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Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most

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Manager
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2016, 16:17
The original passage discusses the format of the cum hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy, in which a mere correlation of two events falsely attempts to guarantee causation.
This fallacy states that if x and y happened at the same time, then x must have caused y. However, there could be other possible, alternative causes. These causes could be best summarized in these 4 points:
1- x causes y
2- y causes x
3- a third, unrelated factor z is the cause
4- the correlation between x and y is just a coincidence.

If you plug in the variables of the argument, you get these 4 possible explanations:
1- environmental regulations cause economic growth
2- economic growth causes environmental regulations
3- z (in this case, education and job training) causes economic growth
4- the correlation between environmental regulations and economic growth is just a coincidence.

The argument states that point 1 cannot be the explanation and then asks you to strengthen this claim.
Correct answer choice A states that point 3 is the case, thereby strengthening the claim that point 1 is not true.


Hopefully you can apply this framework to other GMAT CR questions. Kudos if you liked it!
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 14 Aug 2016, 20:44
This is more a resolve a discrepancy with an unsupport to the fact.
Initial thinking:May be The fact is just a correlation.
A actually talks about this.
C talks about reduced growth but stimulus talks about increased growth.C is irrelevant.
So, A is better

Posted from my mobile device

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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2016, 14:47
Shrivathsan wrote:
Can someone please explain this ?
I still dont get why A is the Answer.


This is a frequently used GMAT logic structure.

X and Y happen together.
It cannot be concluded that X causes Y, because Z could have caused Y.

Here, strict environmental regulations (X) and high economic growth (Y) happen together. However we cannot conclude X causes Y because something else, investment in education and job training (Z), may have caused Y.

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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2016, 06:14
Shrivathsan wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Shrivathsan wrote:
Can someone please explain this ?
I still dont get why A is the Answer.


This is a frequently used GMAT logic structure.

X and Y happen together.
It cannot be concluded that X causes Y, because Z could have caused Y.

Here, strict environmental regulations (X) and high economic growth (Y) happen together. However we cannot conclude X causes Y because something else, investment in education and job training (Z), may have caused Y.


Thank you so much sayantanc2k !!

But can you also explain why E wont come in this place ?


The correct answer would support the statement X does not cause Y - it would show that X and Y does not have positive correlation. Option E states that with less X at least some Y was achieved. This in a way shows that X has some positive correlation to Y. If those countries (mentioned in option E) had higher environmental regulations, they might have high growth. Hence E is not the correct answer.

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Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2017, 23:06
According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth. This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.

Hypothesis : strict environmental regulations >> reduced economic growth
Fact : strictest environmental regulations >> highest economic growth

We need to find a reason which will help to show that environmental regulations DO NOT promote growth (usage of "however")
in other words , we need to show that there is no relation between environmental regulations & economic growth

All other options suggest some relation between environmental regulations & economic growth except (A).

Ans : A

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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2017, 16:25
Ok so can someone explain this:

When the sentence uses the phrase "however" it is about to present a counter point to whatever came before it. However is used as a point of transition to say something which is opposite to what has been stated earlier. Ex:
"John likes Marry, however, Marry likes Tom".

So in the last sentence it says "This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ____"
Shouldn't the filler oppose whatever comes before the word "however"?

So the filler should provide evidence that environmental regulations promote growth.

I picked B. I was stuck between D and B because of this.

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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2017, 19:40
nijat12 wrote:
Ok so can someone explain this:

When the sentence uses the phrase "however" it is about to present a counter point to whatever came before it. However is used as a point of transition to say something which is opposite to what has been stated earlier. Ex:
"John likes Marry, however, Marry likes Tom".

So in the last sentence it says "This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ____"
Shouldn't the filler oppose whatever comes before the word "however"?

So the filler should provide evidence that environmental regulations promote growth.

I picked B. I was stuck between D and B because of this.


Hi Nijat12,

"However" in this case, means because. You are right, however, as the counterpoint you alluded to was already demontrated, i.e This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth.
Thus the filler should not provide evidence why stricter regulations promote growth, but instead an alternate reason why it does. Option A provides this- education and training.

Now, this is a salient point in GMAT. Most passages seem to be called from real world articles/researches. Thus a cursory familiarity with current affairs will often corroborate answers. A great example here is Norway countries which fit this profile of strict environmental regulation and high economic growth probably because it has invested in training and education of its citizens. On the other hand, are developing/emerging economies that are growing by having lax environmental regulations.

To avoid the risk of going too far out scope.. option A clears the paradox.

Best,

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Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2017, 21:58
sudeep wrote:
Go for C.


I did pick C and it was wrong. "reduced economic growth" still means growth while the argument seeks for a reason that weakens the regulation. Hence A is correct as A gives out an alternative cause for economic growth. (other options are wrong already)

In addition, the question is interesting because it is a strengthen question which is a negation of a weaken question. At the same time, "however" indicates an explanation question.

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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2017, 08:49
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2017, 13:12
younggun044 wrote:
Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most logically completes the argument below?

According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth. This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.

(A) those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training.
(B) even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations.
(C) many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations.
(D) after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth.
(E) even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth.


A is not a perfectly clear answer but what A is basically stating is that "economic growth" in the states with the "strictest environment regulations" is not higher because those states are "stricter" but because of some other condition that already exists. The economic growth is not attributable to the "strictness" of the states, it is instead attributable to some other factor, "investment in education and job training."

A

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Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2017, 21:38
rulingbear wrote:
nijat12 wrote:
Ok so can someone explain this:

When the sentence uses the phrase "however" it is about to present a counter point to whatever came before it. However is used as a point of transition to say something which is opposite to what has been stated earlier. Ex:
"John likes Marry, however, Marry likes Tom".

So in the last sentence it says "This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ____"
Shouldn't the filler oppose whatever comes before the word "however"?

So the filler should provide evidence that environmental regulations promote growth.

I picked B. I was stuck between D and B because of this.


Hi Nijat12,

"However" in this case, means because. You are right, however, as the counterpoint you alluded to was already demonstrated, i.e This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth.
Thus the filler should not provide evidence why stricter regulations promote growth, but instead an alternate reason why it does. Option A provides this- education and training.

Now, this is a salient point in GMAT. Most passages seem to be called from real-world articles/researches. Thus a cursory familiarity with current affairs will often corroborate answers. A great example is Norway, a country which fit this profile of strict environmental regulation and high economic growth probably because it has invested in training and education of its citizens. On the other hand, are developing/emerging economies that are growing by having lax environmental regulations.

To avoid the risk of going too far out scope.. option A clears the paradox.

Best,

Kudos [?]: 17 [0], given: 13

Re: Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most   [#permalink] 18 Oct 2017, 21:38

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