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# While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of

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15 Aug 2016, 09:37
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If anyone thought that this question involved mere parallelism, then it would be wrong. The element of sentence structure goes thick and thin in this topic along with parallelism.

This sentence starts with a subordinate conjunction while, indicating that this is complex sentence involving a subordinate clause and another main clause.

1. While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating --- subordinate clause.
2. others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating,-- this is part of the subordinate clause
3. and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally. –this is also another part of the sub clause.
One may note that the main clause is missing; therefore, A is incorrect.

Now there is a need to provide a main clause for the sub - clause to complete the grammatical structure of the complex sentence. Let’s see if other choices are helpful.

B. by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call –
The sub- clause can be spliced by only a comma from the main clause in a complex sentence and not by an ‘and’. The coordinating conjunction ‘and’ makes the complex sentence lose its basic structure and the conjunction ‘while’ turns infructious. Therefore, B is also wrong.

(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call -- suggest the reduction is not parallel to attempting- It should be attempting and reducing; Hence C is unparallel.

D. suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling – attempting, reduction are unparallel. In addition what follows 'and' is not an IC but a pharse, which is ungrammatical.

Now what is left?

E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling

This is a complex –compound sentence, wherein we have a complex sentence combined with another IC joined by ‘and’. The verb parallelism is limited to the two present tense verbs of the complex sentence namely propose and suggest, while the prepositional parallelism is maintained in by stating ‘attempting and reducing’. This is correct.
Of course to arrive at the correct choice is a tedious process and I deem that this as one of the toughest questions one may encounter.
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10 Oct 2016, 05:10
mbaMission wrote:
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling

1. Between C and E, We need to use "To" to express intention. Is there any other differences that might make the option C
wrong?
2. What is the differences between "suggest the reduction of" and "suggest reducing software prices"?

3. "Some propose..., other suggest, and other are calling" Is it absolutely alright in terms of parallelism?
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10 Oct 2016, 09:31
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MorningRunner wrote:
nahid78 wrote:
mbaMission wrote:
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling

1. Between C and E, We need to use "To" to express intention. Is there any other differences that might make the option C
wrong?
2. What is the differences between "suggest the reduction of" and "suggest reducing software prices"?

3. "Some propose..., other suggest, and other are calling" Is it absolutely alright in terms of parallelism?

I am also having same doubt you mentioned at bullet 3..
I dont know who the following structure is acceptable specially in GMAT..
simple present, simple present and present continuous?

Can someone help?

There is no problem with different tenses in parallel. The sentence has 3 clauses in parallel - the individual tenses of the verbs need NOT be same - theoretically it is alright.

I generally go to school, but now I am going to a pub... this is absolutely correct.
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11 Oct 2016, 09:00
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nahid78 wrote:

Thank you. Please explain this one too...

What is the differences between "suggest the reduction of" and "suggest reducing software prices"?

The suggestion is for taking up an action - a gerund is closer to a verb (i.e. an action) than a concrete noun is. Hence "suggest reducing prices " should be preferable to "suggest the reduction".
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11 Oct 2016, 16:32
sayantanc2k wrote:
nahid78 wrote:

Thank you. Please explain this one too...

What is the differences between "suggest the reduction of" and "suggest reducing software prices"?

The suggestion is for taking up an action - a gerund is closer to a verb (i.e. an action) than a concrete noun is. Hence "suggest reducing prices " should be preferable to "suggest the reduction".

So here we are applying V-A-N diagram; Verb is preferable to adjective, and adjective is preferable to Noun. As (V+ing) form is closer to verb, it is also preferable to Adjective and noun.
I think now it is clear to me. Thank you
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13 Oct 2016, 09:55
nahid78 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
nahid78 wrote:

Thank you. Please explain this one too...

What is the differences between "suggest the reduction of" and "suggest reducing software prices"?

The suggestion is for taking up an action - a gerund is closer to a verb (i.e. an action) than a concrete noun is. Hence "suggest reducing prices " should be preferable to "suggest the reduction".

So here we are applying V-A-N diagram; Verb is preferable to adjective, and adjective is preferable to Noun. As (V+ing) form is closer to verb, it is also preferable to Adjective and noun.
I think now it is clear to me. Thank you

Not exactly, both are nouns - the VAN rule is applicable when the parts of speech are different. There are cases where a concrete noun is preferable to a gerund, and when you apply this rule (this is not though), you will be wrong.

An action is closer to gerund - since an action is meant, a gerund is preferred: this is my reasoning, not the VAN rule.
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13 Oct 2016, 11:24
does "others are calling " in E seem bit awkward as compared to the rest of the sentence?
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15 Oct 2016, 08:04
warriorguy wrote:
does "others are calling " in E seem bit awkward as compared to the rest of the sentence?

