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While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other

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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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NoHalfMeasures wrote:
I am still not sure how choice B uses correct parallelism/comparison. It compares: cost of something with cost for something. If we were to write the complete sentence with omitting any words, we would write "While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as the cost of running other types of power plants,..." and not write "While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as the cost for running other types of power plants,..."

Does that make sense? Can experts help pls?

Dear NoHalfMeasures,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, I think you need to deepen your understanding of what parallelism is. Parallelism is a pattern of logical correspondence that is reflected in the grammar. Folks fixate on the grammatical aspects of parallelism and lose sight of the logical and rhetorical aspects. A typical mistake along these lines is to conceive of parallelism incorrectly as requiring a kind of military lockstep conformity. The sophisticated use of parallelism does not require the exact same details at all levels: it simply requires enough to convey the logical correspondence and no more. The GMAT loves to present sophisticated parallelism as in the OA of this problem, because it presents a challenge to all who hold to the more simplistic "lockstep" picture of parallelism.

Here's (B):
While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.

Once again, the GMAT absolutely loves this sort of structure. This is a very sophisticated use of parallelism, and the grammatical beancounters who want exact matches in prepositions in all cases will be frustrated. The simple phrase "as for other types of power plants" elegantly conveys the logical relationship flawlessly, without any ambiguity. It perfectly establishes the logical correspondence between nuclear plants and other types of power plants, and it established this with an economy of expression. For those who really understand what parallelism is, this is a masterpiece, a logical and rhetorical success. For folks stuck at the level of grammar alone, ignoring the logic and rhetoric, this looks like it doesn't able the rigid lockstep rules. Such a person clinging to this rule is left holding only an empty husk, because the meaning has eluded his grasp. I would strongly urge you to take your understanding of parallelism to the next level.

Here's another question that explores a similar issue:
The FDA enacted

It is a mistake to think that GMAT SC is only about grammar. In fact, grammar, logic, and rhetoric are all equally important. Mastery of SC comes from having an integrated understanding of the interaction of those three.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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zoezhuyan wrote:
thanks so much.

cost of running A
is the same as
cost of running B
-- parallelism: cost (of doing ) & cost (of doing )

cost of running A
is the same as
cost of B
-- illogical because parallelism : cost (of doing) & cost of (thing)

cost of running A
is the same as
cost for B = cost of running B
--- parallelism: cost (of doing ) & cost (of doing )

my understanding is right?

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~

Dear zoezhuyan,

I'm happy to respond. :-) I see that my intelligent colleague sayantanc2k already gave you a good response. I just want to add a little more.

Think about what parallelism is. Many students mistakenly believe that parallelism is a grammatical structure. It's not. It's a logical structure, a logical matching pattern, and the grammar simply mirrors the logic. In fact, the grammar has only to match enough to make the logic clear. Sometimes, additional matching creates a strong rhetorical effect, but there is absolutely no requirement that parallelism should involve lockstep precision between the two branches down to the last detail.

cost of X and the cost of Y
That's a very sensible pattern of matching: the parallel grammar makes clear the logic.

Now, suppose X is a noun and Y is a gerund phrase.
the cost of auto insurance and the cost of getting a speeding ticket
The real question is whether these are logically parallel? Are these two costs of the same category, the kind we would compare and contrast? Yes! A person in the real world might have make one payment for her auto insurance and another payment because she got a speeding ticket. These are logically similar, so the parallelism works. The fact that we have the matching "cost of" pair is enough to indicate the pattern of matching: that's all the grammatical matching we need. It doesn't matter at all that the X & Y are different parts of speech.

By contrast, we could have the same parts of speech, two nouns, and the parallelism could be complete nonsense:
I made dinner with the leftovers in the refrigerator and with my friend Chris.
Either "with" statement alone would be fine, but together they are a train wreck. The first "with" suggest the materials and the second one suggest accompaniment. These are NOT logically parallel at all, even though the grammar is the same.

