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# Which of the following most logically completes the

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Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2005, 21:06
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Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.

(A) Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages

(B) the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage workers at Yorco does

(C) the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech

(D) overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech

(E) the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly wages paid at Zortech

Question Code : VCR006014
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by hazelnut on 23 Jun 2017, 07:47, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question stem.

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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26 Jan 2013, 04:32
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Yorco and Zortech have roughly the same number of hourly wage workers.
Yorco spends far higher total sum per year on wages of such workers.
:. Hourly wages must be higher on average at Yorco than Zortech...

A. Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages
Spending on benefits is a different topic... The concern is spending on wages... OUT!

B. the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage workers at Yorco does
Skills are not the issue... OUT!

C. the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech
The other types of employees is out of scopre... OUT!

Thus far, it's quite easy to eliminate A, B and C...

D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech
The argument knows that total sums spent by Yorco is greater than Zortech and jumps into conclusion that average is higher in Yorco.. We know that to conclude about average - we must know two components: (1) total sum and (2) total hours... If the hours of workers in Yorco are higher then that will explain the increase in total sums spent and not necessarily mean average is higher...

E. the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly wages paid at Zortech
The conclusion is about the average hourly wage... The breakdown of the total sums that contributed to the average is not known...

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2005, 16:35
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Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.

A. Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages
B. the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage workers at Yorco does
C. the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech
D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech
E. the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly wages paid at Zortech

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2005, 21:00
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ttar wrote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.

A. Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages
B. the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage workers at Yorco does
C. the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech
D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech
E. the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly wages paid at Zortech

total sum = number of workers * hourly wage * hours

NOW, total sum, number of workers and hourly wage are the same.

Therefore hours must be the same.

D it is

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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01 May 2012, 22:44
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E is irrelevant. the highest or lowest salary comparison has no impact anywhere on the conclusion in that conclusion talks of the average hourly wages.
D removes a possibility of overtime salary and hence strengthens the conclusion.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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03 May 2012, 07:02
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Also, you have to understand that when a "complete the passage" question ends with 'since', it is basically an assumption question.

Hence, with this added knowledge, if you look at the question, what it's really saying is that despite the fact that both the companies employ roughly the same number of hourly wage workers, the fact that Yorco spends a far higher sum on wages of the said workers MUST be attributed to the fact that Yorco has higher hourly wages BECAUSE there is no other factor that points to the contrary.

The underlined portion is the assumption, and choice D removes the possibility of another factor as the reason behind Yorco's higher expenditure on hourly wages. Thus, choice D gives weight to the implied assumption and is the correct answer choice.

Hope that helped.

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2005, 10:55
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2015, 00:06
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kinjiGC wrote:
Employee of Y and Z are equal.
Y spends more than Z
Then Y average wage paid to the employees should be more than Z. Hence E)

D) cannot be the answer as the option doesn't explain anything. We need a reason for the discrepancy as we have "since".

One way to support an Argument is to remove the alternate cause of the result. D exactly does that.

Conclusion : "More Money Spent So more hourly wages are more". D removes the alternate Cause by saying both the companies doesnt spend extra Money for OverTime done by employee.

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2016, 10:31
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This question teaches you a lesson on alternative cause using reverse psychology.
GMAC sternly speaking: "stick to the rules even if you see demons on the way!"

Number of hourly paid workers in Y equals the number of hourly paid workers in Z.
Y's total wage is greater than Z's total wage.
Therefore on the average the hourly wage in Y is higher than hourly wage in Z.

The conclusion above depends on which assumption?
[b]HKD1710
here we go!

(Aside: When I see this type of question I just say HKD!. that's my abracadabra)

One thing that could make the conclusion not to hold is an alternative cause. e.g. only Y or Y and Z have other wage payments to make other than the hourly wage payment.

D.A. Only D defends this argument best from this IDEA.

Now good Mr Dubey tell me, what will you change in A so as to make it a certain D.A. if D doesn't exist?
You answer this puzzle I'll duff hat.[/b]

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2016, 10:43
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It would be D because Zorco gets paid a better hourly wage and since overtime work is rare for both companies.

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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19 Apr 2016, 20:35
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Nez wrote:
This question teaches you a lesson on alternative cause using reverse psychology.
GMAC sternly speaking: "stick to the rules even if you see demons on the way!"

Number of hourly paid workers in Y equals the number of hourly paid workers in Z.
Y's total wage is greater than Z's total wage.
Therefore on the average the hourly wage in Y is higher than hourly wage in Z.

The conclusion above depends on which assumption?
[b]HKD1710
here we go!

(Aside: When I see this type of question I just say HKD!. that's my abracadabra)

One thing that could make the conclusion not to hold is an alternative cause. e.g. only Y or Y and Z have other wage payments to make other than the hourly wage payment.

D.A. Only D defends this argument best from this IDEA.

Now good Mr Dubey tell me, what will you change in A so as to make it a certain D.A. if D doesn't exist?
You answer this puzzle I'll duff hat.[/b]

Here you go Nez,

Let me speak about the choice E as well. It says highest wages are higher at yorco. what about the the lower wages are also high at yorco. conclusion talks about avergae not values that constitute it because these values are not talked about and author di not give any clue about these.

Premise: No of workers at Y = No of workers at Z

Premise: Sum spend at Y >>>> Sum spend at Z

Conclusion: Average at Y > Average at Y

premise: Unstated

Conclusion is STRONG here. We need to DEFEND it.

