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# Which of the following most logically completes the

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Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 04:21
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Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

Researchers have developed a blood test to screen for early signs of prostate cancer. The test detects protein, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), that is produced by the prostate in greater amounts when cancer is present. Testing for PSA can detect prostate cancer in the earliest stages in men who show no symptoms, but the diagnosis must be confirmed by additional tests due to a high rate of false positives. Recently, however, the National Health Organization recommended against PSA screening of men over 75. This group would probably not benefit, since __________.

(A) many men over 75 have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer
(B) the additional tests required to confirm the diagnosis are especially taxing on men over 75
(C) even if early signs are present, men over 75 who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so
(D) the fact that PSA is present in the body does not itself strongly suggest that prostate cancer is present
(E) testing for PSA, along with necessary follow-up tests, is very expensive, and many men over 75 do not have private health insurance

After reading the stimulus , I feel it is certainly a resolve the paradox problem as it provides an discrepancy or paradox. In this case should we go out of scope and bring an situation or since it is a fill in the blank question , should we stay in the scope. Can someone please explain your answer. I will give the OA after hearing your answer.

Much Thanks.
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 04:53
I go with Option A

as if the men >75 is already fed with prostate cancer then there is no need of going with the test......Please correct me if i am wrong
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 05:15
1
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hoogly wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

Researchers have developed a blood test to screen for early signs of prostate cancer. The test detects protein, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), that is produced by the prostate in greater amounts when cancer is present. Testing for PSA can detect prostate cancer in the earliest stages in men who show no symptoms, but the diagnosis must be confirmed by additional tests due to a high rate of false positives. Recently, however, the National Health Organization recommended against PSA screening of men over 75. This group would probably not benefit, since __________.

(A) many men over 75 have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer
(B) the additional tests required to confirm the diagnosis are especially taxing on men over 75
(C) even if early signs are present, men over 75 who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so
(D) the fact that PSA is present in the body does not itself strongly suggest that prostate cancer is present
(E) testing for PSA, along with necessary follow-up tests, is very expensive, and many men over 75 do not have private health insurance

After reading the stimulus , I feel it is certainly a resolve the paradox problem as it provides an discrepancy or paradox. In this case should we go out of scope and bring an situation or since it is a fill in the blank question , should we stay in the scope. Can someone please explain your answer. I will give the OA after hearing your answer.

Much Thanks.

No, this is not a "Resolve the Paradox" case. It talks about a particular case. It is an inference question and we should deduce the result from the passage.

So,
The premises are from the passage.
Conclusion is from outside, that is from the options.

Summary:

PSA testing is used to detect prostrate cancer among men WHO show no symptoms.
Futher tests may be required to confirm the cancer.

Men above 75 won't require this test because

(A) many men over 75 have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer
We should talk about those MEN who have not yet been diagnosed. Out of scope.

(B) the additional tests required to confirm the diagnosis are especially taxing on men over 75.
Don't know what "taxing" means. Come back to it later.

(C) even if early signs are present, men over 75 who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so.
Even if the PSA test results are +ve, the symptoms so arise by the ailment would actually not arise for the people above 75. Somewhat okay if we assume that no display of the symptoms is as good as having no cancer at all. So, no treatment OR action will really be necessary. Pretty convincing, I say.

(D) the fact that PSA is present in the body does not itself strongly suggest that prostate cancer is present.
Well, we already know that. What's new?

(E) testing for PSA, along with necessary follow-up tests, is very expensive, and many men over 75 do not have private health insurance
I call this having information from outside. This should be avoided. The conclusion should be made only on the basis of the premises we know AND none of those talks about health insurance or monetary capabilities of people above 75. Additional information not present in the premise.

Going back to B, which looks less convincing than C.

(B) the additional tests required to confirm the diagnosis are especially taxing on men over 75.
Something is required from the men above 75. Nowhere in the premise is it mentioned that they won't be able to provide that. B is not as strong.

Ans: "C"
************************

taxing: Physically or mentally demanding.

Now, I'm convinced why B is not true. Who said that people above 75 won't be able to take this challenge.
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 05:21
Thanks Fluke,

The OA is c. But could you please let me know why it is not an paradox ?
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 05:27
However I still have some ambiguity. Power score CR states that, Fill in the blank questions are of two types and all questions with " since " before the blank indicate it is an assumption question. Did i decipher it wrong. Your answer could clear me off my most pertaining doubt for many days. thanks.
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 05:55
hoogly wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

Researchers have developed a blood test to screen for early signs of prostate cancer. The test detects protein, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), that is produced by the prostate in greater amounts when cancer is present. Testing for PSA can detect prostate cancer in the earliest stages in men who show no symptoms, but the diagnosis must be confirmed by additional tests due to a high rate of false positives. Recently, however, the National Health Organization recommended against PSA screening of men over 75. This group would probably not benefit, since __________.