On the GMAT SC, you can't afford to pay attention only to the grammar. Grammar and logic and rhetoric are three equally important strands.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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Dear zoezhuyan,

My friend, I responded to your request on that page:
suggestion-on-reading-economists-226090.html#p1739852
DeepikaV wrote:
hi, in option B, im confused with what 'they' refers to. As pronouns can refer to antecedent in previous clauses it can either refer to nuclear plants or 'other plants'. then, it makes this sentence also wrong. please explain

i know that verb +ing modifier preceded with comma and clause modifies the entire clause before it. but, when the preceding clauses has conjunction. does it still modify the preceding clause? like in this case -whereas the electricity they generate is more expensive, stemming from the fixed costs of building nuclear plants.
please explain i'm confused.

Dear DeepikaV,

I'm happy to respond. Here's (B), the OA.
While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.
This is 100% correct.

In this sentence, the word "while" begins a dependent clause, and the comma marks the end of the dependent clause and the beginning of the independent clause.

My friend, what determines the antecedent of a pronoun is a sophisticated matter. It is determined by a combination of grammar, logic, and rhetoric. If you are only looking at the level of grammar, and ignoring logic and rhetoric, you will miss 2/3 of what is happening in any SC sentence.

As a general grammar guideline, if there is a single noun that could be in antecedent of the pronoun that is by far the nearest noun to it, in the same clause, then we never need to look at the other clause. Look at the independent clause, everything after the comma. There is only one plural noun, "nuclear plants," and all other plural nouns are further away and in another clause. Just at the level of grammar, this is a slam-dunk: the closest appropriate noun is the antecedent. Like the OA of many other GMAT SC problems, this is correct and valid at many different levels.

Furthermore, consider at the level of rhetoric: what is the subject of this sentence? The subject, the topic at hand, is "nuclear plants." That's the focus of the whole sentence. Sometimes great rhetorical focus can make up for a little grammatical ambiguity. For example, if two clauses appear in the sentence, and the subject of the first is the focus of the sentence, then a pronoun subject for the second clause almost always refers back to this original subject, even if other potential antecedents were intervening. In this sentence, though, there is no grammatical ambiguity whatsoever, and the rhetorical focus of the sentence simply strengthens the already clear pronoun-antecedent relationship.

My friend, I would urge you not to use the terminology "VERB-ing." That is sloppy imprecise language, and imprecise language leads to imprecise thought. In fact, a verb with the -ing suffix may be playing one of three different roles:
1) a participle
2) a gerund
3) part of a progressive tense verb
Those are the proper terms to use.

If we have a clause, then a comma, then a participle, the participle often modifies the whole clause before it--often, but not always. You quoted part of (D) ...whereas the electricity they generate is more expensive, stemming from the fixed costs of building nuclear plants
In (D), the antecedent of the pronoun "they" is less clear: that's one problem with (D). Also, the construction "stemming from" to explain a cause is very casual and awkward. This might appear in colloquial English, but in the formal writing of the GMAT, this is wrong. As to your question, yes, "stemming" is attempting to modify the action of the previous clause, purporting to give an explanation of why the electricity is more expensive. Choice (D) is wrong.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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kivalo wrote:
I understand that in A (after the comma) is wrong. But what's wrong with the comparison, can't it be:

While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as [it costs to run] other types of power plants?


There is no comparison error in option A. In addition to the error you stated, there are three more errors in the option:
1. The relative pronoun "that" wrongly refers to " plants" - it should refer to "fixed costs".
2. The verb "makes" should be singular because its subject is "that" that should refer to "fixed costs".
3. The pronoun "them" has no antecedent - generating electricity is expensive for power plants (them) is not meaningful.
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2013, 12:10
daagh wrote:
There are two distinct splits here, as you may see; one is the comparison of the costs to run a nuclear plant with just the other types of plants and not their running costs. The second split is the ambiguity of the pronouns, precisely the –third - it in the original. Of course the other two it pronouns may be argued as passable as place holders.