Simple present would probably be better, but using present continuous is grammatically not wrong, and meaning is also alright.
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18 Oct 2016, 10:00
Temurkhon wrote:
imho,

suggest can be used only in two forms: "suggest that..." OR suggest+gerund. So, A and E remains

E more parallel

No, this is not correct. The verb "suggest" CAN take a noun as object.

My professor suggested the topic... correct.

(Moreover suggest can also take an infinitive: I suggest you not to leave)
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01 Mar 2017, 08:59
KyleWiddison wrote:
The elimination for D is rooted in parallelism. The parallel structure you need to setup is: some propose...others suggest..., and still others are. In choice D you have the following: some propose...others suggest..., and still others by calling. You don't have a parallel verb setup with "others by calling" so you don't have a parallel setup and you can eliminate D. [Yes the lack of a verb here means this isn't a complete sentence]

KW

So if I understand you right, it is possible to use the verb part "are" of "are calling" to create parallel structure with the other two verbs in simple present?
Good to know!
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19 May 2017, 15:01
C is incorrect because of the error "for decreasing", it should be "to decrease" => this change the meaning
the parallel here is a trap. --> X proposes, Y suggests, and Z are calling --> Z is distinct from X and Y. Also, the meaning between C and E does not change if verb of Z changes from "are calling" to "calls for"

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05 Jun 2017, 18:45
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling

GMATNinjaTwo Could you help to explain "the reduction of" vs "reducing" & "call" vs "are calling" in answers (C) and (E)?
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08 Jun 2017, 03:57
hazelnut wrote:
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling

GMATNinjaTwo Could you help to explain "the reduction of" vs "reducing" & "call" vs "are calling" in answers (C) and (E)?

"Reducing" and "Reduction":
For depicting a sense of taking some action, gerund suits better (though a concrete noun is gramatically not incorrect). Moroever "the" in option C is incorrect. The article should be "a".

"Call" and "are calling":
Both are gramatically alright in my opinion.
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12 Jun 2017, 02:36
While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling

(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call

(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call

(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling

(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling
--> correct.
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11 Jul 2017, 23:55
Here the catch is whether to use 'for verb-ing' or 'to infinitive'
Whenever there is a clear purpose we use 'to verb' and not 'for verb-ing'.
So between C and E it should be E.

Also, others are calling is fine. It is not totally parallel to 'propose' and 'suggest' but since it is also in the present tense, it is acceptable.
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14 Jul 2017, 06:48
I thought is was D. But, maybe this is the reason it's E.

15. While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.
(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling

The parallelism in the sentence is: Some propose... to change, others suggest... to decrease
With this, you can say goodbye to A and B because of the 'by suggesting' and goodbye to C because of the "for decreasing'".
That leaves us with D and E.
I think, but please correct me if i'm wrong, that one of the standard parallelism rules is X, Y and Z.
D says: Some propose... to change, others suggest... to decrease, and still others by
I don't think the 'by' is parallel.
E says: Some propose... to change, other suggest.. to decrease, and still others are...

Which doesn't violate the rule of parallelism, i guess?
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20 Sep 2017, 18:04
Could you help me understand why is Option E preferred to Option C.
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24 Sep 2017, 05:44
[quote="nevergiveup"]While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling

I think 'and still others are calling....' is correct because it is followed by a comma and 'and', which makes it an independent sentence, and since it's an independent sentence it needs a main verb - are, which was missing in the original sentence. Therefore, choice E makes it clear - ', and still others are calling...'
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25 Sep 2017, 20:48
SafalSharma wrote:
Could you help me understand why is Option E preferred to Option C.

Hi,

I think the trick is making sure the main action words are parallel. The action words are, attempting (proposed), reducing (suggested), calling (still)
Option "E" does all this, while "C" just does not. Hence E is the answer. You have got to follow the bone of the passage and discard the flesh!. See below for annotation.

While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people's attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.
(A) by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(B) by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(C) suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call
(D) suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling
(E) suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling
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26 Sep 2017, 01:30
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SafalSharma wrote:
Could you help me understand why is Option E preferred to Option C.

Hello SafalSharma,

Let's take a look at Choice C:

suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call: Incorrect

i. This choice is incorrect for the usage of for decreasing. Per the context of the sentence, the purpose of reducing software prices is to decrease the incentive for pirating. Hence, the correct phrase is to decrease to show the purpose/intent.

Let's look at Choice E now:

suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling: Correct

This choice is correct for maintaining parallelism among the structures - some propose, others suggest, and others are calling. I do agree that the last verb can very well be written in simple present tense. However, this is the only grammatically as well as logically correct answer choice.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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