Which of the following most logically completes the passage? : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

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Which of the following most logically completes the passage? [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2005, 06:00
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Which of the following most logically completes the passage?

Concerned about financial well-being of its elderly citizens, the government of Runagia
decided two years ago to increase by 20 percent the government-provided pension
paid to all Runagians over 65. Inflation in the intervening period has been negligible,
and the increase has been duly received by all eligible Runagians. Nevertheless,
many of them are no better off financially than they were before the increase, in large
part because ________.

A. They rely entirely on the government pension for their income
B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a
pension check
C. They buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation
D. The pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the
poverty level reached an all-time high
E. In Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but
only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living
If you have any questions
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21 Jul 2005, 06:17
D is my choice.

A. They rely entirely on the government pension for their income.
- Ok, there was a increase in the amount they received, which is more than what they used to get. They should be better off atleaset a bit.

B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check.
- OUT Still does not complete the passage.
C. They buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation
- OUT But inflation has been low.
D. The pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high
- This makes sense, which indicates that their condition has been becoming bad day by day and even after the raise, they still are not where they were 5 or 10 years back.
E. In Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living
- OUT So the extra money should help the citizens.
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21 Jul 2005, 06:20
Hope it is (D)
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21 Jul 2005, 07:33
Picked E.

Children would now supplement their parents income by 20% less, because of their criteria to just provide for a comfy living.So they are living comfortably , but only "just" as they were before the hike.

HMTG.
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21 Jul 2005, 07:40
i would have said that none of the choices look ok to me.
but if i had to pick, guess it would be E for similar reasons HMTG gave.
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21 Jul 2005, 08:31

A. They rely entirely on the government pension for their income
>Does not explain why the living standards of the pensioners are still the same

B. Runagian banks are so inefficient that it can take up to three weeks to cash a pension check
> But, that doesn't explain why even after two years, the pensioner's living conditions have remained the same

C. They buy goods whose prices tend to rise especially fast in times of inflation
> NOPE. The question states that "Inflation in the intervening period has been negligible"

D. The pension was increased when the number of elderly Runagians below the poverty level reached an all-time high
> NOPE. if the elderly Runagians were below the poverty level, then the increase in their pension should have directly resulted in some improvement in their lives, But, the argument states that "many of them are no better off financially than they were before the increase"

E. In Runagia children typically supplement the income of elderly parents, but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living
> YES. If the pension was inadequte for the elderly parents to afford a comfortable living before the increase, and if children have been supplementing the income of their elderly parents, then a pension increase would have resulted in a decrease in contribution from the children. Therefore the elderly people, still maintain the same quality of life.

Wow.. Was my explanation a little too detailed??
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21 Jul 2005, 10:11
I don't agree with (E) - there are too much assumption. The author never mentioned, what would the children's reaction be once the pension increased.

As for (D), it clearly says, that the country has increased pension only when the poverty level reached an all-time high.
Suppose, there were 1mln poor elders prior to the certain period of "all-time poverty level(ATPL)". After the APTL, the number increased to 1.5mln poor, and after that govern. decides to increase the pension. Thus we can assume that the increased pension brought back the old poverty level.

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21 Jul 2005, 10:14
My first choice was D. But I would not rule out E. It looks like it is a E.

GA
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21 Jul 2005, 11:31
Wow guys ! You can definetly see through those dirty windows. I like your explanation of E.

E makes a lot of sense. I picked D by POE but never could convince myself why D is right.

Now I see, E is just perfect.
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21 Jul 2005, 11:34
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21 Jul 2005, 11:35
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21 Jul 2005, 20:11
One more for E.
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21 Jul 2005, 20:17
Another vote for E, but I think it's kinda weak.

In order for E to be valid, we have to assume that the children will make an adjustment according to the increase so that they will only supplement the income just enough to provide them with a comfortable living. (which means, less contribution on their part) But, nothing in the paragraph suggests such. E makes perfect sense only if we make that little assumption.

Last edited by keirin79 on 21 Jul 2005, 20:55, edited 1 time in total.
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21 Jul 2005, 20:31
E is best choice....D looks a close contender
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21 Jul 2005, 21:37
What does this sentense, "but only by enough to provide them with a comfortable living", mean? what is the subject of it?
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29 Jul 2005, 05:49
HowManyToGo wrote:
Picked E.

Children would now supplement their parents income by 20% less, because of their criteria to just provide for a comfy living.So they are living comfortably , but only "just" as they were before the hike.

HMTG.

Kewl man! Kewl...
As a best answer, (E) is, else, it is not convincing, because a few assumptions have to be made. I'll still have picked (E) if it were matchday. these ETS folks.....hmmmm.
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29 Jul 2005, 05:59
E for me
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30 Jul 2005, 11:16
The answer is E. So when goverment increases their pension the sons or relatives they remove theirs and the conditon of the elerly remains the same.

(Cruel, heartless SOBs, That does not sound like human norm, thats the trick in the question, but logically according to the choice the conditon of the elderly will remain the same)
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30 Jul 2005, 17:49
The official answer is E. But what is the meaning of "only by enough to "?
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30 Jul 2005, 18:01
This is an example of "all other things not being equal."

Govt felt that pensions weren't enough and increased it. Expenses tied to inflation did not increase. But to explain why the old people did not see an improvement in financial well being we need to know if: a) Pensions weren't the only means of income for the old people and b) If the other means of income declined in the last 2 years.

E clearly addresses this point. In the last 2 years the old people who weree struggling had their children pay for them just enough to survive comfortably. A 20% added check from the govt would naturally mean that the children would hace cut back on their contribution to the parents.
30 Jul 2005, 18:01

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