A. While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes it more expensive for them to generate electricity. ----- 1.faulty comparison; cost of running compared with other types of power plants 2. The third pronoun it is dangling without an antecedent. Makes what more expensive? Makes electricity more expensive to generate electricity 3. Costs that makes … A SV mismatch


B While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.
The comparison, the pronoun problem and the SV mismatch nicely fixed. Correct choice.

C. Even though it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes the electricity they generate more expensive. -----Though the comparison problems are fixed, costs and that makes is S-V mismatch.

D. It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants, whereas the electricity they generate is more expensive, stemming from the fixed costs of building nuclear plants.
Pronoun they is rather ambiguous; they may refer to either the nuclear or other types.

E. The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as other types of power plants, but the electricity they generate is made more expensive because of the fixed costs stemming from building nuclear plants. -------- Faulty comparison


Daagh,

Can you please clarify this -

'doesn't B change the meaning? B talks about the electricity becoming more expensive but the original sentence talks about it becoming more expensive for the plant to generate electricity. These are two different things'
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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sujit2k7 wrote:
One more imp learning from this SC:

A costs the same as B- sub to sub comparison
The costs of running A is same for B---Obj to Obj comparison need Preposition
{Got this rule from Magoosh video so can rely on it :wave }

B While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.->Correct



Hi,
Can someone please clarify my doubt.
How ellipsis is playing its part over here. I understand that we either needs to use verb (in case of Subject to Subject comparison so that the comparison is not ambiguous) or apply preposition so as to make Object - Object comparison.

Here Object of preposition is {running nuclear plants} and {other types of power plants} -> how they both are logically parallel?
Request you to provide insights.

Thanks
H
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2013, 11:41
Thanks daagh for your reply.

I understand that the answer B is best amongst all, and conveys the logical meaning perfectly.
However, I am still not convinced about the sentence structure. Can you please elaborate a bit more on your reasoning.

I tried to understand this concept by taking clues from MGMAT, but failed to do so. I would appreciate if someone can help me out.

Here is an example from MGMAT-
The incidence of the disease among men exceeds the incidence among women.
The incidence of the disease among men exceeds that among women.
Here, that is referring to incidence, per explanantion from MGMAT.

So, ellipsis should be -
The incidence of the disease among men exceeds that(of the disease) among women.
Now, going by same concept -

The cost of running nuclear plants is same as that for electric plants.
In the below sentence, what THAT is referring to . Is it "the cost" or "the cost of running".

If it is later, then why do we require an extra preposition?

The cost of running nuclear plants is same as {the cost of running }for electric plants.

Appreciate your help
Thanks
H

daagh wrote:
When expanded in full (with ellipsis in brackets), B will be
B While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for (the cost of running) other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.
The comparison is still between the costs of running one type with the costs for running other types. The only difference is that in the first case we are using ‘of’ as the preposition while in the second arm, we are using ‘for’. As long as we use a preposition for another acceptable preposition, the comparison can be considered be logical and parallel, IMO.

As far as B changing the meaning from the original, I feel the meaning is flawed. There is no way we can ascertain what the “it” stands for. The term ‘it’ does not convey clearly and logically the intended meaning. Hence we have to amend it. B is logical.

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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 16 Mar 2013, 13:50
You see, leaving apart too many rules, we need to chose the answer which is best out of the given options. All other choices except for B, in the question above, have noticeable grammar issues. Quite unlike, Choice B, only uses an additional preposition, which if you notice, most other choices uses as well, so...we choose an option which overcomes other more critical grammar issues (the logical comparison and SV error)
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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You are absolutely correct in your understanding. And you are dead on about the ambiguity in the sentence if we omit "that among".

Now you asked about the following sentence - i.e. if we only omitted that and retained among.