(A) many men over 75 have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer
(B) the additional tests required to confirm the diagnosis are especially taxing on men over 75
(C) even if early signs are present, men over 75 who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so
(D) the fact that PSA is present in the body does not itself strongly suggest that prostate cancer is present
(E) testing for PSA, along with necessary follow-up tests, is very expensive, and many men over 75 do not have private health insurance

After reading the stimulus , I feel it is certainly a resolve the paradox problem as it provides an discrepancy or paradox. In this case should we go out of scope and bring an situation or since it is a fill in the blank question , should we stay in the scope. Can someone please explain your answer. I will give the OA after hearing your answer.

Much Thanks.

I think OA should be C.
We need a convincing reason to say that additional tests are not needed for people above 75.
B - is convincing, but C overpowers B.
As per C, men over 75 will not have prostrate cancer, and so no need to diagnose them.
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 06:31
Sorry for the wrong answer it should be C
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 07:40
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hoogly wrote:
Thanks Fluke,
The OA is c. But could you please let me know why it is not an paradox ?

I won't summarily reject it as Non-Paradoxical, but I won't call it a resolve the paradox question type either. Resolve the paradox presents a generic theory that is valid for most cases, and then presents a conflicting evidence refuting that theory. We then take a statement outside the scope of the passage and reconcile both of them. Reconciliation means that we won't prove the theory wrong just as we justify the rationale behind the evidence to have been correct.

I say this question is a mix of both- Paradox AND Inference. NHO's recommendation appear paradoxical to an extent; however, it didn't stand in a direct opposition/contradiction of anything claimed or shown before.

Demand of a commodity, if not properly balanced with its supply, is known to rise the price of the commodity. Country A had a great demand for product A and its production was at an all time low, yet the price of the commodity didn't rise. Now, this is a conflicting evidence AND would be considered paradoxical.

Conclusion: The age group above 75 would probably not benefit from PSA screening.
Look at the language. It is a careful suggestion by the author.

We are asked to provide a reasoning for the conclusion to be true. So, we are actually looking for a premise in the options. The premise should give us a reason that can link the evidences we are already presented with.

"C" gives a reason we can logically correlate from the passage(given information).
(C) even if early signs are present, men over 75 who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so
who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so- this is something that can't be deduced from the passage, I agree. Still, it is not out of scope. It provides a reasoning why will someone want to avoid the test AND that reasoning is based on the premises that we saw earlier.

I don't remember the rules of CR bible, neither am I the best person to categorize a question. I just make sure I understand what's asked AND what's given. If your source says, "it is resolve the paradox" question type, it could be that. But, the reasoning I explained to approach the question is correct to the best of my knowledge.
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 08:51
hoogly wrote:
However I still have some ambiguity. Power score CR states that, Fill in the blank questions are of two types and all questions with " since " before the blank indicate it is an assumption question. Did i decipher it wrong. Your answer could clear me off my most pertaining doubt for many days. thanks.

Fluke... Thanks a lot. Can you clear me on this too plz. Power score CR states as above and identify the above question as assumption ! Can you clarify on that if possible. And i am curious to know what is the book you used for CR !
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 08:52
fluke wrote:
hoogly wrote:
Thanks Fluke,
The OA is c. But could you please let me know why it is not an paradox ?

I won't summarily reject it as Non-Paradoxical, but I won't call it a resolve the paradox question type either. Resolve the paradox presents a generic theory that is valid for most cases, and then presents a conflicting evidence refuting that theory. We then take a statement outside the scope of the passage and reconcile both of them. Reconciliation means that we won't prove the theory wrong just as we justify the rationale behind the evidence to have been correct.

I say this question is a mix of both- Paradox AND Inference. NHO's recommendation appear paradoxical to an extent; however, it didn't stand in a direct opposition/contradiction of anything claimed or shown before.

Demand of a commodity, if not properly balanced with its supply, is known to rise the price of the commodity. Country A had a great demand for product A and its production was at an all time low, yet the price of the commodity didn't rise. Now, this is a conflicting evidence AND would be considered paradoxical.

Conclusion: The age group above 75 would probably not benefit from PSA screening.
Look at the language. It is a careful suggestion by the author.

We are asked to provide a reasoning for the conclusion to be true. So, we are actually looking for a premise in the options. The premise should give us a reason that can link the evidences we are already presented with.

