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# With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J

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VP
Joined: 29 Jun 2017
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J  [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2019, 18:34
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[quote="ykaiim"]With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom.

(A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with

(B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its

(C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has

(D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its

(E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have

I can come to choice B for this problem, but there is something I want to talk.

" with+noun+noun modifier " can work as an adverb for the main clause. but in this pattern, "with+noun" dose not refer to subject of the main clause. this is why the phrase is called "absolute". this means this phrase can stand as an independent sentence grammatically if it is given a verb.

the point is "with+noun+noun modifier " dose not refer to any noun in the main clause. so, "with surface" dose not refer to Europa, and , so, it is unclear that which has surface temporature.

the phrase "its 60..." is also an absolute phrase, but we have "its", so, it is clear which has 60 square mile.
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J  [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2019, 19:04
A quick word on adding an is (is thought): that's one of the things we need to watch out for in such constructions.
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J  [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2019, 23:35
himanshurajawat wrote:

When we plug in option B "its 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom." Isn't it a run-on sentence?

"Its 60 square miles of water "IS" thought to be frozen from top to bottom." Shouldn't this be correct?

It will be a run on sentence if you add a verb (such as "is") in it since the two clauses will be joined by just a comma. Right now, it is an absolute phrase.

'thought to be frozen' is a past participle modifying water.
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J  [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2020, 18:01
Hi everyone,

I have a question regarding answer B.
I thought the word "think" is an intransitive word in which we have to use a preposition after the world think.

So how is it we can use past participle "thought" when the word think does not take on a direct object?
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J  [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2020, 16:17
TommyWallach wrote:
Hey All,
How do you select that its 60 square miles is a participle ?
I was asked by PM to weigh in on this one, though sid has already hit some important points. Here we go.

With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Farenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom.

I'd start by saying that generally GMAT prefers the idiom "estimate to be", rather than "estimate at", even though it's not underlined.

Quote:
(A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with

Sid hit this just right. If we use "and", we're setting up parallel clauses, so we'd need some new verb to make it work.

Quote:
(B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its

The term Sid was looking for is "participial phrase". "thought" is a past participle, meaning it opens up a modifying clauses, in this case modifying "its 60 square miles of water".

Quote:
(C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has

"Considered as" is wrong, and even though this creates a parallel AND adds a verb, it's still clunky. We want a modifier because we're creating an example of how it's too cold to support life (it's water is frozen all the way through), not making a new point.

Quote:
(D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its

'Considered as' is wrong. This also makes the same mistake as answer choice A. In addition, as Sid said, it has no main verb after "Europa", because considered here is a participle (like "thought" later on), which is not a full verb.

Quote:
(E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have

Sid nailed it. We have the participle "considered" again, and "to have" is just an infinitive riffing off of "considered", like "to be" in the middle portion. With no main verb in the whole sentence, it can't work.

Well done, Sid, and I hope I cleared up any lingering questions.

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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J  [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2020, 16:19
[quote="TommyWallach"]Hey All,
How do you select that its 60 ... is a participle?

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J  [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2020, 16:23
[quote="shen0150"]Hi everyone,

I thought that dancing was easy

That is not a participle the sentence still makes perfect sense

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Re: With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, J   [#permalink] 06 Jul 2020, 16:23

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