The incidence of the disease among men exceeds among women.
IMO, this sentence is also ambiguous since it somehow may consider "incidence of that disease among men" as one entity and when this entity is put together with "among women", it would not make sense.

Let's take another example:
Attraction of child to chocolates exceeds to ice cream. - IMO incorrect
Attraction of child to chocolates exceeds that to ice cream. - Surely Correct.

I hope this helps.

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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2013, 21:15
TO EGMAT

A says:While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes it more expensive for them to generate electricity.


though i had eliminated A but i want to know if the initial comparison in A is faulty ?

if i say : nuclear power plants cost twice as much to run as other power plants . i know that this comparison is oki even without the helping verb "do" because there is no ambiguity

so i get a feeling that in A this initial comparison :While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants seems to be right comparison wise .it might be wrong because of usage of "it" or because of some redundancy but comparison wise it seems oki .
any thought

Last edited by aditya8062 on 19 Mar 2013, 06:48, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2013, 06:05
Hi Aditya,

Let me take a stab on it.

While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants

Whenever, you encounter such questions, always make sure about the presence of Subject-Verb, Object and prepositional phrase.

If there is prepositional phrase, more often than not you have the ambiguity present. You will see that the sentence can be interpreted in two ways.

1) Repeat the MAIN VERB and see what does sentence mean now.
While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants (Costs)

Sentence says that cost of running nuclear plants is same as the cost of other power plants(it may cost of infrastructure, or machinery or something else). Now this is illogical, because for sentence to be logical, you must compare costs of running nuclear plants with cost of running other plants

2) Repeat the preposition before second entity
While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as {to run}other types of power plants
Now, here both the costs are same.

So, in nut shell, we have two different scenarios and hence, it is incorrect.

As far as your reasoning goes for negating choice A, I would refrain myself for using it until and unless I have other better choices.
For example,
it is absolutely correct to say that -

It is I who executes the automation scripts everyday.

Hope it is clear.

Thanks
H

aditya8062 wrote:
TO EGMAT

A says:While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes it more expensive for them to generate electricity.


though i had eliminated A but i want to know if the initial comparison in A is faulty ?

if i say : nuclear power plants cost twice as much as to run as other power plants . i know that this comparison is oki even without the helping verb "do" because there is no ambiguity

so i get a feeling that in A this initial comparison :While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants seems to be right comparison wise .it might be wrong because of usage of "it" or because of some redundancy but comparison wise it seems oki .
any thought

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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2013, 06:37
aditya8062 wrote:
@himanshu if that is the case then why does this ambiguity does not arise in this comparison : nuclear power plants cost twice as much as to run as other power plants


@ Aditya,

As far as my analysis goes, I think above sentence is equally ambivalent.

Original Sentence
nuclear power plants cost twice as much as to run as other power plants -> as should not be there.- Wrong Idiom. I guess its typo.

Now, going by my framework -
nuclear power plants cost twice as much to run as other power plants

Repeat Preposition phrase
nuclear power plants cost twice as much to run as {to run }other power plants
Here, cost of running nuclear plants is being compared and
Cost of running nuclear power plants =2* cost of running others

Repeat Main verb
nuclear power plants cost twice as much to run as other power plants do(cost)
This is illogical -
Cost of running nuclear power plants is being compared to cost of other power plants.

I went back to my notes to check if as much as only compares only subjects -This is what I get

1) Comparing Subjects
We have three times as many pears as you(have) - Here it is logical that number of pears =3* as you have. It is illogical to say that number of pears is 3 times as you.
2) Comparing Objects
His knowledge springs as much from experience as from schooling.

Hope that makes sense.