Structure
Premise ..> Premise ..> "THEREFORE...CONCLUSION....SINCE....PREMISE." So this premise is NOT STATED (you see we need to fill it.) As already mentioned conclusion has no GAPS it is strong so we need a fact to defend.

Now looking at choice A.

A.Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages

so first of all this is a weaken-er. correct choice should be DEFENDER NOT weaken-er. how can A be right???

Correct choice definitly need to express the idea that "it is just about the wages which are spent on the hours worked by these n number of employees" A FACT that would align to this idea would be defender assumptions.

DA-1: There is no overtime (full-time can do overtime - so in scope)
DA-2: (generalization) ANY IDEA THAT DOES NOT NEGATE THE PREMISES AND STILL BREAK THE CONCLUSION, IF NEGATED, BECOMES OUR DA. Any you can think of?

So D definitly alogns with the idea while A don't.

if you anyhow thinking that IF "D" WERE NOT THERE IN CHOICES AND A WAS WRITTEN AS "Yorco spends a higher total sum per year than Zortech does to provide its hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages" WOULD ONLY BE A WEAKNER.

So you can either use a negative word OR not, you can save your conclusion by writing choice as A as followings:

"Total sum per year spent by Yorco AND Zortech relate ONLY to wages of such workers for their per hour work"
"Total sum per year spent by Yorco AND Zortech DOES NOT include any other expense on the workers"

NOTE: if you start thinking of finding to many defenders then it will confuse you because then you may sometime get carried away with out of SCOPE choices. NEW INFORMATION whenever brought in it also has to be in scope. Idea is to stick to keywords that constitute the argument while saving the conclusion by giving a FACT.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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19 Oct 2017, 21:20
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Expert's post
Quote:
Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.

(A) Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages

(B) the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage workers at Yorco does

(C) the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech

(D) overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech

(E) the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly wages paid at Zortech

GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

Hi Experts
Can you explain which mathematical equations fits in here?

Ah, if only the Verbal section could be conquered with mathematical formulas! As described in our CR Guide for Beginners, you have to get used to thinking structurally.

So what's the conclusion here? It's that "hourly wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech." How does the author arrive at that conclusion?

• Yorco employs roughly the same number of full-time hourly wage workers as Zortech does.
• Yorco spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers than Zortech does.

We need something that links these facts to the conclusion. In other words, given that both companies employee the same number of such workers, how can we conclude that the reason Yorco spends more on such workers is that Yorco's hourly wages are higher? What if the employees at Yorco simply work longer hours than employees at Zortech? In that case, Yorco could spend more on such workers each year even though they pay the same wage per hour.

Choice (D) rules out that possibility, thus filling a possible hole in the author's logic.

Sure, we could come up with a couple of math equations, but that's a habit that won't help you much on CR in general.
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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2005, 21:28
I will go for D. Though I am also inclined towards B also but I think D provides an ASSUMPTIOM that if not specified can be called for DEBATE.

D for me.

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2005, 23:24
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[quote="pb_india"]Which of the following most logically completes the argument?

(A)Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages
non-wage benefits has nothing to do with wages
Wrong

(B)the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage workers at Yorco does
Doesn't follow the comparison laid out in the question. It is perfectly possible that Z has easier jobs but still higher wages
Wrong

(C)the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech
Wrong

(D)overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech
Correct. If over time is not rare in Y but rare in Z, then it might be a reason why Y spends more money than Z, even if Y's average wage is not higher than Z. Getting rid of this probability will be able to support the conclusion arrived in the last sentence of the opening question

(E)the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly wages paid at Zortech
Highest wage says nothing about average wages
Wrong

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2005, 17:32
(D)
I think we need to find something, that could be a reason for explaining why Y spent more than Z and then neutralize that reason, leaving us with the only option of concluding that the average hourly wage at Y is greater that that at Z for the employees.

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2005, 20:19
I'll take D.

E, while talks about the highest hourly wage, doesn't tell you if the avg. wage at Y is > avg. wage at Z

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2005, 20:39
D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2005, 22:08
You're right, D should be the answer. If overtime work is rare, then the reason Yorco ended up with more wages paid out is because they have a higher per hour wage compared to Zortech.

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2005, 05:48
Yorco and Zortech are two corporations that employ large numbers of full-time workers who are paid by the hour. Publicly available records indicate that Yorco employs roughly the same number of such hourly wage workers as Zortech does but spends a far higher total sum per year on wages for such workers. Therefore, hourly wages must be higher, on average, at Yorco than at Zortech, since _____.

A. Zortech spends a higher total sum per year than Yorco does to provide its hourly wage workers with benefits other than wages

Not mentoined in the stem

B. the work performed by hourly wage workers at Zortech does not require a significantly higher level of skill than the work performed by hourly wage workers at Yorco does

Same as A

C. the proportion of all company employees who are hourly wage workers is significantly greater at Yorco than it is at Zortech

Contradicts what has been said in the stem

D. overtime work, which is paid at a substantially higher rate than work done during the regular work week, is rare at both Yorco and Zortech

Out of scope

E. the highest hourly wages paid at Yorco are higher than the highest hourly wages paid at Zortech

Could be ..

I choose E

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2005, 09:42
D ! E is out because the argument talks about average hourly wages and the explanation in E could or could not be the reason for it. D is straight !

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Re: Which of the following most logically completes the   [#permalink] 16 Mar 2005, 09:42

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