (In other words, if it is substituted for more traditional fertilizers.) This clause determines the matter: it says that the thing that IT refers to could be substituted for more traditional fertilizers. Clearly, POLLUTION could not be substituted for more traditional fertilizers, because it is not a fertilizer, and INCREASE could not be substituted for more traditional fertilizers for the same reason. Therefore, the use of IT makes no sense.

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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23 Feb 2016, 15:33
mahakmalik wrote:
I think B can also be eliminated for usage of IF.Whereas is already presenting a contrast so i do not think if is required.
Correct me if i am wrong.

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I do not see any problem with "if". "Whereas" introduces a contrast, but "if" introduces a condition; there does not seem to be any conflict or redundancy.

If this does not answer your query, I would request you to elaborate your doubt a bit more.

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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23 Feb 2016, 22:15
mahakmalik wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
mahakmalik wrote:
I think B can also be eliminated for usage of IF.Whereas is already presenting a contrast so i do not think if is required.
Correct me if i am wrong.

Or else give 1 Kudos

I do not see any problem with "if". "Whereas" introduces a contrast, but "if" introduces a condition; there does not seem to be any conflict or redundancy.

If this does not answer your query, I would request you to elaborate your doubt a bit more.

Can whereas and if be used in same sentence?
Is there any obligation like IF and would(both can be used under certain conditions).

Probably whereas and if can be used independently without any obligation as such; let us consider the following example:

Whereas John would sleep on a typical Sunday morning, Jane would go for jogging, if it is sunny.

The structure is whereas X, Y. Here Y consists of a condition using If...would.

I do not see any issue with this sentence, do you?

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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24 Feb 2016, 13:21
Hello,

Can reason why C is wrong. I eliminated it because it seemed wordy to me compared to other option. Rest it seems fine.

Am i right.

sananoor wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2016, 07:43
1988achilles wrote:
Hello,

Can reason why C is wrong. I eliminated it because it seemed wordy to me compared to other option. Rest it seems fine.

Am i right.

The structure of the sentence is: Whereas A does xxx, if P, C does yyy, and if Q, C does zzz, if Q.

Putting the if clauses before the result clauses makes the sentence difficult to understand.

The better structure is: Whereas A does xxx, C does yyy, if P and C does zzz, if Q .

Moreover the comparison is faulty.

Here A is compared to C, A = the use of fertilizers and C = they (the fertilizers).

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Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult [#permalink]

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29 Feb 2016, 11:14
Two things to notice:
1. Such as vs Like -- Such as should be used to list the examples. So B and E are out.
2. If condition -- If + Present Tense in condition must have Future tense in result. C and D both fail in this.

Left with A, which is the answer.

sananoor wrote:
Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricultural productivity in many parts of the world, an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers may accelerate soil structure deterioration and soil erosion.

A.an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

B. an increase in their use can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, and if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, it

C. if these fertilizers are used increasingly, they can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, and if used as substitutions for more traditional fertilizers, they

D. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems such as water pollution, while if substituted for more traditional fertilizers, this substitution

E. the increased usage of these fertilizers can create serious environmental problems like water pollution, while their substitution for more traditional fertilizers

Kudos [?]: 15 [0], given: 6

Re: Whereas the use of synthetic fertilizers has greatly expanded agricult   [#permalink] 29 Feb 2016, 11:14

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