Thanks
H
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2013, 08:01
Quote:
nuclear power plants cost twice as much to run as other power plants

well this sentence is oki comparison wise

Pardon my knowledge. Request you to please show me your point of view, how the above sentence has a valid comparison. It could be structurally correct but as per me, its logically incorrect


Quote:
We have three times as many pears as you
the reason this sentence is ambiguous is coz "we" ,"pears" and "you" are parallel element and can make different meanings possible (which i guess u might be knowing )


This is perfectly correct sentence. Refer MGMAT, p 144.
I'm afraid if that is your reasoning of making the sentence ambiguous. For clarification, refer e-gmat article on ellipsis, example-

John cooks food better than his wife. - Its perfectly valid . However as per your explanation, its going to be ambiguous.

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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2013, 08:08
We have three times as many pears as you
well i treated "you" as a group coz "we" can refer to a group .so fine "you" in this sentence is referring to just one person then "pears" cannot be parallel element to "you"

Last edited by aditya8062 on 21 Mar 2013, 03:54, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2013, 08:12
aditya8062 wrote:
all i am intending is that such an ambiguity is not there in my that sentence :nuclear power plants cost twice as much to run as other power plants


Had that been the case, the following example would have been correct by your standards-

Authoritative parents are more likely to have children than permissive parents.

Again - apply framework
Meaning 1
Authoritative parents are more likely to have children than {to have}permissive parents.
Meaning -2
Authoritative parents are more likely to have children than permissive parents{are}

Either you or I going to have a concept clarified, with so much of discussion.
Waiting for experts.

Thanks
H
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2013, 11:10
egmat wrote:
imhimanshu wrote:
I tried to understand this concept by taking clues from MGMAT, but failed to do so. I would appreciate if someone can help me out.

Here is an example from MGMAT-
The incidence of the disease among men exceeds the incidence among women.
The incidence of the disease among men exceeds that among women.
Here, that is referring to incidence, per explanantion from MGMAT.

So, ellipsis should be -
The incidence of the disease among men exceeds that(of the disease) among women.
Now, going by same concept -

The cost of running nuclear plants is same as that for electric plants.
In the below sentence, what THAT is referring to . Is it "the cost" or "the cost of running".

If it is later, then why do we require an extra preposition?

The cost of running nuclear plants is same as {the cost of running }for electric plants.

Appreciate your help
Thanks
H


Very interesting question Himanshu.
When you are dealing with ellipsis, it always helps to begin from the completely expanded version with all the words and then move your way to the abbreviated version by applying ellipsis along the way. I will do the same here:

Let's consider only the pertinent portion of the sentence.

1. The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as the cost of running other types of power plants.
No issues here with the comparison. Both sides of the comparison are grammatically and logically parallel.

Now what if I replace "the cost of running" with "that". After it is obvious that we are comparing cost of running of the two categories of plants. But when I apply this ellipsis, I need something to connect "that" with "other types of power plants".

2. (Without connection with that)
The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as that other types of power plants. WRONG

2. (with correct connection)
The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as that for other types of power plants.
So this is where the preposition "for" comes from.

Now we continue with our ellipsis. We can indeed even omit "that" from here since this omission will not lead to any ambiguity.

3. The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants.

So this is how I get to the correct sentence containing "for".

Now let's apply the same on the set of sentences:
1. The incidence of the disease among men exceeds the incidence of the disease among women.
1 to 2 - The incidence of the disease among men exceeds the incidence of the disease among women.
2. The incidence of the disease among men exceeds the incidence among women.
2 to 3 - The incidence of the disease among men exceeds the incidence among women.
3. The incidence of the disease among men exceeds that among women.


Image

So the key thing here is that as you replace or omit words, think about what connections you may need to get the correct sentence. The nature of the two sentences is different. In the Official sentence, the main component - cost of running - took direct object without the need of any preposition. So when we replaced this with "that" we needed a connection - i.e. a preposition. However, in the other example, the main component - incidence of the disease - itself needed a preposition to connect to the object and hence when we replaced it with "that" we did not need to get another preposition.

Thus when you cross-check your work in ellipsis, start from the complete sentence and then work your way to simplified version with replacement words and omitted words.

Hope this helps.

Regards,

Payal


So OA is B IMO..

