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# Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most

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Manager
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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09 Jan 2016, 16:17
1
The original passage discusses the format of the cum hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy, in which a mere correlation of two events falsely attempts to guarantee causation.
This fallacy states that if x and y happened at the same time, then x must have caused y. However, there could be other possible, alternative causes. These causes could be best summarized in these 4 points:
1- x causes y
2- y causes x
3- a third, unrelated factor z is the cause
4- the correlation between x and y is just a coincidence.

If you plug in the variables of the argument, you get these 4 possible explanations:
1- environmental regulations cause economic growth
2- economic growth causes environmental regulations
3- z (in this case, education and job training) causes economic growth
4- the correlation between environmental regulations and economic growth is just a coincidence.

The argument states that point 1 cannot be the explanation and then asks you to strengthen this claim.
Correct answer choice A states that point 3 is the case, thereby strengthening the claim that point 1 is not true.

Hopefully you can apply this framework to other GMAT CR questions. Kudos if you liked it!
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2016, 20:44
This is more a resolve a discrepancy with an unsupport to the fact.
Initial thinking:May be The fact is just a correlation.
C talks about reduced growth but stimulus talks about increased growth.C is irrelevant.
So, A is better

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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2016, 14:47
4
Shrivathsan wrote:
Can someone please explain this ?
I still dont get why A is the Answer.

This is a frequently used GMAT logic structure.

X and Y happen together.
It cannot be concluded that X causes Y, because Z could have caused Y.

Here, strict environmental regulations (X) and high economic growth (Y) happen together. However we cannot conclude X causes Y because something else, investment in education and job training (Z), may have caused Y.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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25 Aug 2016, 06:14
Shrivathsan wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Shrivathsan wrote:
Can someone please explain this ?
I still dont get why A is the Answer.

This is a frequently used GMAT logic structure.

X and Y happen together.
It cannot be concluded that X causes Y, because Z could have caused Y.

Here, strict environmental regulations (X) and high economic growth (Y) happen together. However we cannot conclude X causes Y because something else, investment in education and job training (Z), may have caused Y.

Thank you so much sayantanc2k !!

But can you also explain why E wont come in this place ?

The correct answer would support the statement X does not cause Y - it would show that X and Y does not have positive correlation. Option E states that with less X at least some Y was achieved. This in a way shows that X has some positive correlation to Y. If those countries (mentioned in option E) had higher environmental regulations, they might have high growth. Hence E is not the correct answer.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2017, 23:06
According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth. This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.

Hypothesis : strict environmental regulations >> reduced economic growth
Fact : strictest environmental regulations >> highest economic growth

We need to find a reason which will help to show that environmental regulations DO NOT promote growth (usage of "however")
in other words , we need to show that there is no relation between environmental regulations & economic growth

All other options suggest some relation between environmental regulations & economic growth except (A).

Ans : A
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2017, 16:25
Ok so can someone explain this:

When the sentence uses the phrase "however" it is about to present a counter point to whatever came before it. However is used as a point of transition to say something which is opposite to what has been stated earlier. Ex:
"John likes Marry, however, Marry likes Tom".

So in the last sentence it says "This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ____"
Shouldn't the filler oppose whatever comes before the word "however"?

So the filler should provide evidence that environmental regulations promote growth.

I picked B. I was stuck between D and B because of this.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2017, 19:40
nijat12 wrote:
Ok so can someone explain this:

When the sentence uses the phrase "however" it is about to present a counter point to whatever came before it. However is used as a point of transition to say something which is opposite to what has been stated earlier. Ex:
"John likes Marry, however, Marry likes Tom".

So in the last sentence it says "This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ____"
Shouldn't the filler oppose whatever comes before the word "however"?

So the filler should provide evidence that environmental regulations promote growth.

I picked B. I was stuck between D and B because of this.

Hi Nijat12,

"However" in this case, means because. You are right, however, as the counterpoint you alluded to was already demontrated, i.e This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth.
Thus the filler should not provide evidence why stricter regulations promote growth, but instead an alternate reason why it does. Option A provides this- education and training.

Now, this is a salient point in GMAT. Most passages seem to be called from real world articles/researches. Thus a cursory familiarity with current affairs will often corroborate answers. A great example here is Norway countries which fit this profile of strict environmental regulation and high economic growth probably because it has invested in training and education of its citizens. On the other hand, are developing/emerging economies that are growing by having lax environmental regulations.

To avoid the risk of going too far out scope.. option A clears the paradox.

Best,
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2017, 21:58
sudeep wrote:
Go for C.