"C" gives a reason we can logically correlate from the passage(given information).
(C) even if early signs are present, men over 75 who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so
who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so- this is something that can't be deduced from the passage, I agree. Still, it is not out of scope. It provides a reasoning why will someone want to avoid the test AND that reasoning is based on the premises that we saw earlier.

I don't remember the rules of CR bible, neither am I the best person to categorize a question. I just make sure I understand what's asked AND what's given. If your source says, "it is resolve the paradox" question type, it could be that. But, the reasoning I explained to approach the question is correct to the best of my knowledge.

That's an awesome exposition. It clears my mind of " resolve the paradox " ambiguity. +1 to you.Thanks
Also I am curious to know what is the book you used to grab the CR basics.
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Last edited by hoogly on 26 Sep 2011, 09:04, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 09:01
C!
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 09:11
gautammalik wrote:
hoogly wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

Researchers have developed a blood test to screen for early signs of prostate cancer. The test detects protein, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), that is produced by the prostate in greater amounts when cancer is present. Testing for PSA can detect prostate cancer in the earliest stages in men who show no symptoms, but the diagnosis must be confirmed by additional tests due to a high rate of false positives. Recently, however, the National Health Organization recommended against PSA screening of men over 75. This group would probably not benefit, since __________.

(A) many men over 75 have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer
(B) the additional tests required to confirm the diagnosis are especially taxing on men over 75
(C) even if early signs are present, men over 75 who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so
(D) the fact that PSA is present in the body does not itself strongly suggest that prostate cancer is present
(E) testing for PSA, along with necessary follow-up tests, is very expensive, and many men over 75 do not have private health insurance

After reading the stimulus , I feel it is certainly a resolve the paradox problem as it provides an discrepancy or paradox. In this case should we go out of scope and bring an situation or since it is a fill in the blank question , should we stay in the scope. Can someone please explain your answer. I will give the OA after hearing your answer.

Much Thanks.

I think OA should be C.
We need a convincing reason to say that additional tests are not needed for people above 75.
B - is convincing, but C overpowers B.
As per C, men over 75 will not have prostrate cancer, and so no need to diagnose them.

Thanks Gautam
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 09:44
hoogly wrote:
That's an awesome exposition. It clears my mind of " resolve the paradox " ambiguity. +1 to you.Thanks
Also I am curious to know what is the book you used to grab the CR basics.

You're welcome!!!

Nothing different.

CR Bible from Powerscore. Don't waste more than 4 days on this.
In the beginning, Practice only from OG.
Then go for GPrep, GMAC Paper Tests.
Aristotle CR.

Practice is the key to success.
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 10:04
Thanks Fluke. I did not complete powerscore rather using mgmat CR .But i refer to powerscore in the middle for some topics .
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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2011, 11:07
C in 1.30............

Think about conclusion, infeer...........and most of all the answer MUST be true.

A ) is half right but also half wrong: in men over 75 have alreary the cancer why NHO suggest the test ??

B) we have no information about the cost

C) hold on

D) irrilevant

E) same B

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Re: Tough CR Problem ! Fill in the Blank [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2011, 01:06
Awesome explanation fluke!!!! kudos +1...

fluke wrote:
hoogly wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

Researchers have developed a blood test to screen for early signs of prostate cancer. The test detects protein, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), that is produced by the prostate in greater amounts when cancer is present. Testing for PSA can detect prostate cancer in the earliest stages in men who show no symptoms, but the diagnosis must be confirmed by additional tests due to a high rate of false positives. Recently, however, the National Health Organization recommended against PSA screening of men over 75. This group would probably not benefit, since __________.

(A) many men over 75 have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer
(B) the additional tests required to confirm the diagnosis are especially taxing on men over 75
(C) even if early signs are present, men over 75 who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so
(D) the fact that PSA is present in the body does not itself strongly suggest that prostate cancer is present
(E) testing for PSA, along with necessary follow-up tests, is very expensive, and many men over 75 do not have private health insurance

After reading the stimulus , I feel it is certainly a resolve the paradox problem as it provides an discrepancy or paradox. In this case should we go out of scope and bring an situation or since it is a fill in the blank question , should we stay in the scope. Can someone please explain your answer. I will give the OA after hearing your answer.

Much Thanks.

No, this is not a "Resolve the Paradox" case. It talks about a particular case. It is an inference question and we should deduce the result from the passage.

So,
The premises are from the passage.
Conclusion is from outside, that is from the options.

Summary:

PSA testing is used to detect prostrate cancer among men WHO show no symptoms.
Futher tests may be required to confirm the cancer.

Men above 75 won't require this test because

(A) many men over 75 have already been diagnosed with prostate cancer
We should talk about those MEN who have not yet been diagnosed. Out of scope.