@Payal-Can you please confirm...!
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2013, 22:55
egmat wrote:
o It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants.


Hi Payal,
Request you to please validate my reasoning for the above sentence. I believe, the sentence is ambiguous because we can infer two VALID meanings

It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants.

Meaning 1 -when we can assume infinitive -> "to run" as Common
It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as {to run} other types of power plants.

Here, Meaning comes out to be that Cost of Running Nuclear plants is same as Cost of running other types of power plants. This is logically parallel

Meaning 2-

It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants{costs}.

Here, we can infer that cost of running nuclear plants is same as cost of other types of power plants i.e we are not comparing cost of running plants but comparing cost of running one type of plant with some other costs of other types of power plants, the costs could be build costs, maintenance costs etc. This is Unparallel

Doubt -
As per parallelism rules, both sides of comparison must be logically parallel. Now, my doubt is can we say that the above sentence is ambiguous because it is conveying two meanings i.e we are not sure what author is trying to compare and our job is to make it logically correct. Correct?

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Going by the above concept, Can you please validate my reasoning for the below sentence as well, its taken from OG, though the original sentence may be incorrect for other reasons.

Authoritative parents are more likely to have children than permissive parents

Meaning 1

Authoritative parents are more likely to have children than {are}permissive parents
It can be inferred that comparison is between two types of parents. i.e Authoritative parents have greater chances of children than permissive parents.

Meaning 2
Authoritative parents are more likely to have children than {to have}permissive parents
Now, sentence is comparing the two types of generations. i.e Authoritative parents may have greater possibility of having children(upcoming generation) than having permissive parents(previous generation). Is it illogical meaning? Please put your thoughts across

All, I am trying to understand is that sentence can have two types of ellipsis present. One is with Verb of Subject and another is with Infinitive+direct object. Now, when such is the case can we negate a choice when sentence have this type of ellipsis present even if one Meaning is purely justified and another one is not.


Please share your reasoning.

Thanks
Himanshu
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 13 Aug 2013, 02:36
macjas wrote:
While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes it more expensive for them to generate electricity.

A. While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes it more expensive for them to generate electricity.
B While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.
C. Even though it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes the electricity they generate more expensive.
D. It costs about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants, whereas the electricity they generate is more expensive, stemming from the fixed costs of building nuclear plants.
E. The cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as other types of power plants, but the electricity they generate is made more expensive because of the fixed costs stemming from building nuclear plants.


hi folks,

regarding the solution of this question OG13 SAYS :
The emphatic construction "It is X that does Y"(as in the phrase it is Jane who knows answer)should be used only when there is a compelling reason to emphasize the doer of the action.IN this sentence ,emphatic construction is used without good reason.


i am unable to understand what does this mean and request all experts to share their views on this with examples.

regards
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2013, 07:05
gmatter0913 wrote:
When I did this problem, I ruled out option B for change in meaning. I felt it says that the fixed costs generate electricity.

"While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive."

Could somebody shed some light on this, please?

Yeah i agree with you its bit convoluted...

let me try anyway..

"While the cost of running nuclear plants is about the same as for other types of power plants, the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants make the electricity they generate more expensive.

so costs is MAKING electricity expensive....
while THEY is refering to nuclear plants.
if the intention was to say that fixed costs generate electricity then both verbs would have been connected by AND..(sorry this is just my opinion....i cant frame GMAC like choices) :)
LIKE THIS: ......GENERATE..AND MAKE.....
so THEY is refering to NUCLEAR PLANTS....
hope it helps :)
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Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2013, 09:39
i think if i change "costs" to "cost" in option c it can be considered an asnwer for this question. Please correct me if i am wrong.
c.Even though it cost about the same to run nuclear plants as for other types of power plants, it is the fixed costs that stem from building nuclear plants that makes the electricity they generate more expensive.
Re: While it costs about the same to run nuclear plants as other   [#permalink] 27 Aug 2013, 09:39

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