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# With California expected to see severe electricity shortfalls and

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Joined: 02 Nov 2011
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Re: With California expected to see severe electricity shortfalls and  [#permalink]

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28 Dec 2017, 01:27
Avinash_R1 wrote:

Thanks very much. I have a confusion in understanding whether verb-ed is acting as verb or modifier in an sentence.
If i want to check it, can i do this -> if i think its a verb, check who / what performs the action. if i am not finding answer to it, it is more likely to be a noun modifier
in this example if i assume expected to be a verb and ask who expected? it points to california, california can not expect anything. [so expected is not acting as verb]
is my approach right?

Hello Avinash_R1,

Yes, your approach is correct. Well done.

You can also review our very popular article named ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers on the same topic for more details and examples by clicking on the following link:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: With California expected to see severe electricity shortfalls and  [#permalink]

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07 Feb 2018, 21:05
Hi RonPurewal , answer A has with + clause, is it OK? I thought that usage of with is unacceptable?
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
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Re: With California expected to see severe electricity shortfalls and  [#permalink]

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08 Feb 2018, 12:37
ng.phg.mai wrote:
Hi RonPurewal , answer A has with + clause, is it OK? I thought that usage of with is unacceptable?

Dear ng.phg.mai,

Although I'm not the genius Mr. Ron Purewal, I'm happy to respond.

This is a blog articles that provides some context on this subtle rule:
with + [noun] + [participle] on GMAT Sentence Correction
If you understand the two cases discussed in that article, you see that this particular question is a little different, primarily because the participle used is not the present active participle (e.g. "expecting") but the past passive participle ("expected").

When we have the structure "with" + [noun] + [present participle], there's the possibility that this could fall into Case I in that article, action by a different actor, and that always requires a full bonafide subordinate clause.

Instead, when we have "with" + [noun] + [past participle], especially with a "mental verb" such as "to expect," there's not really an action happening. It's more a background condition, and this is much closer to Case II described in that article.

With Mike going to the store to buy tomatoes, Chris planned to make a salad.
That has the present participle, which is always active. This describes a full action by an actor, different from the action & actor of the main clause. This is the forbidden case. If you want to talk about an action, don't try to cram that into a measly preposition phrase--a full action deserves a full verb, and therefore we need a full clause for this action.

With California expected to see severe electricity shortfalls and perhaps blackouts on as many as 30 days this summer, the administration has grown . . .
This has the past participle, which is always passive. There's not really an "action" being done in the first part of the sentence--it's more a background condition, a static state of affairs which provides context for the action of the main clause. There's no sense of a "competition" between two different actions, as there is in the previous example.

My friend, if you think about grammar and grammar rules purely mechanically, the GMAT SC will punish you. You always have to think about meaning. The primary purpose of human language is to convey meaning, and all grammar exists purely to support the communication of meaning.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: With California expected to see severe electricity shortfalls and  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2018, 08:26
ng.phg.mai wrote:
Hi RonPurewal , answer A has with + clause, is it OK? I thought that usage of with is unacceptable?

^^ Nope, not a whole clause.

The issue here is that you're mistakenly processing "expected" — which is a modifier here — as a verb.

As is so often the case, you MUST establish the INTENDED MEANING of the sentence BEFORE trying to process its grammar!
This sentence is NOT saying that "California expected to see" something. In other words, the sentence is not intended to say that California itself had "expectations"; that interpretation would be nonsense, since the state of California itself does not have a single sentient mind.
Rather, the intended meaning is that California WAS expected to see something. "Expected" is therefore a modifier here.
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Re: With California expected to see severe electricity shortfalls and  [#permalink]

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09 Feb 2018, 08:27
2
Analogy:

With California driven to the brink of bankruptcy by its overly generous government spending, ...

This ^^ could be the beginning of another sentence, with grammar analogous to that of the sentence here.
Note that "driven..." is a MODIFIER. If this were a past-tense verb, it would be "drove".

Do you see the problem?
You're processing THIS sentence under the (mistaken) assumption that "expected" is grammatically analogous to "drove" (a past-tense verb), when in fact it's analogous to "driven" (a modifier).
You just have to be more careful here, because the past-tense verb and the modifier forms of "expected" are written the same way; they don't have two distinct forms, like "drove" and "driven".
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Re: With California expected to see severe electricity shortfalls and  [#permalink]

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21 Jul 2018, 05:01
1
B, C & E is out just by seeing the "as much as 30 days" since much is for uncountable nouns.

I wasnt too comfortable with A but D is way off. So A it is.

Good Question!
Re: With California expected to see severe electricity shortfalls and &nbs [#permalink] 21 Jul 2018, 05:01

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