(B) the additional tests required to confirm the diagnosis are especially taxing on men over 75.
Don't know what "taxing" means. Come back to it later.

(C) even if early signs are present, men over 75 who display no symptoms of prostate cancer are unlikely ever to do so.
Even if the PSA test results are +ve, the symptoms so arise by the ailment would actually not arise for the people above 75. Somewhat okay if we assume that no display of the symptoms is as good as having no cancer at all. So, no treatment OR action will really be necessary. Pretty convincing, I say.

(D) the fact that PSA is present in the body does not itself strongly suggest that prostate cancer is present.
Well, we already know that. What's new?

(E) testing for PSA, along with necessary follow-up tests, is very expensive, and many men over 75 do not have private health insurance
I call this having information from outside. This should be avoided. The conclusion should be made only on the basis of the premises we know AND none of those talks about health insurance or monetary capabilities of people above 75. Additional information not present in the premise.

Going back to B, which looks less convincing than C.

(B) the additional tests required to confirm the diagnosis are especially taxing on men over 75.
Something is required from the men above 75. Nowhere in the premise is it mentioned that they won't be able to provide that. B is not as strong.

Ans: "C"
************************

taxing: Physically or mentally demanding.

Now, I'm convinced why B is not true. Who said that people above 75 won't be able to take this challenge.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2013, 01:32
This appears to be a GMAT Hacks question of the day. It reappeared on 2/2/2013. The official explanation for the question is as follows:

Answer: C This is a Fill In The Blank question, so look for the answer that fits most clearly within the scope of the argument. Testing for PSA is beneficial because it diagnoses prostate cancer very early on, even before symptoms are present. Based on the structure of the last sentence, there must be some reason why PSA testing is not beneficial for men over 75. Consider each choice in turn: (A) This is irrelevant; presumably, men who already have prostate cancer would not be tested for early signs of prostate cancer. (B) It is not clear from this choice whether additional tests are so taxing that it isn't worth identifying and possibly treating prostate cancer; one suspects the opposite is the case. (C) This is correct. Based on the passage, it would appear that if prostate cancer is diagnosed only by PSA testing, it is in a very early stage. It would likely take some time before it becomes symptomatic. If someone is unlikely to develop symptoms, there is no reason to test for, and possibly treat, the cancer. (D) This choice is not specific to men over 75; in fact, the false-positive rate is already mentioned in the passage. (E) Like (B), it isn't clear that this drawback is enough to make testing not worthwhile. It also isn't directly relevant to the claim that men over 75 "would probably not benefit"--they may well benefit, even if the test is very expensive.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2015, 05:04
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2015, 04:30
avohden wrote:
This appears to be a GMAT Hacks question of the day. It reappeared on 2/2/2013. The official explanation for the question is as follows:

Answer: C This is a Fill In The Blank question, so look for the answer that fits most clearly within the scope of the argument. Testing for PSA is beneficial because it diagnoses prostate cancer very early on, even before symptoms are present. Based on the structure of the last sentence, there must be some reason why PSA testing is not beneficial for men over 75. Consider each choice in turn: (A) This is irrelevant; presumably, men who already have prostate cancer would not be tested for early signs of prostate cancer. (B) It is not clear from this choice whether additional tests are so taxing that it isn't worth identifying and possibly treating prostate cancer; one suspects the opposite is the case. (C) This is correct. Based on the passage, it would appear that if prostate cancer is diagnosed only by PSA testing, it is in a very early stage. It would likely take some time before it becomes symptomatic. If someone is unlikely to develop symptoms, there is no reason to test for, and possibly treat, the cancer. (D) This choice is not specific to men over 75; in fact, the false-positive rate is already mentioned in the passage. (E) Like (B), it isn't clear that this drawback is enough to make testing not worthwhile. It also isn't directly relevant to the claim that men over 75 "would probably not benefit"--they may well benefit, even if the test is very expensive.

The word "taxing' in B means that the additional tests are more trouble to the old bodies of 75+ men. This is the reason NHO says, do not use the test. Why would NHO say not to use a procedure (a test+followup) just because it thinks 75+ men won't do it (if they do not show any symptoms? Why does the NHO not think about 75+ men who might have symptoms. Would they also not do the procedure, given that they do have symptoms. Obviously, the procedure would be beneficial to them, right. But, somehow NHO thinks "no, people (without symptoms) won't do the procedure, so let us not do the procedure AT ALL (even for people who do show symptoms, who might do the procedure).

I think B is the ans. If the followup procedure is taxing (physically demanding) on 75+ men, then NHO might say "Don't do it on 75+ men for their safety". What do you think?
Re: Which of the following most logically completes the   [#permalink] 24 Nov 2015, 04:30
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