I did pick C and it was wrong. "reduced economic growth" still means growth while the argument seeks for a reason that weakens the regulation. Hence A is correct as A gives out an alternative cause for economic growth. (other options are wrong already)

In addition, the question is interesting because it is a strengthen question which is a negation of a weaken question. At the same time, "however" indicates an explanation question.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2017, 08:49
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2017, 13:12
younggun044 wrote:
Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most logically completes the argument below?

According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth. This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.

(A) those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training.
(B) even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations.
(C) many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations.
(D) after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth.
(E) even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth.

A is not a perfectly clear answer but what A is basically stating is that "economic growth" in the states with the "strictest environment regulations" is not higher because those states are "stricter" but because of some other condition that already exists. The economic growth is not attributable to the "strictness" of the states, it is instead attributable to some other factor, "investment in education and job training."

A
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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18 Oct 2017, 21:38
rulingbear wrote:
nijat12 wrote:
Ok so can someone explain this:

When the sentence uses the phrase "however" it is about to present a counter point to whatever came before it. However is used as a point of transition to say something which is opposite to what has been stated earlier. Ex:
"John likes Marry, however, Marry likes Tom".

So in the last sentence it says "This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ____"
Shouldn't the filler oppose whatever comes before the word "however"?

So the filler should provide evidence that environmental regulations promote growth.

I picked B. I was stuck between D and B because of this.

Hi Nijat12,

"However" in this case, means because. You are right, however, as the counterpoint you alluded to was already demonstrated, i.e This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth.
Thus the filler should not provide evidence why stricter regulations promote growth, but instead an alternate reason why it does. Option A provides this- education and training.

Now, this is a salient point in GMAT. Most passages seem to be called from real-world articles/researches. Thus a cursory familiarity with current affairs will often corroborate answers. A great example is Norway, a country which fit this profile of strict environmental regulation and high economic growth probably because it has invested in training and education of its citizens. On the other hand, are developing/emerging economies that are growing by having lax environmental regulations.

To avoid the risk of going too far out scope.. option A clears the paradox.

Best,
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2017, 14:32
nijat12 wrote:
Ok so can someone explain this:

When the sentence uses the phrase "however" it is about to present a counter point to whatever came before it. However is used as a point of transition to say something which is opposite to what has been stated earlier. Ex:
"John likes Marry, however, Marry likes Tom".

So in the last sentence it says "This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ____"
Shouldn't the filler oppose whatever comes before the word "however"?

So the filler should provide evidence that environmental regulations promote growth.

I picked B. I was stuck between D and B because of this.

In CR questions, "however" does not contain much meaning. For instance, in this question, "this fact" is much more important than "however".
After you make heavy practices, you will soon understand the idea behind each argument without consuming much time.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2018, 16:38
Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most logically completes the argument below?

According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth. This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.

This problem can be distilled to a simple question: Show that regulations do not lead to growth.

(A) those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training.
Possible, let's keep it
(B) even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations.
Supports the opposite
(C) many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations.
This does corroborate with "regulations do not lead to growth." However, it is not evidence.
(D) after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth.
Supports the opposite
(E) even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth.
Possible, let's keep it

Option E is not great because it can be true even if increased regulations lead to growth.

It is tempting to dismiss Option A on the grounds that nowhere is it explicitly stated that education or job training lead to economic growth. However, our purpose is simple: we need to show that increased regulations do not necessarily lead to increased economic growth. Option A provides a viable alternative. Job training and education may or not may not lead to economic growth; it doesn't matter. That relationship, however, must be established before we can claim that regulations lead to higher growth.

Hence, Option A is the correct answer.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2018, 22:37
I was between B & D, totally missed A and maybe misunderstood the conclusion, please can you help
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2019, 17:27
C is a very well crafted wrong answer choice. It is a trap for those who thought that the 1st line of the argument is the conclusion. Choice C supports strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth and not environmental regulations does not promote growth. There is a subtle difference between the two.
Also, Many states are considering ..here many could mean 3 or 4 out of 100 states. Such states may be wrong in their belief. This does not give any fact that we could use to determine the relationship between environmental regulations and growth.
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2019, 10:13
the formal part mentions that regulations do not promote growth, so the part after "however, since" must be a reason to explain another reason except for regulations that make economic growth - A fits this purpose. => A
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most  [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2019, 19:28
This one is tricky. Easy to fall for E confidently . Take a step back and think and then tread type of question. Take away - Co-relate things . Still request fellow Test takers to comment what should be the take away from this type of dicey question and options.
Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most   [#permalink] 01 Apr 2019, 19:28

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